Cover image for Manufacturing engineering and technology
Title:
Manufacturing engineering and technology
Author:
Kalpakjian, Serope, 1928-
Personal Author:
Publication Information:
Reading, Mass. : Addison-Wesley, [1989]

©1989
Physical Description:
xix, 1199 pages, 8 pages, 19 pages : illustrations ; 24 cm
Language:
English
ISBN:
9780201128499
Format :
Book

Available:*

Library
Call Number
Material Type
Home Location
Status
Central Library TS176 .K34 1989 Adult Non-Fiction Central Closed Stacks
Searching...

On Order

Summary

Summary

A comprehensive text for students in manufacturing, mechanical, industrial, and metallurgical and materials engineering programs, providing an understanding of the interrelationships among the many technical and economic factors involved in manufacturing. This revised and updated edition (second was 1992) expands its coverage of technological advances including abrasive machining, computer simulation of manufacturing processes and systems, instrumentation, laser beams in manufacturing, nanophase ceramics, rapid prototyping, semisolid metalworking, surface texturing, and tool-condition monitoring. Annotation copyright by Book News, Inc., Portland, OR


Reviews 1

Choice Review

Designed chiefly as a text, this book is well organized, containing timely and accurate data. An index to all tables and figures is included inside the front cover. A list of the practical examples (79) included is placed inside the back cover, providing easy access to any subject desired. The book would also make a good reference for those interested in manufacturing because it has numerous illustrations and tables showing practical examples. Useful, however not a necessary acquisition for college libraries. -J. P. Neville, Wentworth Institute of Technology


Table of Contents

Prefacep. xvii
About the Authorsp. xx
General Introduction
I.1 What is Manufacturing?p. 1
I.2 Examples of Manufactured Productsp. 6
I.3 The Design Process and Concurrent Engineeringp. 9
I.4 Design for Manufacture, Assembly, Disassembly, and Servicep. 13
I.5 Selecting Materialsp. 14
I.6 Selecting Manufacturing Processesp. 18
I.7 Computer-Integrated Manufacturingp. 24
I.8 Quality Assurance and Total Quality Managementp. 27
I.9 Global Competitiveness and Manufacturing Costsp. 28
I.10 Lean Production and Agile Manufacturingp. 29
I.11 Environmentally-Conscious Design and Manufacturingp. 30
I.12 Product Liabilityp. 31
I.13 Organization for Manufacturep. 32
Part I Fundamentals of Materials: Their Behavior and Manufacturing Propertiesp. 36
1 The Structure of Metalsp. 39
1.1 Introductionp. 39
1.2 The Crystal Structure of Metalsp. 40
1.3 Deformation and Strength of Single Crystalsp. 41
1.4 Grains and Grain Boundariesp. 45
1.5 Plastic Deformation of Polycrystalline Metalsp. 47
1.6 Recovery, Recrystallization, and Grain Growthp. 49
1.7 Cold-, Warm-, and Hot-Workingp. 50
2 Mechanical Behavior, Testing, and Manufacturing Properties of Materialsp. 55
2.1 Introductionp. 55
2.2 Tensionp. 56
2.3 Compressionp. 66
2.4 Torsionp. 67
2.5 Bending (Flexure)p. 68
2.6 Hardnessp. 68
2.7 Fatiguep. 73
2.8 Creepp. 73
2.9 Impactp. 75
2.10 Failure and Fracture of Materials in Manufacturing and Servicep. 75
2.11 Residual Stressesp. 82
2.12 Work, Heat, and Temperaturep. 84
3 Physical Properties of Materialsp. 90
3.1 Introductionp. 90
3.2 Densityp. 91
3.3 Melting Pointp. 94
3.4 Specific Heatp. 94
3.5 Thermal Conductivityp. 94
3.6 Thermal Expansionp. 95
3.7 Electrical, Magnetic, and Optical Propertiesp. 95
3.8 Corrosion Resistancep. 97
4 Metal Alloys: Their Structure and Strengthening by Heat Treatmentp. 102
4.1 Introductionp. 102
4.2 Structure of Alloysp. 103
4.3 Phase Diagramsp. 106
4.4 The Iron-Carbon Systemp. 109
4.5 The Iron-Iron Carbide Phase Diagram and the Development of Microstructures in Steelsp. 111
4.6 Cast Ironsp. 113
4.7 Heat Treatment of Ferrous Alloysp. 115
4.8 Hardenability of Ferrous Alloysp. 120
4.9 Heat Treatment of Nonferrous Alloys and of Stainless Steelsp. 122
4.10 Case Hardeningp. 124
4.11 Annealingp. 126
4.12 Heat-Treating Furnaces and Equipmentp. 130
4.13 Design Considerations for Heat Treatingp. 132
5 Ferrous Metals and Alloys: Production, General Properties and Applicationsp. 137
5.1 Introductionp. 137
5.2 Production of Iron and Steelp. 138
5.3 Casting of Ingotsp. 141
5.4 Continuous Castingp. 142
5.5 Carbon and Alloy Steelsp. 144
5.6 Stainless Steelsp. 148
5.7 Tool and Die Steelsp. 150
6 Nonferrous Metals and Alloys: Production, General Properties, and Applicationsp. 156
6.1 Introductionp. 156
6.2 Aluminum and Aluminum Alloysp. 157
6.3 Magnesium and Magnesium Alloysp. 161
6.4 Copper and Copper Alloysp. 163
6.5 Nickel and Nickel Alloysp. 164
6.6 Superalloysp. 165
6.7 Titanium and Titanium Alloysp. 166
6.8 Refractory Metals and Alloysp. 168
6.9 Berylliump. 169
6.10 Zirconiump. 170
6.11 Low-melting Alloysp. 170
6.12 Precious Metalsp. 171
6.13 Shape-Memory Alloysp. 172
6.14 Amorphous Alloysp. 172
6.15 Nanomaterialsp. 172
7 Polymers: Structure, General Properties, and Applicationsp. 177
7.1 Introductionp. 177
7.2 The Structure of Polymersp. 179
7.3 Thermoplasticsp. 186
7.4 Thermosetting Plasticsp. 190
7.5 Additives in Plasticsp. 190
7.6 General Properties and Applications of Thermoplasticsp. 191
7.7 General Properties and Applications of Thermosetting Plasticsp. 194
7.8 Biodegradable Plasticsp. 195
7.9 Elastomers (Rubbers)p. 197
8 Ceramics, Graphite, and Diamond: Structure, General Properties, and Applicationsp. 203
8.1 Introductionp. 203
8.2 The Structure of Ceramicsp. 204
8.3 General Properties and Applications of Ceramicsp. 208
8.4 Glassesp. 212
8.5 Glass Ceramicsp. 214
8.6 Graphitep. 214
8.7 Diamondp. 216
9 Composite Materials: Structure, General Properties, and Applicationsp. 221
9.1 Introductionp. 221
9.2 The Structure of Reinforced Plasticsp. 222
9.3 Properties of Reinforced Plasticsp. 227
9.4 Applications of Reinforced Plasticsp. 230
9.5 Metal-Matrix Compositesp. 232
9.6 Ceramic-Matrix Compositesp. 233
9.7 Other Compositesp. 233
Part II Metal-Casting Processes and Equipmentp. 239
10 Fundamentals of Metal Castingp. 241
10.1 Introductionp. 241
10.2 Solidification of Metalsp. 242
10.3 Fluid Flowp. 246
10.4 Fluidity of Molten Metalp. 249
10.5 Heat Transferp. 250
10.6 Defectsp. 253
11 Metal-Casting Processesp. 261
11.1 Introductionp. 261
11.2 Sand Castingp. 264
11.3 Shell-Mold Castingp. 272
11.4 Expendable-Pattern Casting (Lost Foam)p. 274
11.5 Plaster-Mold Castingp. 276
11.6 Ceramic-Mold Castingp. 276
11.7 Investment Castingp. 278
11.8 Vacuum Castingp. 281
11.9 Permanent-Mold Castingp. 281
11.10 Slush Castingp. 282
11.11 Pressure Castingp. 282
11.12 Die Castingp. 283
11.13 Centrifugal Castingp. 286
11.14 Squeeze Casting and Semisolid-Metal Formingp. 288
11.15 Casting Techniques for Single-Crystal Componentsp. 290
11.16 Rapid Solidifcation (Amorphous Alloys)p. 291
11.17 Inspection of Castingsp. 292
11.18 Melting Practice and Furnacesp. 292
11.19 Foundries and Foundry Automationp. 294
12 Metal Casting: Design, Materials, and Economicsp. 301
12.1 Introductionp. 301
12.2 Design Considerationsp. 301
12.3 Casting Alloysp. 306
12.4 The Economics of Castingp. 310
Part III Forming and Shaping Processes and Equipmentp. 316
13 Rolling of Metalsp. 320
13.1 Introductionp. 320
13.2 Flat Rollingp. 321
13.3 Flat-Rolling Practicep. 326
13.4 Rolling Millsp. 328
13.5 Shape-Rolling Operationsp. 331
13.6 Production of Seamless Tubing and Pipep. 334
13.7 Continuous Casting and Rolling; Integrated Mills and Minimillsp. 335
14 Forging of Metalsp. 340
14.1 Introductionp. 340
14.2 Open-Die Forgingp. 342
14.3 Impression-Die and Closed-Die Forgingp. 344
14.4 Related Forging Operationsp. 348
14.5 Rotary Swagingp. 351
14.6 Forging-Die Designp. 353
14.7 Die Materials and Lubricationp. 355
14.8 Forgeabilityp. 355
14.9 Forging Machinesp. 357
14.10 Forging Practice and Process Capabilitiesp. 360
14.11 Die Manufacturing Methodsp. 361
14.12 Die Failuresp. 362
14.13 The Economics of Forgingp. 363
15 Extrusion and Drawing of Metalsp. 369
15.1 Introductionp. 369
15.2 The Extrusion Processp. 371
15.3 Extrusion Practicep. 363
15.4 Hot Extrusionp. 374
15.5 Cold Extrusionp. 377
15.6 Impact Extrusionp. 379
15.7 Hydrostatic Extrusionp. 380
15.8 Extrusion Defectsp. 380
15.9 Extrusion Equipmentp. 381
15.10 The Drawing Processp. 382
15.11 Drawing Practicep. 383
15.12 Defects and Residual Stressesp. 386
15.13 Drawing Equipmentp. 386
16 Sheet-Metal Forming Processesp. 392
16.1 Introductionp. 392
16.2 Shearingp. 394
16.3 Sheet-Metal Characteristicsp. 402
16.4 Test Methods for Formability of Sheet Metalsp. 404
16.5 Bending Sheet and Platep. 407
16.6 Common Bending Operationsp. 411
16.7 Tube Bending and Formingp. 414
16.8 Stretch Formingp. 416
16.9 Deep Drawingp. 417
16.10 Rubber Formingp. 423
16.11 Spinningp. 424
16.12 Superplastic Formingp. 427
16.13 Explosive, Magnetic-Pulse, Peen, and Other Forming Processesp. 428
16.14 The Manufacturing of Honeycomb Structuresp. 431
16.15 The Dent Resistance of Sheet-Metal Partsp. 432
16.16 Equipment for Sheet-Metal Formingp. 432
16.17 The Economics of Sheet-Metal Forming Processesp. 434
17 Processing of Powder Metals, Ceramics, Glass, and Superconductorsp. 440
17.1 Introductionp. 440
17.2 Production of Metal Powdersp. 442
17.3 Compaction of Metal Powdersp. 446
17.4 Sinteringp. 453
17.5 Secondary and Finishing Operationsp. 456
17.6 Design Considerations for Powder Metallurgyp. 458
17.7 Process Capabilitiesp. 459
17.8 Economics of Powder Metallurgyp. 460
17.9 Shaping Ceramicsp. 460
17.10 Forming and Shaping of Glassp. 466
17.11 Techniques for Strengthening and Treating Glassp. 470
17.12 Design Considerations for Ceramics and Glassesp. 471
17.13 Processing of Superconductorsp. 472
18 Forming and Shaping Plastics and Composite Materialsp. 480
18.1 Introductionp. 480
18.2 Extrusionp. 481
18.3 Injection Moldingp. 485
18.4 Blow Moldingp. 489
18.5 Rotational Moldingp. 489
18.6 Thermoformingp. 491
18.7 Compression Moldingp. 492
18.8 Transfer Moldingp. 493
18.9 Castingp. 494
18.10 Cold Forming and Solid-Phase Formingp. 495
18.11 Processing Elastomersp. 495
18.12 Processing Reinforced Plasticsp. 496
18.13 Processing Metal-Matrix Compositesp. 503
18.14 Processing Ceramic-Matrix Compositesp. 504
18.15 Design Considerations and Economics of Forming and Shaping Plasticsp. 504
19 Rapid Prototyping Operationsp. 512
19.1 Introductionp. 512
19.2 Subtractive Processesp. 514
19.3 Additive Processesp. 514
19.4 Virtual Prototypingp. 523
19.5 Applicationsp. 523
Part IV Material-Removal Processes and Machinesp. 531
20 Fundamentals of Cuttingp. 534
20.1 Introductionp. 534
20.2 The Mechanics of Chip Formationp. 537
20.3 The Types of Chips Produced in Metal-Cuttingp. 539
20.4 The Mechanics of Oblique Cuttingp. 544
20.5 Cutting Forces and Powerp. 545
20.6 Temperatures in Cuttingp. 549
20.7 Tool Life: Wear and Failurep. 551
20.8 Surface Finish and Integrityp. 558
20.9 Machinabilityp. 560
21 Cutting-Tool Materials and Cutting Fluidsp. 569
21.1 Introductionp. 569
21.2 Carbon and Medium-Alloy Steelsp. 573
21.3 High-Speed Steelsp. 573
21.4 Cast-Cobalt Alloysp. 574
21.5 Carbidesp. 574
21.6 Coated Toolsp. 578
21.7 Alumina-Based Ceramicsp. 582
21.8 Cubic Boron Nitridep. 583
21.9 Silicon-Nitride Based Ceramicsp. 584
21.10 Diamondp. 584
21.11 Whisker-Reinforced Tool Materialsp. 585
21.12 Cutting-Tool Reconditioningp. 585
21.13 Cutting Fluidsp. 585
22 Machining Processes Used to Produce Round Shapesp. 594
22.1 Introductionp. 594
22.2 Turning Parametersp. 597
22.3 Lathes and Lathe Operationsp. 605
22.4 High-Speed Machining, Ultraprecision Machining, and Hard Turningp. 619
22.5 Cutting Screw Threadsp. 622
22.6 Boring and Boring Machinesp. 626
22.7 Drilling and Drillsp. 627
22.8 Drilling Machinesp. 635
22.9 Reaming and Reamersp. 636
22.10 Tapping and Tapsp. 638
22.11 Design Considerations for Drilling, Reaming and Tappingp. 639
23 Machining Processes used to Produce Various Shapesp. 646
23.1 Introductionp. 646
23.2 Milling Operationsp. 647
23.3 Milling Machinesp. 661
23.4 Planing and Shapingp. 663
23.5 Broaching and Broaching Machinesp. 664
23.6 Sawingp. 668
23.7 Filing and Finishingp. 670
23.8 Gear Manufacturing by Machiningp. 671
24 Machining and Turning Centers, Machine-Tool Structures, and Machining Economicsp. 682
24.1 Introductionp. 682
24.2 Machining and Turning Centersp. 682
24.3 Machine-Tool Structuresp. 690
24.4 Vibration and Chatter in Machiningp. 694
24.5 Machining Economicsp. 698
25 Abrasive Machining and Finishing Operationsp. 704
25.1 Introductionp. 704
25.2 Abrasivesp. 706
25.3 Bonded Abrasives (Grinding Wheels)p. 708
25.4 The Grinding Processp. 712
25.5 Grinding Wheel Wearp. 716
25.6 Grinding Operations and Machinesp. 721
25.7 Grinding Fluidsp. 729
25.8 Design Considerations for Grindingp. 729
25.9 Ultrasonic Machiningp. 730
25.10 Finishing Operationsp. 731
25.11 Deburringp. 735
25.12 Economics of Grinding and Finishing Operationsp. 738
26 Advanced Machining Processes and Nanofabricationp. 744
26.1 Introductionp. 744
26.2 Chemical Machiningp. 745
26.3 Electrochemical Machiningp. 750
26.4 Electrochemical Grindingp. 753
26.5 Electrical-Discharge Machiningp. 754
26.6 Wire EDMp. 757
26.7 Laser-Beam Machiningp. 758
26.8 Electron-Beam Machining and Plasma-Arc Cuttingp. 761
26.9 Water-Jet Machiningp. 761
26.10 Abrasive-Jet Machiningp. 763
26.11 Nanofabricationp. 764
26.12 Micromachiningp. 765
26.13 The Economics of Advanced Machining Processesp. 766
Part V Joining Processes and Equipmentp. 771
27 Fusion Welding Processesp. 775
27.1 Introductionp. 775
27.2 Oxyfuel Gas Weldingp. 775
27.3 Arc-Welding Processes: Consumable Electrodep. 779
27.4 Electrodesp. 786
27.5 Arc-Welding Processes: Nonconsumable Electrodep. 787
27.6 Thermit Weldingp. 790
27.7 Electron-Beam Weldingp. 790
27.8 Laser-Beam Weldingp. 791
27.9 Cuttingp. 792
27.10 Welding Safetyp. 794
28 Solid-State Welding Processesp. 799
28.1 Introductionp. 799
28.2 Cold Weldingp. 799
28.3 Ultrasonic Weldingp. 800
28.4 Friction Weldingp. 801
28.5 Resistance Weldingp. 803
28.6 Explosion Weldingp. 812
28.7 Diffusion Bonding (Welding)p. 812
28.8 Diffusion Bonding/Superplastic Formingp. 814
29 The Metallurgy of Welding: Welding Design and Process Selectionp. 819
29.1 Introductionp. 819
29.2 The Welded Jointp. 820
29.3 Weld Qualityp. 823
29.4 Weldabilityp. 828
29.5 Testing Welded Jointsp. 830
29.6 Weld Design and Process Selectionp. 833
30 Brazing, Soldering, Adhesive Bonding, and Mechanical Fastening Processesp. 839
30.1 Introductionp. 839
30.2 Brazingp. 840
30.3 Solderingp. 844
30.4 Adhesive Bondingp. 850
30.5 Mechanical Fasteningp. 856
30.6 Joining Plasticsp. 860
Part VI Surface Technologyp. 866
31 Surfaces: Their Nature, Roughness, and Measurementp. 869
31.1 Introductionp. 869
31.2 Surface Structure and Propertiesp. 869
31.3 Surface Integrityp. 871
31.4 Surface Texturep. 872
31.5 Surface Roughnessp. 873
32 Tribology: Friction, Wear, and Lubricationp. 882
32.1 Introductionp. 882
32.2 Friction in Metalsp. 883
32.3 Friction in Plastics and Ceramicsp. 884
32.4 Reducing Frictionp. 884
32.5 Friction Measurementp. 885
32.6 Wearp. 887
32.7 Wear of Plastics and Ceramicsp. 890
32.8 Wear Measurementp. 891
32.9 Lubricationp. 891
32.10 Metalworking Fluidsp. 893
32.11 Solid Lubricantsp. 895
32.12 Conversion Coatingsp. 896
32.13 Lubricant Selectionp. 896
33 Surface Treatment, Coating and Cleaningp. 902
33.1 Introductionp. 902
33.2 Mechanical Surface Treatment and Coatingp. 903
33.3 Case Hardening and Hard Facingp. 906
33.4 Thermal Sprayingp. 906
33.5 Vapor Depositionp. 908
33.6 Ion Implantationp. 911
33.7 Diffusion Coatingp. 911
33.8 Electroplating, Electroless Plating, and Electroformingp. 911
33.9 Anodizingp. 913
33.10 Conversion Coatingp. 914
33.11 Hot Dippingp. 914
33.12 Porcelain Enameling, Ceramic Coating, and Organic Coatingsp. 915
33.13 Diamond Coatingp. 916
33.14 Paintingp. 917
33.15 Surface Texturingp. 918
33.16 Cleaning Surfacesp. 919
34 Fabrication of Microelectronic Devicesp. 924
34.1 Introductionp. 924
34.2 Semiconductors and Siliconp. 925
34.3 Crystal Growing and Wafer Preparationp. 928
34.4 Film Depositionp. 928
34.5 Oxidationp. 930
34.6 Lithographyp. 931
34.7 Etchingp. 932
34.8 Diffusion and Ion Implantationp. 933
34.9 Metallization and Testingp. 934
34.10 Bonding and Packagingp. 936
34.11 Yield and Reliabilityp. 938
34.12 Printed Circuit Boardsp. 939
Part VII Common Aspects of Manufacturingp. 943
35 Engineering Metrology and Instrumentationp. 945
35.1 Introductionp. 945
35.2 Measurement Standardsp. 946
35.3 Line-Graduated Instrumentsp. 948
35.4 Comparative Length-Measuring Instrumentsp. 951
35.5 Measuring Straightness, Flatness, Roundness, and Profilep. 953
35.6 Coordinate Measuring and Layout Machinesp. 956
35.7 Gagesp. 958
35.8 Optical Instrumentsp. 960
35.9 Automated Measurementsp. 960
35.10 General Characteristics and Selection of Measuring Instrumentsp. 961
35.11 Geometric Dimensioning and Tolerancingp. 961
36 Quality Assurance, Testing, and Inspectionp. 971
36.1 Introductionp. 971
36.2 Product Qualityp. 972
36.3 Quality Assurancep. 973
36.4 Total Quality Managementp. 974
36.5 Taguchi Methodsp. 976
36.6 The ISO and QS Standardsp. 980
36.7 Statistical Methods of Quality Controlp. 982
36.8 Statistical Process Controlp. 985
36.9 Reliabilityp. 992
36.10 Nondestructive Testingp. 992
36.11 Destructive Testingp. 997
36.12 Automated Inspectionp. 998
37 Human Factors Engineering, Safety, and Product Liabilityp. 1004
37.1 Introductionp. 1004
37.2 Human-Factors Engineeringp. 1005
37.3 Safetyp. 1006
37.4 Environmental Considerationsp. 1009
37.5 Product Liabilityp. 1011
37.6 Examples of Product Liability Claimsp. 1014
Part VIIIs Manufacturing in a Competitive Environmentp. 1019
38 Automation of Manufacturing Processesp. 1021
38.1 Introductionp. 1021
38.2 Automationp. 1023
38.3 Numerical Controlp. 1029
38.4 Programming for Numerical Controlp. 1036
38.5 Adaptive Controlp. 1038
38.6 Material Handling and Movementp. 1041
38.7 Industrial Robotsp. 1043
38.8 Sensor Technologyp. 1051
38.9 Flexible Fixturingp. 1054
38.10 Design for Assembly, Disassembly, and Servicep. 1056
39 Computer-Integrated Manufacturing Systemsp. 1067
39.1 Introductionp. 1067
39.2 Manufacturing Systemsp. 1068
39.3 Computer-Integrated Manufacturingp. 1069
39.4 Computer-Aided Design and Engineeringp. 1071
39.5 Computer-Aided Manufacturingp. 1075
39.6 Computer-Aided Process Planningp. 1076
39.7 Computer Simulation of Manufacturing Processes and Systemsp. 1079
39.8 Group Technologyp. 1079
39.9 Cellular Manufacturingp. 1086
39.10 Flexible Manufacturing Systemsp. 1088
39.11 Just-in-Time Productionp. 1091
39.12 Communications Networks in Manufacturingp. 1093
39.13 Artificial Intelligencep. 1095
39.14 The Factory of the Futurep. 1099
40 Competitive Aspects of Manufacturingp. 1106
40.1 Introductionp. 1106
40.2 Selection of Materialsp. 1107
40.3 Product Design and Quantity of Materialp. 1110
40.4 Substitution of Materialsp. 1110
40.5 Selection of Manufacturing Processesp. 1113
40.6 Process Capabilitiesp. 1115
40.7 Manufacturing Costsp. 1119
40.8 Value Engineeringp. 1123
Indexp. 1137

Google Preview