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Cannabis Evolution and Ethnobotany
Clarke, Robert.
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1 online resource (453 p.)
Cannabis: Evolution and Ethnobotany is a comprehensive, interdisciplinary exploration of the natural origins and early evolution of this famous plant, highlighting its historic role in the development of human societies. Cannabis has long been prized for the strong and durable fiber in its stalks, its edible and oil-rich seeds, and the psychoactive and medicinal compounds produced by its female flowers. The culturally valuable and often irreplaceable goods derived from cannabis deeply influenced the commercial, medical, ritual, and religious practices of cultures throughout the ages, and human desire for these commodities directed the evolution of the plant toward its contemporary varieties. As interest in cannabis grows and public debate over its many uses rises, this book will help us understand why humanity continues to rely on this plant and adapts it to suit our needs.
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Cover; CONTENTS; PREFACE; ACKNOWLEDGMENTS; NOTES TO READERS; TABLE 1: ACRONYMS USED IN THIS BOOK; MAP 1: PRESENT-DAY RANGES OF CANNABIS; 1 Introduction to the Multipurpose Plant Cannabis; In the Beginning: Circumstances of Early Human Contact with Cannabis; A Brief Summary of the Long and Diverse History of Relationships between Cannabis and Humans; What Shall We Call These Plants?; Should We Praise or Condemn This Multipurpose Plant?; What We Discuss in This Book; 2 Natural Origins and Early Evolution of Cannabis; Introduction; Basic Life Cycle of Cannabis

Ecological Requirements of Cannabis: Sunlight, Temperature, Water, and SoilCannabis Origin and Evolution Studies; Central Asia: Vavilov and the Origins of Cannabis; Cannabis and Vitis; Theories for South Asian Origin of Domesticated Cannabis; Model for the Early Evolution of Cannabis; Summary and Conclusions; 3 Ethnobotanical Origins, Early Cultivation, and Evolution through Human Selection; Introduction; First Contacts: Origins of Human-Cannabis" Relationships; Transitions to Cultivation and Civilization; Earliest Uses of Cannabis: Useful Traits for Ancient People

Evolution of Cannabis through Human SelectionDisruptive Selection; Origin from Weedy Populations; Natural Hybridization: Introgression versus Isolation; Artificial Hybridization; Atavism; Isolation of Populations; Population Size and Changes in Variability; Evolutionary Effects of Dioecy; Effects of Human Selection on Sexual Expression for Different Products; Seeds; Fibers; Marijuana and Hashish; Sexual Dimorphism and Selection; Phenotypic Changes during Domestication; Seeds; Fibers; Inflorescences; Directional Evolutionary Changes; Cannabinoid Profile; Timing of Floral Maturation

Evolution of Cannabinoid PhenotypesGeographical Distribution of Cannabinoid Phenotypes; North America; Western Europe; Eastern Europe; Central America and the Caribbean; South America; Middle East; East Asia; Indian Subcontinent; Southeast Asia; Equatorial Africa; South and East Africa; Summary and Conclusions; 4 The Cultural Diffusion of Cannabis Introduction; Introduction; Methodology: The Multidisciplinary Approach; Types of Archaeobotanical Evidence for Cannabis; Seeds; Fibers; Pollen; Fiber and Seed Impressions; Other Carbonized and Chemical Remains; Phytoliths

Written Records of Cannabis's Presence and UseNonhuman Agencies Affecting the Geographical Range of Cannabis; Human Impact on the Dispersal and Expanding Geographical Range of Cannabis; Early Relationships among Humans and Cannabis in Central Asia; Fishing and Hemp; Hemp, Humans, and Horses in Eurasia; Scythians and Cannabis; Archeological and Historical Evidence for the Spread of Cannabis; Diffusion throughout East Asia; Diffusion from Northeastern China into Korea and Japan; Diffusion into South Asia; Archaeobotanical Evidence from South Asia; Diffusion into Southwest Asia and Egypt

Diffusion into Europe and the Mediterranean
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