Cover image for Evolution
Ridley, Mark.
Second edition.
Publication Information:
Oxford ; New York : Oxford University Press, [2004]

Physical Description:
viii, 458 pages : illustrations ; 24 cm.
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QH366.2 .E846 2004 Adult Non-Fiction Non-Fiction Area

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Evolution is unlike any other theory in science in the generality of its interest and the excellence of the authors who write about it. This anthology contains extracts from over 60 scientific papers, by authors such as Stephen Jay Gould, Richard Dawkins, Francis Crick and Jacques Monod. Itstarts with Charles Darwin, but concentrates on modern research, including genomics - evolution's latest gusher of scientic insights. The extracts are organized in sections, enabling the reader to sample a range of views on each topic, such as how new species arise, or the significance of adaptivedesign in living things. The extracts have been chosen for their readability as well as their scientific importance, making this book an enjoyable way to meet some of the greatest minds of our time, writing on the greatest idea of all time.

Author Notes

Mark Ridley works in the Department of Zoology, Oxford University. He has previously held positions at Cambridge University, England, and at Emory University, Atlanta, in the U.S.A.

Reviews 1

Choice Review

A large and fairly detailed book to introduce undergraduates to evolutionary biology. Five sections, with three to five chapters in each, introduce the four main components Ridley considers to be eveolutionary theory: genetics, adaptation and selection, diversity (what one would term "systematics"), and macroevolution. Historical background and terminology are covered in the first section, the second surveys both population and molecular genetics, and the third combines aspects of organismal microevolution, evolutionary functional morphology, and adaptation. In Section 4, a broadly cladistic view prevails, but this reviewer questions the sequence of chapters: classification, species concepts, speciation, and phylogeny reconstruction. These topics are intertwined in a manner not well elaborated here, and one might move most of the classification material to the end, with the goal of understanding species and then lineages before naming segments thereof. The final section covers biogeography, rates, trends, and extinction--the usual macroevolutionary menu. Recommended. Advanced undergraduate. E. Delson; Herbert H. Lehman College, CUNY

Table of Contents

Charles DarwinCharles DarwinJohn Maynard SmithR. A. FisherSewall WrightJ. B. S. HaldaneH. B. D. KettlewellL. M. Cook and R. L. H. Dennis and G. S. ManiMary N. Karn and L. S. PenroseL. Ulizzi and L. TerrenatoH. Lisle Gibbs and Peter R. GrantR. C. LewontinMotoo KimuraR. A. FisherG. C. WilliamsA. GrafenH. K. Reeve and P. W. ShermanH. Allen Orr and Jerry A. CoyneA. J. CainS. J. Gould and R. C. LewontinRichard DawkinsE. MayrE. MayrCharles DarwinTheodosius DobzhanskyWilliam R. Rice and Ellen E. HostertJerry A. Coyne and H. Allen OrrDolph SchluterV. GrantDouglas H. Erwin and Robert L. AnsteyGavin de BeerRichard DawkinsW. J. DickinsonE. HaeckelW. GarstangHoward Ochman and Jeffrey G. Lawrence and Eduardo A. GroismanTodd J. Vision and Daniel G. Brown and Steven D. TanksleySean B. CarrollR. A. RaffSteven A. Benner and M. Daniel Caraco and J. Michael Thomson and Eric A. GaucherJohn Maynard Smith and Eors SzathmaryJ. William SchopfAlan Cooper and Richard ForteyDavid DilcherP. B. MedawarF. H. C. CrickJ. Maynard SmithD. H. JanzenDan-E. Nilsson and Susanne PelgerJohn Gerhart and Mark KirschnerPaul D. Sniegowski and Philip J. Gerrish and Toby Johnson and Aaron ShaverVincent M. Sarich and Allan C. WilsonMary-Claire King and A. C. WilsonRoy J. BrittenH. J. MullerFrank B. LivingstoneWilton M. KrogmanSteven PinkerMichael F. Antolin and Joan M. HerbersTheodosius DobzhanskyDavid HumeJ. L. MonodThomas Henry HuxleyStephen R. Palumbi
Introductionp. 1
A. From Darwin to the modern synthesis
Section introductionp. 7
1. Extract from an unpublished work on species, (1858)p. 9
2. Abstract of a letter from C. Darwin, Esq., to Prof. Asa Gray, Boston, USA (1858)p. 13
3. Weismann and modern biology, (1987)p. 15
4. The nature of inheritance (1930)p. 20
5. The roles of mutation, inbreeding, crossbreeding, and selection in evolution (1932)p. 29
6. Disease and evolution (1949)p. 37
B. Natural selection and random drift in populations
Section introductionp. 44
7. A resume of investigations on the evolution of melanism in the Lepidoptera (1958)p. 49
8. Melanic morph frequency in the peppered moth in the Manchester area (1999)p. 53
9. Birth weight and gestation time in relation to maternal age, parity, and infant survival (1951)p. 57
10. Natural selection associated with birth weight: towards the end of the stabilizing component (1992)p. 59
11. Oscillating selection on Darwin's finches (1987)p. 63
12. The paradox of variation (1974)p. 67
13. Recent development of the neutral theory viewed from the Wrightian tradition of theoretical population genetics (1990)p. 75
C. Adaptation
Section introductionp. 82
14. The nature of adaptation (1930)p. 85
15. Adaptation and natural selection (1966)p. 89
16. Adaptation versus selection in progress (1986)p. 91
17. An operational, nonhistorical definition of adaptation (1991)p. 94
18. The genetics of adaptation: a reassessment (1992)p. 96
19. The perfection of animals (1964)p. 100
20. The spandrels of San Marco and the Panglossian paradigm: a critique of the adaptationist programme (1979)p. 114
21. The selfish gene (1976)p. 123
D. Speciation and biodiversity
Section introductionp. 131
22. Typological versus population thinking (1958)p. 134
23. Species concepts and their application (1963)p. 137
24. The sterility of hybrids (1859)p. 147
25. Reproductive isolation as a product of genetic divergence and natural selection (1970)p. 151
26. Laboratory experiments on speciation: what have we learned in 40 years? (1993)p. 155
27. The evolutionary genetics of speciation (2000)p. 161
28. Ecological basis of postmating isolation (2000)p. 175
29. Hybrid speciation (1981)p. 178
E. Macroevolution
Section introductionp. 182
30. Speciation in the fossil record (1995)p. 185
31. Homology: an unsolved problem (1971)p. 197
32 The ey gene (1996)p. 205
33. Molecules and morphology: where's the homology? (1995)p. 207
34. The fundamental law of organic evolution (1905)p. 211
35. Three poems (1951)p. 216
F. Evolutionary genomics
Section introductionp. 220
36. Lateral gene transfer and the nature of bacterial innovation (2000)p. 221
37. The origins of genomic duplications in Arabidopsis (2000)p. 231
38. Initial sequencing and analysis of the human genome (2001)p. 237
39. Genetics and the making of Homo sapiens (2003)p. 244
40. Co-option of eye structures and genes (1996)p. 249
41. Planetary biology--paleontological, geological, and molecular histories of life (2002)p. 250
G. The history of life
Section introductionp. 258
42. From chemistry to heredity (1999)p. 259
43. Disparate rates, differing fates: tempo and mode of evolution changed from the Precambrian to the Phanerozoic (1994)p. 265
44. Evolutionary explosions and the phylogenetic fuse (1998)p. 275
45. Towards a new synthesis: major evolutionary trends in the angiosperm fossil record (2000)p. 284
H. Case studies
Section introductionp. 292
46. An unsolved problem of biology (1951)p. 293
47. The origin of the genetic code (1968)p. 299
48. The maintenance of sex (1971)p. 307
49. A caricature of seed dispersal by animal guts (1983)p. 310
50. A pessimistic estimate of the time required for an eye to evolve (1994)p. 317
51. Evolutionary novelty: the example of lactose synthetase (1997)p. 326
52. The evolution of mutation rates: separating causes from consequences (2000)p. 328
I. Human evolution
Section introductionp. 337
53. Immunological time scale for hominid evolution (1967)p. 340
54. Evolution at two levels in humans and chimpanzees (1975)p. 345
55. Divergence between samples of chimpanzee and human DNA sequences is 5%, counting indels (2002)p. 350
56. Our load of mutations (1950)p. 354
57. On the non-existence of human races (1962)p. 361
58. The scars of human evolution (1951)p. 363
59. The big bang (1994)p. 368
J. Evolution and human affairs
Section introductionp. 383
60. Evolution's struggle for existence in America's public schools (2001)p. 385
61. Nothing in biology makes sense except in the light of evolution (1973)p. 400
62. The argument from design (1779)p. 410
63. On the molecular theory of evolution (1974)p. 412
64. Evolution and ethics (1893)p. 418
65. Humans as the world's greatest evolutionary force (2001)p. 421
Select bibliographyp. 434
Biographical notesp. 437
Acknowledgementsp. 441
Indexp. 447