Cover image for Pilgrimage : from the Ganges to Graceland : an encyclopedia
Title:
Pilgrimage : from the Ganges to Graceland : an encyclopedia
Author:
Davidson, Linda Kay.
Personal Author:
Publication Information:
Santa Barbara, Calif. : ABC-CLIO, [2002]

©2002
Physical Description:
2 volumes (769 pages) : illustrations ; 27 cm
Language:
English
Contents:
v. l. A-L -- v. 2. M-Z.
ISBN:
9781576070048
Format :
Book

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Summary

Summary

Nationalistic meccas, shrines to popular culture, and sacred traditions for the world's religions from Animism to Zoroastrianism are all examined in two accessible and comprehensive volumes.

* More than 500 A-Z entries ranging from the Alamo and Bamiyan to tourism and visual arts

* Photographs including worshipers at the Western Wall, pyramids in Egypt, and the Montserrat monastery in Spain illuminate the coverage

* Maps including the Hajj, Jerusalem, the journeys of Saint Paul, and the Church of the Holy Sepulchre

* Includes two appendixes: pilgrimage sites by country and pilgrimage sites by religion, a complete bibiliography, and a thorough index


Author Notes

Linda Kay Davidson, a medievalist and a Spanish instructor at the University of Rhode Island, is a frequent pilgrim and the coauthor of several books on pilgrimage
David M. Gitlitz, professor of Hispanic Studies at the University of Rhode Island, is the author or coauthor of books on Hispanic literature, Sephardic history, and pilgrimage


Reviews 3

Booklist Review

This splendid encyclopedia is a delight to read and pleasing to view. The authors begin with an introduction warranting special note; in less than 10 pages, the reader receives a comprehensive overview of the history, nature, and purpose of the pilgrimage, cutting across cultures and particular faith traditions. Pilgrimage is defined here as "a journey to a special place, in which both the journey and the destination have spiritual significance for the journeyer." The 600-plus alphabetically arranged encyclopedia is more representative than exhaustive, giving "greatest emphasis to pilgrimage sites with the widest range and inclusiveness and the longest duration." Examples include Gettysburg, Graceland, Lenin's Tomb, Lourdes, Masada, and Mecca. Major religious traditions, among them Buddhism, Eastern Orthodoxy, Hinduism, Jainism, Judaism, Native American religions, Protestantism, and Roman Catholicism, are treated in respect to the role of pilgrimage. There are also entries for people, concepts, and other topics important to pilgrimage; for example, Apparitions; Indulgences; Peron, Eva Duarte de. Ranging in length from a paragraph or two to several pages, entries are generally thorough and uniformly well written, with good documentation (including Web addresses when appropriate). A few maps are added for reader convenience. The text is frequently enlivened with the anecdotal details of actual pilgrim experiences and frequent illustrations which adds a nice balance to the encyclopedia format. See and see also references assist the reader through the variety of subjects. Two helpful sections complete this absorbing work: a listing of pilgrimage sites by country and religion, plus 40 pages of historic and contemporary bibliography. Highly recommended for academic and larger public libraries.


Library Journal Review

This two-volume encyclopedia presents 500 alphabetically arranged articles on pilgrimage in all religions and time periods and in popular culture. The articles, written by Gitlitz (Hispanic studies) and Davidson (Spanish; both Univ. of Rhode Island), fall into five categories: the abstract-theoretical such as apparitions, veneration of relics, and pilgrims in music and art; incidentals such as dress, offerings, mementos, and prayer; people important to the development of pilgrimage; pilgrimage infrastructure such as hospices, transportation systems, laws, and guidebooks; and specific sites. There are about 200 black-and-white illustrations, including maps, and the introduction provides an overview of pilgrimage as both an outward act and a metaphorical journey. This encyclopedia contains a wealth of information on everything from the "Gettysburg Battlefield" to "Circumambulation," and from "Activities Prohibited During Pilgrimage" to "Shrine Caretakers." Curiously included under "Grief Shrines," rather than having entries of their own, are the World Trade Center site and the Murrah Building in Oklahoma City. There are some caveats. Such an encyclopedia can never be exhaustive-the authors note that the number of pilgrimage sites in France alone is over 1000. The authors, who have individually or jointly written books on Iberian pilgrimage sites such as Santiago de Compostela as well as other aspects of religious culture in Spain, are not experts in the many belief systems they must cover. In particular, entries on lesser-known religions such as the Baha'i Faith contain many errors (including failure to get the founder's name correct), since the authors used limited and unauthoritative reference sources without checking into actual practice. The web sites listed at the end of articles are often not the best ones available. Despite these limitations, this is the only encyclopedic work on pilgrimage and deserves to be in all academic and medium to large public libraries.-William P. Collins, Library of Congress (c) Copyright 2010. Library Journals LLC, a wholly owned subsidiary of Media Source, Inc. No redistribution permitted.


Choice Review

A comprehensive coverage of world pilgrimages, this reference work contains 632 entries about major and minor sites. The authors present a valuable introduction to styles, places, and reasons for journeys, adding seven excellent maps and a generous assortment of photos. References to current journals, books, and online sources along with a listing of sites by country, an exhaustive bibliography, and a detailed index ensure the value of the set to researchers, theologians, teachers, travel organizers, and librarians. Weakening the work are entries lacking sufficient dates and details (e.g., "Literal Pilgrimage," "Lindisfarne"); a lack of enthusiasm in much of the writing; a whopping price; and the absence of ecological pilgrimages and of such major sites as Tintagel, the Polynesian Kaho'Olawe and Ofu Island, and Ghana's Elmina Castle, exit point for Africans destined for slavery. ^BSumming Up: Recommended. General and undergraduate readers. M. E. Snodgrass independent scholar


Table of Contents

Acknowledgmentsp. xv
Introductionp. xvii
Note to the Readersp. xxv
List of Mapsp. xxvii
Volume 1 A-L
Aachen (Westphalia, Germany)p. 1
'Abd al-Qadir al-Jilani (Baghdad, Iraq)p. 1
'Abd al-Rahman, Muhammad ibnp. 1
Ablutionp. 2
Abu Serga and the Holy Family (Cairo, Egypt)p. 3
Acre (Israel)p. 4
Activities during Pilgrimagep. 5
Activities in Preparation for Pilgrimagep. 7
Activities Prohibited during Pilgrimagep. 9
Adamp. 9
Adam's Peak (Sri Lanka)p. 10
Adi Granthp. 10
African Religions and Pilgrimagep. 11
Ahmed Yasavi Mausoleum (Turkistan, Kazakhstan)p. 13
Ajanta and Ellora Caves (Maharashtra, India)p. 13
Ajmer (Rajasthan, India)p. 15
Ajodhya (Uttar Pradesh, India)p. 16
Aksum (Ethiopia)p. 17
Alamo (San Antonio, Texas)p. 18
Alfred P. Murrah Federal Building (Oklahoma City, Oklahoma)p. 19
al-Hamil (Algeria)p. 21
Aliyahp. 21
Allahabad (Uttar Pradesh, India)p. 21
Althorp Estate (Great Brington, Northampton, England)p. 23
Altotting (Bavaria, Germany)p. 24
Amarnath Cave (Jammu and Kashmir, India)p. 25
Amber Fort (Jaipur, Rajasthan, India)p. 26
An Najaf-e-Ashraf and al-Kufa (Iraq)p. 26
Anandpur (Punjab, India)p. 27
Ancestor Worship and Pilgrimagep. 28
Andacollo (IV Region, Chile)p. 28
Andean Religions and Pilgrimage (South America)p. 29
Angkor Wat (Siem Reap Province, Kampuchea)p. 30
Animism and Pilgrimagep. 32
Anit Kabir (Ankara, Turkey)p. 33
Anthony of Egypt, Saintp. 34
Antipolo (Rizal Province, Philippines)p. 35
Anuradhapura (Sri Lanka)p. 36
Aparecida (Sao Paulo, Brazil)p. 38
Apparitionsp. 38
Aramgah-e Ester va Mordekhay (Hamadan, Iran)p. 40
Arremdt (Morocco)p. 41
'Ashurap. 42
Asokap. 42
Assisi (Umbria, Italy)p. 43
Auriesville (New York)p. 45
Avukana (N. Central Province, Sri Lanka)p. 46
Baba Sali (Netivot, Israel)p. 47
Badrinath (Uttar Pradesh, India)p. 48
Baha'i World Center (Haifa, Israel)p. 48
Baha'ism and Pilgrimagep. 49
Bamiyan (Bamiyan, Afghanistan)p. 50
Banneux (Sprimont, Belgium)p. 51
Ban-Yatrap. 52
Barakahp. 52
Bari (Apulia, Italy)p. 52
Basilica de Bom Jesus (Goa, India)p. 53
Bath (Somerset, England)p. 54
Bear Butte (South Dakota)p. 55
Beauraing (Namur, Belgium)p. 56
Benjamin of Tudelap. 57
Betancur, Pedro de San Jose (Antigua, Guatemala)p. 58
Betania (Miranda, Venezuela)p. 59
Bethlehem (Palestinian Authority)p. 60
Bhubaneswar (Orissa, India)p. 62
Bighorn Medicine Wheel (Wyoming)p. 63
Blessingsp. 64
Bodh Gaya (Bihar, India)p. 65
Bom Jesus (Braga, Portugal)p. 67
Bom Jesus da Lapa (Bahia, Brazil)p. 68
Bordeaux Pilgrimp. 69
Borobudur (Java, Indonesia)p. 69
Brendan, Saint (Ireland)p. 70
Buddhism and Pilgrimagep. 71
Bunce Island (Sierra Leone)p. 74
Cahokia Mounds (Illinois)p. 75
Cahuachi (Ica, Peru)p. 77
Cairo (Egypt)p. 77
Camara Santa (Oviedo, Asturias, Spain)p. 79
Canterbury (Kent, England)p. 79
Canterbury Talesp. 81
Cao Dai Holy See (Tay Ninh Province, Vietnam)p. 82
Carnac (Brittany, France)p. 84
Cartago (Costa Rica)p. 85
Cartography and Pilgrimagep. 86
Cave of Eileithyia (Herakleion Prefecture, Crete, Greece; Elis, Olympia, Greece)p. 89
Cave of Machpelah (Hebron, Palestinian Authority)p. 89
Caves of the Thousand Buddhas (Dunhuang, Gansu Province, China)p. 91
Cenotep. 91
Chaco Canyon (New Mexico)p. 92
Chalma (Mexico City, Mexico)p. 93
Chalpon Cross (Motupe, Peru)p. 96
Chamundi Hill (Karnataka, India)p. 96
Ch'ao-shan-chin-hsiangp. 98
Charity and Pilgrimagep. 98
Chartres (Eure-et-Loir, France)p. 99
Chavin de Huantar (Ancash, Peru)p. 102
Chichen Itza (Yucatan, Mexico)p. 102
Chimayo (New Mexico)p. 104
Chogyesa (Seoul, South Korea)p. 106
Cholula (Puebla, Mexico)p. 106
Chorfa Mosque (Fes, Morocco)p. 107
Chortenp. 107
Chouri, Chayimp. 108
Christ of the Hills Monastery (New Sarov, Texas)p. 109
Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints and Pilgrimagep. 109
Church of the Holy Sepulchre (Jerusalem, Israel)p. 111
Circumambulationp. 113
Clothing and Pilgrimagep. 114
Cologne (Nordrhein-Westfalen, Germany)p. 116
Communitasp. 116
Confraternitiesp. 117
Confucianism and Pilgrimagep. 119
Consolatrice (Luxembourg)p. 120
Constantinople (Turkey)p. 120
Convent of Saint George (Cairo, Egypt)p. 122
Conyers (Georgia)p. 123
Copacabana (La Paz, Bolivia)p. 123
Cordoban Mosque (Cordoba, Andalusia, Spain)p. 125
Corinth (Peloponnese, Greece)p. 126
Credentialsp. 127
Criticism of Pilgrimagep. 127
Croagh Patrick (County Mayo, Ireland)p. 129
Cross in the Woods (Indian River, Michigan)p. 131
Crusades as Pilgrimagep. 131
Cuzco (Peru)p. 132
Cyberpilgrimagep. 134
Czestochowa (Jasna Gora, Poland)p. 135
Dabra Libanos (Ethiopia)p. 139
Damascus (Syria)p. 139
Dance and Pilgrimagep. 142
Daoism and Pilgrimagep. 144
Darb al-Hajjp. 145
Dargahp. 145
Darshanp. 145
David u-Moshe (Timzerit, Morocco; Safed, Israel)p. 145
Delos (Cyclades, Greece)p. 147
Delphi (Phocis, Greece)p. 148
Dhamp. 149
Dharmashalap. 150
Dharmastala (Karnataka, India)p. 150
Divine Comedyp. 150
Downpatrick (County Down, Ulster, Ireland)p. 151
Dwarka (Gujarat, India)p. 151
Eastern Orthodoxy and Pilgrimagep. 153
Economics and Pilgrimagep. 155
Egeriap. 158
Einsiedeln (Schwyz, Switzerland)p. 159
Ekuphakameni (South Africa)p. 160
El Cajas (Cuenca, Ecuador)p. 160
El Cobre (Santiago, Cuba)p. 161
El Faiyum (Egypt)p. 162
El Rincon Sanctuary (Santiago de las Vegas, Cuba)p. 162
Eleusinian Mysteriesp. 163
Emap. 165
Emei Shan (Sichuan Province, China)p. 165
Emerald Buddha (Bangkok, Thailand)p. 166
Enninp. 167
Enquaua, Ephraim (Tlemcen, Algeria)p. 168
Enryakuji Monastery (Kyoto Prefecture, Japan)p. 169
Ephesus (Selcuk, Turkey)p. 169
Epidaurus (Attica, Greece)p. 171
Erawan (Bangkok, Thailand)p. 172
Esquipulas (Chiquimula, Guatemala)p. 173
Ethnicity and Pilgrimagep. 175
Externsteine (Westphalia, Germany)p. 177
Ex-Votosp. 177
Eyup Camii (Istanbul, Turkey)p. 180
Fa-hsienp. 181
Fatima (Cova da Iria, Portugal)p. 181
Faustina Kowalska, Saintp. 184
Five Mountains (China)p. 184
Galilee (Israel)p. 187
Gallipoli (Canakkale, Turkey)p. 190
Gandhi, Mohandas (New Delhi, India)p. 191
Gangotri (Uttar Pradesh, India)p. 192
Garabandal (Santander, Spain)p. 193
Gaya (Bihar, India)p. 194
Gazargah (Herat, Afghanistan)p. 194
Gender and Pilgrimagep. 195
Gettysburg Battlefield (Gettysburg, Pennsylvania)p. 197
Ghana Slave Forts (Ghana)p. 198
Gilgamesh Epicp. 198
Glastonbury and Glastonbury Tor (Somerset, England)p. 199
Glendalough (County Wicklow, Ireland)p. 201
Gniezno (Poznan, Poland)p. 202
Go-eikap. 203
Gold Star Pilgrimage (United States)p. 203
Goree Island (Senegal)p. 203
Graceland (Memphis, Tennessee)p. 204
Grateful Deadp. 206
Greek Religion and Pilgrimagep. 207
Grief Shrinesp. 209
Grotto of Our Lady of Lourdes (Skaro, Alberta, Canada)p. 211
Guadalupe (Caceres, Spain)p. 211
Guadalupe (Tepeyac, Mexico City, Mexico)p. 212
Guanare (Portuguesa, Venezuela)p. 214
Guapulo (Quito, Ecuador)p. 214
Guidebooks and Manualsp. 214
Guidesp. 217
Hacibektas (Konya, Turkey)p. 219
Haji 'Ali (Mumbai, India)p. 220
Hajjp. 220
Hajjip. 225
Hakkafotp. 226
Har Mandir (Amritsar, Punjab, India)p. 226
Harer (Hararge, Ethiopia)p. 227
Haridwar (Uttar Pradesh, India)p. 228
Hasedera (Nara Prefecture, Japan)p. 229
Hazards of Pilgrimagep. 230
Heiligenkreuz (Lower Austria, Austria)p. 231
Helena, Saintp. 232
Hemkund Sahib (Uttar Pradesh, India)p. 233
Henro no Tabip. 233
Hill of Crosses (Lithuania)p. 233
Hillulap. 235
Hindu Shrines in the United Statesp. 235
Hinduism and Pilgrimagep. 237
Hiroshima Peace Memorial (Hiroshima Prefecture, Japan)p. 245
Holocaust Sitesp. 246
Holy Infant Child of Prague (Prague, Czech Republic)p. 247
Homep. 248
Hosios Loukas (Boeotia, Greece)p. 249
Hospitalityp. 250
Hua Shan (Shaanxi Province, China)p. 250
Humay (Nazca, Peru)p. 251
Ibn Jubayrp. 253
Iconp. 253
Ihramp. 253
Incubationp. 254
Indulgencesp. 255
Infrastructure of Pilgrimagep. 256
Insignia of Pilgrimagep. 257
Interior Pilgrimagep. 258
Iona (Argyll, Scotland)p. 259
Ise (Ise, Mie Prefecture, Japan)p. 259
Islam and Pilgrimagep. 261
Itsuku-shima (Miyajima Island, Hiroshima Prefecture, Japan)p. 263
Izumo Taisha (Taisha Machi, Shimane Prefecture, Japan)p. 264
Jainism and Pilgrimagep. 267
Jama Masjid (Delhi, India)p. 268
Janakpur (Nepal)p. 269
Janmashtamip. 269
Japanese Buddhism and Pilgrimagep. 270
Javierada (Navarra, Spain)p. 271
Jerusalem (Israel)p. 272
Jerusalem: Christian Pilgrimage (Israel)p. 272
Jerusalem: Jewish Pilgrimage (Israel)p. 278
Jerusalem: Muslim Pilgrimage (Israel)p. 282
Jewish Sephardic Saints in Israelp. 285
Jordan River (Israel, Jordan, Palestinian Authority)p. 286
Journeys of Saint Paul (Greece, Turkey, Italy)p. 287
Juazeiro (Ceara, Brazil)p. 289
Jubilee Yearp. 292
Judaism and Pilgrimagep. 294
Judicial Pilgrimagep. 298
Junpaip. 298
Junreip. 298
Kaihogyo (Kyoto Prefecture, Japan)p. 301
Kaikokup. 301
Kairouan (Tunisia)p. 301
Kalwaria Zebrzydoska (Krakow, Poland)p. 302
Kamakura (Kanagawa Prefecture, Japan)p. 303
Kanchipuram (Tamil Nadu, India)p. 304
Kandy (Central Province, Sri Lanka)p. 305
Karbala (Iraq)p. 306
Karm Abum (Egypt)p. 308
Kataragama (Southern Province, Sri Lanka)p. 308
Kathmandu (Nepal)p. 310
Kek Lok Si (Penang, Malaysia)p. 313
Kevelaer (Nordrhein-Westfalen, Germany)p. 314
Khartank (Samarkand, Uzbekistan)p. 314
Khidmap. 315
Khuldabad (Maharashtra, India)p. 315
Kibeho (Rwanda)p. 316
Kinkakuji and Ginkakuji (Kyoto Prefecture, Japan)p. 317
Knock (County Mayo, Ireland)p. 317
Kop. 318
Konark (Orissa, India)p. 318
Konya (Turkey)p. 319
Korap. 321
Koylio Lake Island and Turku (Turku Ja Pori, Finland)p. 321
Kumbh Mela (India)p. 322
Kusinagara (Uttar Pradesh, India)p. 323
Labyrinthp. 325
Lac Sainte-Anne (Alberta, Canada)p. 325
Lak Meuang (Bangkok, Thailand)p. 326
Lake Lhamo Latso (Tibet)p. 327
Lake Manasarovar (Tibet)p. 327
Lalibela (Ethiopia)p. 329
Lalla Sol Ha-Tsaddiqah (Morocco)p. 330
Lapchi (Tibet)p. 331
Las Lajas (Ipiales, Colombia)p. 331
Lascaux Cave (Dordogne, France)p. 332
Laval Shrine (Sainte Croix, Mauritius)p. 334
Law and Pilgrimagep. 334
Lenin's Tomb (Moscow, Russia)p. 336
Lennon, Johnp. 337
Lesbos (Greece)p. 338
Lhasa (Tibet)p. 339
Liber Sancti Jacobip. 341
Life as Pilgrimagep. 342
Liminalityp. 344
Lincoln Minster (Lincolnshire, England)p. 344
Lindisfarne and Durham (Northumberland, England)p. 345
Lingamp. 346
Lisieux (Calvados, Normandy, France)p. 347
Literature and Pilgrimagep. 348
Lodging and Pilgrimagep. 352
Loreto (Marches, Italy)p. 353
Lough Derg (County Donegal, Ireland)p. 354
Lourdes (Midi-Pyrenees, France)p. 356
Lujan (Buenos Aires, Argentina)p. 359
Lumbini (Nepal)p. 359
Volume II M-Z
Machu Picchu (Cuzco, Peru)p. 361
Madre de la Divina Providencia (San Juan, Puerto Rico)p. 362
Magdalena (Sonora, Mexico)p. 362
Mahmalp. 364
Mao Zedong Pilgrimage Sites (China)p. 365
Maqamp. 368
Maraboutp. 368
Mare de Deu (Meritxell, Andorra)p. 368
Mariazell (Steiermark, Austria)p. 369
Martyrs' Hill (Nagasaki Prefecture, Japan)p. 370
Masada (Israel)p. 370
Mashhad (Khorasan, Iran)p. 371
Masjid al-Badawi (Tanta, Al Gharbiyah, Egypt)p. 372
Mathura and Vrindavan (Uttar Pradesh, India)p. 374
Mawlid al-Nabip. 376
Mazar-e Sharif (Balkh, Afghanistan)p. 377
Meccap. 377
Mecca (Hejaz, Saudi Arabia)p. 378
Medina (Hejaz, Saudi Arabia)p. 380
Medjugorje (Bosnia and Herzegovina)p. 381
Meherabad and Meherazad (Maharashtra, India)p. 383
Meiji Shrine (Tokyo Prefecture, Japan)p. 384
Mementos of Pilgrimagep. 385
Memoirsp. 387
Meron (Israel)p. 391
Mesoamerican Religions and Pilgrimagep. 393
Milky Wayp. 395
"Miracle," Buffalo Calf (Janesville, Wisconsin)p. 395
Monkey Kingp. 396
Monte Cassino (Latium, Italy)p. 396
Monte Sant' Angelo (Apulia, Italy)p. 397
Mont-Saint-Michel (Normandy, France)p. 398
Montserrat (Cataluna, Spain)p. 400
Morija (Lesotho)p. 401
Morrison, Jim (Paris, France)p. 402
Mostaganem (Algeria)p. 403
Mother Meerap. 403
Motivesp. 404
Moulay Idris (Morocco)p. 407
Mount Abu (Rajasthan, India)p. 407
Mount Agung (Bali, Indonesia)p. 408
Mount Athos (Greece)p. 410
Mount Brandon (County Kerry, Ireland)p. 412
Mount Carmel (Israel)p. 412
Mount Fuji (Shizuoka/Yamanashi Prefectures, Japan)p. 413
Mount Girnar (Gujarat, India)p. 414
Mount Kailas (Tibet)p. 415
Mount Kilauea (Hawaii)p. 417
Mount Merup. 417
Mount Parasnath (Bihar, India)p. 418
Mount Popa (Shan State, Myanmar)p. 418
Mount Satrunjaya (Gujarat, India)p. 419
Mount Shasta (California)p. 420
Mount Sinai (Egypt)p. 420
Music and Pilgrimagep. 422
Mutawwifp. 423
Nachman of Breslov (Uman, Ukraine)p. 425
Nadhrp. 426
Namesp. 426
Nanded (Maharashtra, India)p. 426
Nankana Sahib (Talwandi, Pakistan)p. 426
Naples (Campania, Italy)p. 427
Nara (Nara Prefecture, Japan)p. 427
Nasik (Maharashtra, India)p. 429
National Shrine of the Immaculate Conception (Washington, D.C.)p. 430
Native American Religions and Pilgrimagep. 431
Nazareth (Israel)p. 434
Nazca Lines (Peru)p. 435
Nemea (Corinth, Greece)p. 436
Nevado Ampato (Arequipa, Peru)p. 436
New Age Religions and Pilgrimagep. 436
Newgrange (County Meath, Ireland)p. 440
Neyikp. 441
Nikko (Tochigi Prefecture, Japan)p. 441
Ninaistakis Mountain (Montana)p. 443
Nizam-ud-din Basti (Delhi, India)p. 444
Normandy Beaches (France)p. 444
Notre-Dame-du-Cap (Quebec, Canada)p. 445
Nuestra Senora de Altagracia (Higuey, Dominican Republic)p. 446
Nuestra Senora de Caacupe (Paraguay)p. 446
Nuestro Senor de los Milagros (Lima, Peru)p. 446
Oberammergau (Bavaria, Germany)p. 449
Obligatory Pilgrimagep. 450
Offeringsp. 450
Okage-Mairip. 453
Olympia (Pelopennese, Greece)p. 453
Omdurman (al-khartum, Sudan)p. 454
O'odham Children's Shrine (Papago Reservation, Arizona)p. 455
Osettaip. 456
Oship. 456
Our Lady, Help of Christians (Cheektowaga, New York)p. 456
Our Lady of All Nations (Akita, Akita Prefecture, Japan)p. 457
Our Lady of Charity (Miami, Florida)p. 457
Our Lady of Czestochowa (Doylestown, Pennsylvania)p. 459
Our Lady of Lichen (Wielkopolska, Poland)p. 460
Our Lady of Mariapocs (Szabolcs, Hungary)p. 460
Our Lady of the Snows (Belleville, Illinois)p. 461
Outcomes of Pilgrimagep. 462
Pachacamac (Department of Lima, Peru)p. 463
Padua (Veneto, Italy)p. 464
Pagan (Shan State, Myanmar)p. 465
Pandap. 466
Panipat (Haryana, India)p. 467
Paphos (Cyprus, Greece)p. 467
Pardons (Brittany, France)p. 468
Parikramap. 470
Passoverp. 471
Patmos (Dodecanese, Greece)p. 471
Patna (Bihar, India)p. 472
Paucartambo (Cuzco, Peru)p. 472
Pawapuri (Bihar, India)p. 473
Penitential Pilgrimagep. 473
Pere Lachaise Cemetery (Paris, France)p. 474
Peron, Eva Duarte de (Argentina)p. 474
Pilgerfahrtp. 476
Pilgrim Fathers (New Plymouth Colony, Massachusetts)p. 476
Pilgrimagep. 478
Pilgrimage after Deathp. 478
Pilgrimage as Motifp. 479
Pilgrimage to Living Beingsp. 481
Pilgrim's Progressp. 482
Pirp. 483
Pithap. 483
Plaine du Nord (Haiti)p. 484
Po Lin Monastery (Hong Kong, China)p. 485
Politics and Pilgrimagep. 485
Pontmain (Mayenne, France)p. 488
Portobelo (Colon, Panama)p. 489
Prambanan (Java, Indonesia)p. 490
Prasadp. 491
Protestantism and Pilgrimagep. 492
Proxy Pilgrimagep. 493
Pujap. 494
Puri (Orissa, India)p. 494
Putuo Shan (Zhejiang Province, China)p. 497
Puy-en-Velay, Le (Haute Loire, France)p. 498
Pyramids (Giza, Egypt)p. 499
Qom (Markazi, Iran)p. 503
Qoyllur Rit'i (Cuzco, Peru)p. 504
Qubbahp. 505
Qufu (Shandong Province, China)p. 506
Quillacollo (Cochabamba, Bolivia)p. 506
Quinche (Pichincha, Ecuador)p. 507
Rabin, Yitzhak (Israel)p. 509
Rachel's Tomb (Bethlehem, Palestinian Authority)p. 510
Rajgir (Bihar, India)p. 511
Rameswaram (Tamil Nadu, India)p. 512
Rath Yatrap. 512
Reformation and Pilgrimagep. 513
Regensburg (Bavaria, Germany)p. 515
Relicsp. 515
Replica Pilgrimagesp. 519
Reverse Pilgrimagep. 522
Rila (Bulgaria)p. 523
Rites of Passage as Pilgrimagep. 524
Roads and Pilgrimagep. 526
Rocamadour (Quercy, France)p. 527
Rock of Cashel (Tipperary, Ireland)p. 529
Roman Catholicism and Pilgrimagep. 530
Rome (Italy)p. 533
Romeriap. 540
Roskilde Cathedral (Copenhagen, Denmark)p. 540
Roswell (New Mexico)p. 540
Ryoanji (Kyoto Prefecture, Japan)p. 541
Sacred Spacep. 543
Sacrificesp. 545
Sadhup. 547
Safed (Israel)p. 548
Saikoku (Japan)p. 549
Saint Alban's Abbey (Hertfordshire, England)p. 551
Saint Andrews (Saint Andrews, Scotland)p. 552
Saint Blood Basilica (Bruges, West-Vlaanderen, Belgium)p. 552
Saint David's (Pembrokeshire, Wales)p. 553
Saint Gallen (Switzerland)p. 554
Saint Joseph's Oratory (Montreal, Quebec, Canada)p. 555
Saint Peter's Basilica (Vatican City, Rome, Italy)p. 555
Saint Willibrord's Shrine (Echternach, Luxembourg)p. 557
Saint Winefride's Well (Holywell, Flintshire, Wales)p. 558
Sainte-Anne-d'Auray (Morbihan, France)p. 560
Sainte-Anne-de-Beaupre (Quebec, Canada)p. 561
Sainte-Baume, La (Provence, Var, France)p. 561
Sainte Bernadette Shrine (Nevers, Nievre, France)p. 562
Sainte-Foy (Conques, Aveyron, France)p. 563
Sainte-Marie among the Hurons (Midland, Ontario, Canada)p. 564
Saints and Pilgrimagep. 565
Salette, La (Isere, France)p. 566
Samye Monastery and Samye Chimpu Cave Complex (Tibet)p. 567
San Francisco Javier Baiundo (Baiundo, Baja California Sur, Mexico)p. 568
San Giovanni Rotondo (Umbria, Italy)p. 569
San Juan de Amatitlan (Guatemala)p. 570
San Juan de los Lagos (Jalisco, Mexico)p. 571
San Juan del Valle Shrine (San Juan, Texas)p. 572
Sangup. 573
Santiago de Compostela (La Coruna, Spain)p. 573
Santo Nino de Atocha (Plateros, Zacatecas, Mexico)p. 577
Sarnath (Uttar Pradesh, India)p. 578
Sastin (Zapadne Slovensko, Slovakia)p. 580
Saut d'Eau (Haiti)p. 580
Schneerson, Menachemp. 581
Secular Pilgrimagep. 582
Sedona (Arizona)p. 584
Sehwan (Sind, Pakistan)p. 585
Selma Freedom March (Alabama)p. 585
Sendatsup. 587
Shah-i Zinde Mausoleum (Samarkand, Uzbekistan)p. 588
Shalosh Regalimp. 588
Shavu'otp. 589
Sheikh Hussein (Ethiopia)p. 590
Shichi-Fukujin Pilgrimage (Japan)p. 590
Shikoku (Shikoku Island, Japan)p. 591
Shinto and Pilgrimagep. 594
Shiraz (Fars, Iran)p. 597
Shoghi Effendip. 597
Shrine Architecture and Pilgrimagep. 598
Shrine Caretakersp. 600
Shroud of Turin (Turin, Italy)p. 602
Shwedagon Paya (Yangon, Myanmar)p. 603
Sikhism and Pilgrimagep. 604
Simeon the Stylite the Elder, Saintp. 606
Site Formationp. 607
Sitt Barbara (Cairo, Egypt)p. 610
Sitt Mariam (Cairo, Egypt)p. 610
Skalholt Church (Skalholt, Iceland)p. 611
Skellig Michael (County Kerry, Ireland)p. 611
Sravana-Belagola (Karnataka, India)p. 612
Sri Meenakshi Temple (Madurai, Tamil Nadu, India)p. 613
Sthalapuranap. 613
Stonehenge (Wiltshire, England)p. 613
Stonewall Inn (New York City, New York)p. 615
Stupap. 616
Substitute Pilgrimagep. 617
Sukkotp. 617
Suyapa (Tegucigalpa, Honduras)p. 618
Tai Shan (Shandong Province, China)p. 621
Taize (Bourgogne, France)p. 623
Taktsang Monastery (Paro, Bhutan)p. 624
Tawafp. 626
Ta'ziyahp. 626
Temple Square (Salt Lake City, Utah)p. 627
Tenman Shrine (Dazaifu, Fukuoka Prefecture, Japan)p. 628
Teotihuacan (State of Mexico, Mexico)p. 629
Thai Twelve-Year Pilgrimage Cycle (Thailand)p. 630
That Luang (Vientiane, Laos)p. 632
Thingvellir (Iceland)p. 632
Thudongp. 633
Tiberias (Israel)p. 633
Tibetan Buddhism and Pilgrimagep. 634
Tinos (Cyclades, Greece)p. 637
Tirthayatrap. 638
Tirumala (Andhra Pradesh, India)p. 638
Tlemcen (Algeria)p. 639
Topkapi Relics (Istanbul, Turkey)p. 639
Touba (Senegal)p. 640
Tourism and Pilgrimagep. 641
Transportation and Pilgrimagep. 644
Tribal Religions and Pilgrimagep. 645
Trier (Rhineland-Pfalz, Germany)p. 646
Trinity Monastery of Saint Sergius (Sergiyev Posad, Russia)p. 648
Tro Breiz (Brittany, France)p. 648
Trondheim Cathedral (Trondheim, Norway)p. 650
Tsari (Tibet)p. 650
Tzaddikp. 651
Udipi (Karnataka, India)p. 653
Udwada (Gujarat, India)p. 653
Ugandan Martyrs Shrine (Namugongo, Uganda)p. 654
Ujjain (Madhya Pradesh, India)p. 655
Uluru and Kata Tjuta (Northern Territory, Australia)p. 655
Umrap. 657
'Ursp. 657
Varanasi (Uttar Pradesh, India)p. 659
Velanganni (Tamil Nadu, India)p. 661
Vietnam Veterans Memorial (Washington, D.C.)p. 662
Virgen de Chiquinquira (Boyaca, Colombia)p. 663
Virgen de El Viejo (Chinandega, Nicaragua)p. 664
Virgen de la Candelaria (Chiantla, Guatemala)p. 664
Virgen de la Purisima Concepcion (Cuapa, Nicaragua)p. 665
Virgen de los Treinta y Tres (La Florida, Uruguay)p. 665
Virgen de Saripiqui (Limon, Costa Rica)p. 666
Virgen del Pilar (Zaragoza, Spain)p. 667
Virgen del Rocio (Almonte, Huelva, Spain)p. 667
Virgen del Valle (Catamarca, Argentina)p. 668
Virgin of Vladimir (Moscow, Russia)p. 668
Visakha Pujap. 669
Visual Arts and Pilgrimagep. 669
Wadi Natrun (Egypt)p. 675
Walip. 675
Walkabouts (Australia)p. 676
Wallfahrtp. 676
Walsingham (Norfolk, England)p. 676
Walt Disney World (Orlando, Florida)p. 679
Wat Pho (Bangkok, Thailand)p. 681
Western Wall (Temple Mount, Jerusalem, Israel)p. 682
Wies Church (Bavaria, Germany)p. 683
Wirikuta (San Luis Potosi, Mexico)p. 684
Wittenberg (Saxony, Germany)p. 686
Wong Tai Sin Temple (Hong Kong, China)p. 687
Wounded Knee (South Dakota)p. 687
Wutai Shan (Shanxi Province, China)p. 688
Yasukuni (Tokyo, Japan)p. 691
Yauca (Nazca, Peru)p. 692
Yazd (Iran)p. 692
Yediyur (Karnataka, India)p. 693
Yoff (Senegal)p. 694
York Minster (Yorkshire, England)p. 694
Zadonsk Monastery (Lipetsk Oblast, Russia)p. 697
Za'irp. 697
Zapopan (Jalisco, Mexico)p. 697
Ziyarap. 698
Zoroastrianism and Pilgrimagep. 699
Appendix I Pilgrimage Sites by Countryp. 701
Appendix II Pilgrimage Sites by Religion or Typep. 709
Bibliography of Works Citedp. 717
Indexp. 755
About the Authorsp. 771