Cover image for Electric kiln ceramics : a guide to clays and glazes
Title:
Electric kiln ceramics : a guide to clays and glazes
Author:
Zakin, Richard.
Personal Author:
Edition:
Third edition.
Publication Information:
Iola, Wis. : Krause Publications, [2004]

©2004
Physical Description:
304 pages : color illustrations ; 28 cm
General Note:
Includes index.

Originally published: London : A & C Black, 1994.
Language:
English
ISBN:
9780873496049
Format :
Book

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Summary

Summary

Ceramists choosing to work in home studios are praising the safety, convenience and economical benefits of the electric kiln. Now in its third edition, Electric Kiln Ceramics helps the ceramist create work exclusively intended for firing in the electric kiln.


Author Notes

Richard Zakin is a respected ceramist, teacher, potter, and writer on ceramic subjects. He lives in Oswego, New York, where he maintains a studio and teaches at the State University of New York, Oswego.


Table of Contents

Chapter 1 Introductionp. 10
What Is an Electric Kiln?p. 11
The Special Character of the Electric Kilnp. 11
The Kiln Atmosphere and Its Influence on the Look of the Workp. 11
Visual Texturep. 11
A Note on Reduction in the Electric Kilnp. 11
Firing Temperaturesp. 11
Low, Mid, and High Firep. 11
Chapter 2 Clays and Clay Bodiesp. 14
Clay Bodiesp. 14
Claysp. 14
Clays Used in Clay Bodiesp. 14
Nonclay Materials Used in Clay Bodiesp. 17
The Influence of the Electric Kiln on Clay Bodiesp. 17
Visual Characterp. 17
Visual Texturep. 17
Flashingp. 17
Body Colorp. 17
Durabilityp. 17
Characteristics of Low-, Mid-, and High-Fire Clay Bodiesp. 18
Low-Fire Bodies (Cone 06 to 02)p. 18
Mid-Fire Bodies (Cone 01 to 7)p. 18
High-Fire Bodies (Cone 8 and Above)p. 18
Clay Body Typesp. 18
Low-Fire Clay Bodies (Cone 06 to 2)p. 18
Mid-Fire Bodies (Cone 3 to 7)p. 18
High-Fire Bodies (Cone 8 to 10)p. 19
Special Purpose Clay Body Typesp. 21
Lucie Rie in Her Studiop. 33
Mixing Clay Bodies in the Studiop. 36
Mixing Small to Medium Lots (500 to 20,000 Grams)p. 36
Commercially Prepared Clay Bodiesp. 38
Choosing an Appropriate Clay Bodyp. 38
Forming Methodsp. 38
Firing Temperaturep. 38
Body Color and Texturep. 39
Character and Purpose of the Piecesp. 39
Materials Substitutionsp. 39
Testing Commercially Prepared Clay Bodiesp. 39
Working Character Testp. 39
Absorption Testp. 39
Shrinkage Testp. 41
Slumping and Warping Testp. 41
Chapter 3 Ceramic Surfacesp. 42
Unadorned Clay Surfacesp. 43
Jennifer Lee--A Visit to Her Studiop. 43
Stained Surfacesp. 47
Materials for Creating Stained Surfacesp. 47
Stained Surface Applicationsp. 47
Terra Sigillatasp. 47
Making Terra Sigillatasp. 49
Testing the Sigillatap. 49
Using Terra Sigillatasp. 49
Slips and Engobesp. 51
Applying Slips and Engobesp. 51
Shrinkage in Slips and Engobesp. 51
Calcining Clay for Slips and Engobesp. 52
Exploiting Cracking and Flakingp. 52
Gritty Slipsp. 52
Slip Glazes (Vitreous Slips) and Vitreous Engobesp. 52
Chapter 4 Glazesp. 53
Glaze Surfacesp. 53
Glaze Makeupp. 53
Glaze Characterp. 53
Character of Glazes Fired in Electric Kilnsp. 55
Creating Glaze Imageryp. 55
Glaze Color in Electric Kilnsp. 55
Using Clay to Color Glazep. 56
Glaze Colorantsp. 57
Commercially Prepared Stainsp. 60
Using Stainsp. 60
Categorizing Glaze Typesp. 60
Classifying Glaze by Significant Ingredientsp. 61
Classifying Glaze by Appearancep. 64
Visually Textured Glazesp. 65
Rough Surfaced, Curdled Glazesp. 67
Smooth Surfaced (Industrial) Glazesp. 67
Shiny, Matte, and Dry Surfacesp. 67
Low Viscosity Glazesp. 67
Crystal Glazesp. 68
Classifying Glaze by Intended Use or Purposep. 68
Low-, Mid-, and High-Fire Glazesp. 68
Low-Fire Glazesp. 68
Mid-Fire Glazesp. 71
High-Fire Glazesp. 71
Richard Hirsch--Thoughts on the Low Fire in the Electric Kilnp. 72
Unstable Glazesp. 74
Crawlingp. 74
Crazingp. 75
Runningp. 75
Shiveringp. 75
Sedimentingp. 76
Evaluating Glaze Recipes for the Electric Firep. 76
Glaze Attributesp. 76
Durabilityp. 77
Suitability of Taskp. 77
Testing Glazesp. 77
Testing Commercially Prepared Glazesp. 77
Testing Glazes Made in the Studiop. 78
Chapter 5 Studio Prepared and Commercially Prepared Surfacesp. 79
Studio Prepared Glazesp. 79
The Learning Processp. 80
Developing Glaze Recipes for the Electric Firep. 80
Thomas Seawell--Thoughts on the Electric Kilnp. 81
Commercially Prepared Low-Fire Surfacesp. 83
Underglazes, Glazes, and Overglazesp. 84
Commercially Prepared Glaze Typesp. 84
Applying Prepared Glazesp. 87
Nan Smith's Low-Fire Sculpturep. 88
Applying Commercially Prepared Underglazesp. 90
Applying Painterly Matte Surfacesp. 90
Richard Zakin--My Work with Low-Fire Unglazed Painterly Matte Surfacesp. 92
Applying Overglazesp. 95
Firing Prepared Surfacesp. 97
Toxicityp. 97
Commercially Prepared Mid-Fire Glazes (Cone 5 or 6)p. 97
Mid-Fire Glaze Characterp. 99
Mid-Fire Glaze Typesp. 99
Mixing Commercially Prepared and Studio-Made Glazesp. 99
Chapter 6 Creating Imageryp. 100
Creating Imagery in Clayp. 101
Spriggingp. 102
Carved Imageryp. 103
Press-Molded Imageryp. 104
Combining Sprigged, Stamped, and Engraved Imageryp. 105
Combining Manipulated Surfaces with a Glazep. 105
Applying Studio-Made Surfacesp. 110
Dippingp. 110
Pouringp. 111
Brushingp. 111
Sprayingp. 116
Masking and Resist Materialsp. 126
Slip-Trailing or Tracingp. 126
Maren Kloppmannp. 134
Application Typesp. 136
Simple Glaze Applicationsp. 136
Complex Glaze Application Strategiesp. 137
Testing a Complex Glaze Applicationp. 144
Application Strategies for Commercial Low-Fire Glazesp. 147
Testing Image Creation Strategiesp. 147
The Work of Peter Beard--Resist Strategiesp. 148
Rick MaImgren--Learning the Electric Firep. 151
Chapter 7 Portfolio of Work Fired in the Electric Kilnp. 156
Drawn and Painted Imageryp. 157
Interview with Paul Lewingp. 163
Sculpturep. 179
Installationsp. 197
Vesselsp. 205
Tilesp. 229
Susan Tunickp. 235
Aurore Chabotp. 238
Explorations of the Character of the Materialsp. 240
Chapter 8 Loading and Firing the Electric Kilnp. 248
Firing--Basic Conceptsp. 248
The Bisque Firep. 248
Controlling Heat Risep. 248
Preparing for the Bisque Firep. 248
Preparing for the Glaze Firep. 248
Loading the Electric Kilnp. 249
Kiln Furniturep. 249
Kiln Waddingp. 249
Kiln Washp. 249
Preparing the Kiln for Loadingp. 250
Choosing and Building the Kiln Shelf Structurep. 251
Pyrometric Conesp. 251
Cone Packsp. 251
Sighting and Placing the Cone Packp. 252
Firing Choices for the Electric Kilnp. 252
The Firing Rangep. 252
The Pace of Firingp. 253
Firing Downp. 253
Crack Formationp. 253
The Bisque Firingp. 254
The Final Firingp. 254
Cooling the Kiln by Firing Downp. 255
Taking the Ware from the Kilnp. 256
Heat Work: Measurement and Controlp. 256
Ceramic Conesp. 256
Automating the Firing Processp. 258
Kiln Sittersp. 258
Computer Controlled Devicesp. 259
Controlling the Firing with Pyrometersp. 259
Chapter 9 Structural Aspects of the Electric Kilnp. 260
Design and Constructionp. 260
Overall Designp. 260
Electrical Componentsp. 261
Structurep. 261
Purchasing an Electric Kilnp. 263
Choosing Front-Loading or Top-Loadingp. 263
Characteristics Shared by Electric Kilnsp. 264
Electric Service--Voltage and Phasep. 265
Kiln Maintenance and Repairp. 265
Repairing a Sagging Elementp. 265
Cleaning the Elementsp. 265
Replacing Broken Elementsp. 265
Switchesp. 266
Kiln Roofp. 266
Kiln Floorp. 266
Kiln Wallp. 266
Wiringp. 266
When the Kiln Must Be Discardedp. 266
Small Test Kilnsp. 266
What to Look for in a Test Kilnp. 267
Firing the Test Kilnp. 267
Placing the Test Kilnp. 268
Uses for the Test Kilnp. 268
Chapter 10 History of the Electric Kilnp. 269
Early Effortsp. 269
The 1930sp. 269
After World War IIp. 271
Chapter 11 Recipes for the Electric Kilnp. 272
Clay Body Recipesp. 272
Cone 04p. 272
Cone 02p. 273
Cone 3p. 273
Cone 6p. 274
Cone 9p. 276
Slip and Engobe Recipesp. 276
Cone 04p. 276
Cone 02p. 277
Cone 3p. 277
Cone 6p. 277
Cone 9p. 277
Glaze Recipesp. 277
Cone 04p. 277
Cone 02p. 278
Cone 3p. 279
Cone 6p. 282
Cone 9p. 283
Chapter 12 The Materials Cupboardp. 285
Materials for Making Glazes and Clay Bodiesp. 285
Materials Availabilityp. 286
Outside North Americap. 286
Gerstley Boratep. 287
Claysp. 287
Trade Names for Common Materialsp. 287
Chapter 13 Safe Practice for the Ceramistp. 288
Toxic Materialsp. 288
Appropriate Substitutes for Toxic Materialsp. 288
Frits and Colored Stainsp. 289
Dustsp. 289
Safety When Making Clay or Glazesp. 289
Respiratorsp. 289
Disposable Safety Garmentsp. 290
Safety When Preparing and Applying Glazesp. 291
Other Safety Problemsp. 291
Bench Grindersp. 291
Safety When Firingp. 291
Glossaryp. 292
Indexp. 299