Cover image for Understanding electric power systems : an overview of the technology and the marketpalce
Title:
Understanding electric power systems : an overview of the technology and the marketpalce
Author:
Casazza, John.
Personal Author:
Publication Information:
Piscataway, NJ : IEEE Press ; Hoboken, N.J. : Wiley Interscience, [2003]

©2003
Physical Description:
xviii, 211 pages : illustrations, 1 map ; 24 cm.
Language:
English
Added Author:
ISBN:
9780471446521
Format :
Book

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Summary

Summary

The Enron scandal notwithstanding, it is important for professionals in the electric power industry and related positions gain a solid understanding of electric power systems and how they work. Written by two veteran power company managers and respected experts, this is a real-world view of electric power systems, how they operate, how the organizations are structured, and how electricity is regulated and priced.

A comprehensive overview of the electric power industry from the inside
Covers electric power system components, electricity consumption, generation, transmission, distribution, electric utility operation, electric system control, power system reliability, government regulation, utility rate making, and financial considerations.

Includes an extensive glossary of key terms used in the U.S. and also definitions for terms used worldwide


Author Notes

Jack Casazza is currently President of the American Education Institute and an Outside Director of the Georgia Systems Operation Corporation
Frank Delea retired in 1997 from Consolidated Edison, Inc.


Reviews 1

Choice Review

Casazza and Delea, both from industry, have prepared a readable and knowledge-filled work suitable for advanced undergraduate or graduate courses in electrical engineering, or for business and finance majors interested in a career in the power industry. The authors provide current and future industry professionals with an excellent overview of the technical, regulatory, and marketplace issues affecting a wide area of industrial decision making. They describe recent local and partial deregulation attempts that have all but stopped in the wake of high-profile power market failures, corporate bankruptcies, and transmission system reliability problems. Nearly half the book is dedicated to describing the roles and interests of the many industry stakeholders, the problems and promise of new technologies, and the many restructuring and regulation options proposed for wholesale power markets, all of which will jointly and significantly influence and be impacted by the future design and operation of the US electric power grid. ^BSumming Up: Recommended. Upper-division undergraduates through professionals. S. R. Walk Maine Maritime Academy


Table of Contents

List of Figuresp. xv
Prefacep. xvii
1 History of Electric Power Industryp. 1
Origin of the Industryp. 1
Development of the National Electric Power Gridp. 3
Industry Ownership Structurep. 6
Legislation and Regulationp. 8
Blackouts and the Reliability Crisisp. 8
Environmental Crisis--The Shift to Low-Sulfur Oilp. 9
Fuel Crisis--The Shift from Oilp. 9
Financial Crisisp. 9
Legislative and Regulatory Crisisp. 10
2 Electric Power Systemp. 13
Customersp. 14
Sources of the Electric Energy--Generationp. 15
Delivery Systemp. 17
Interconnectionsp. 19
Gridp. 21
3 Basic Electric Power Conceptsp. 23
Electric Energyp. 24
Concepts Relating to the Flow of Electricityp. 26
Direct Currentp. 27
Alternating Currentp. 27
Three Phasesp. 29
Synchronismp. 29
Characteristics of AC Systemsp. 29
Resistancep. 29
Induction and Inductive Reactancep. 30
Inductive Reactancep. 30
Capacitance and Capacitive Reactancep. 30
Capacitive Reactancep. 31
Reactancep. 31
Impedancep. 31
Ohm's Law for Alternating Currentp. 33
Power in Alternating Current Circuitsp. 33
Real Powerp. 34
Reactive Powerp. 34
Advantages of AC over DC Operationp. 35
Transformersp. 36
Power Flowp. 37
Division of Power Flow Among Transmission Linesp. 37
Voltage Drop and Reactive Power Flowp. 37
Power Flow and Phase Angle Differencesp. 37
Stabilityp. 38
Results of Instabilityp. 40
4 Electric Energy Consumptionp. 41
End-Uses for Electricityp. 41
Customer Classesp. 42
Rate Classesp. 43
Demand and Energyp. 44
Energyp. 44
Effects of Load Diversityp. 45
System Loadp. 47
Load Managementp. 48
Reactive Powerp. 50
Forecastsp. 50
Losses and Unaccounted-for Energy in the Delivery Systemp. 52
5 Electric Power--Generationp. 55
Types of Generationp. 56
Steam Turbinesp. 56
Combustion (Gas) Turbinesp. 57
Hydro Turbinesp. 57
Pumped Storagep. 58
Nuclear Unitsp. 58
Reciprocating Enginesp. 58
Micro Turbinesp. 58
Other Forms of Generationp. 59
Characteristics of Generating Plantsp. 60
Sizep. 62
Efficiencyp. 64
Availabilityp. 65
Capital Cost of Generationp. 66
Type of Usep. 66
Life Extensionp. 67
Synchronous Generatorsp. 67
Resource Procurementp. 68
Fuel Measurementsp. 69
Fuel Transportationp. 70
Fuel Usedp. 70
Fuel Purchasingp. 71
Emission Rightsp. 71
6 Technology of the Electric Transmission Systemp. 73
Componentsp. 73
HVACp. 74
Overheadp. 74
Ratingsp. 74
Cablep. 75
Submarine Cablesp. 76
Substationsp. 76
Substation Equipmentp. 77
Substation Breaker Arrangementsp. 81
Transmission System Agingp. 82
HVDCp. 82
Advantages of HVDCp. 83
Disadvantages of HVDCp. 84
Knowledge Required of Transmission Systemp. 84
7 Distributionp. 85
Primary Feedersp. 86
Radial Systemsp. 86
Loop Systemsp. 87
Primary Network Systemsp. 87
Distribution Transformersp. 87
Secondary Systemsp. 87
Distribution Capacityp. 89
Lossesp. 90
Ratingsp. 90
Meteringp. 90
Control of Voltagep. 91
Capacitorsp. 91
Voltage Regulatorsp. 92
Reliabilityp. 92
Quality of Servicep. 93
Design of Distribution Systemsp. 93
Distributed Generationp. 94
Operation of Distribution Systemsp. 94
8 Functioning of the Electric Bulk Power Systemp. 97
Coordinationp. 97
Operationp. 99
Control Areasp. 99
Operating Reservesp. 102
Ancillary Servicesp. 102
Emergenciesp. 103
Operating Emergenciesp. 104
Parallel Path Flow and Loop Flowp. 105
Power Transfer Limitsp. 105
Determination of Total Transfer Capabilityp. 106
Reduction of Power Transfers--Congestion Managementp. 107
Planningp. 107
Planning Standardsp. 108
Generation Planningp. 108
Least Cost Planningp. 110
Transmission Planningp. 110
Load-Flow Studiesp. 112
Stability Studiesp. 112
Short-Circuit Duty Studiesp. 112
New Planning Environmentp. 113
9 Reliabilityp. 117
Costs of Power Outagesp. 119
Ways to Measure Reliabilityp. 120
Planning and Operating a Reliable and Adequate Power Systemp. 121
Transmission Security and Security Coordinatorsp. 122
Paying for Extra Reliabilityp. 124
Compliancep. 124
Generationp. 125
Transmissionp. 126
Transmission System Problemsp. 126
Planning and Operating Standardsp. 127
Voltage and Reactive Controlp. 128
Distributionp. 129
Summaryp. 129
10 Restructuring, Competition and Deregulationp. 131
Causes of Restructuringp. 131
Types of Restructuringp. 132
Effects of Restructuringp. 133
Six Networksp. 133
Changing Customer Requirementsp. 135
11 Legislation and Regulation--The Regulatory Networkp. 137
Pricing and Regulationp. 137
Federal Legislationp. 138
Public Utility Holding Company Act of 1935p. 138
Federal Power Actp. 139
Other Federal Lawsp. 140
Environmental Lawsp. 140
Department of Energy Organization Actp. 141
PURPAp. 142
Energy Policy Act ("EPACT") of 1992p. 144
PUHCA Modificationsp. 144
FPA Modificationsp. 144
Federal Regulatory Agenciesp. 145
FERCp. 145
SECp. 146
Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)p. 146
Department of Energy (DOE)p. 147
Federal Legislation Under Considerationp. 147
State Regulatory Authorityp. 148
Recent Federal Regulation Impacting the Electric Industryp. 148
Orders 888 and 889p. 148
Order 2000p. 150
Tariff Basisp. 151
Transmission Rightsp. 151
Physical Transmission Rightsp. 151
Financial Transmission Rightsp. 152
Average System versus Incremental Costsp. 152
State Regulationp. 153
Customer Choicep. 153
Meteringp. 154
Distribution Ratesp. 154
State and Local Environmental Requirementsp. 155
Overall Regulatory Problemsp. 155
12 The Business Networkp. 157
Investment and Cost Recoveryp. 157
Changing Industry Structurep. 158
Utility Responsesp. 158
Holding Company Formationp. 158
Unbundlingp. 159
New Structurep. 160
Power Producersp. 160
Power Plant Divestituresp. 160
Transmittersp. 162
Development of Non-Regulated Power Marketp. 163
Distributorsp. 163
Marketersp. 164
Wheeling and Customer Choicep. 164
Contracts and Agreementsp. 165
13 ISOs, RTOs and ITPsp. 167
ISO Formationp. 167
Functions of ISOsp. 168
Regional Operating Functionsp. 168
Regional Planning Functionsp. 169
RTOsp. 169
14 The Money Networkp. 171
Allocation of Costs and Economic Benefitsp. 172
Average Costs Versus Incremental Costsp. 173
Market Versus Operational Controlp. 173
Market Power Issuesp. 173
Price Capsp. 173
Standard Market Design (SMD)p. 174
Objectives and Goalsp. 174
Proposalsp. 174
Transmission Owner's Optionsp. 175
Independent Transmission Providers (ITPs)p. 175
Transmission Chargesp. 176
Wholesale Electric Market Designp. 177
Locational Marginal Pricing (LMP)p. 177
Resource Adequacyp. 178
Transmission Tariffsp. 179
Merchant Transmissionp. 179
Markets for Buying and Selling Rightsp. 179
15 Information, Communications and Control Networkp. 181
Financial and Business Operationsp. 182
System Operationsp. 182
Distribution Operationsp. 183
Physical Securityp. 184
Commercial Securityp. 184
16 Role of NERC, NAESB and Other Organizationsp. 187
NERC, Reliability Councils, and RTOsp. 188
NAESBp. 188
Enforcement and Dispute Resolutionp. 188
Professional Organizationsp. 189
IEEEp. 189
CIGREp. 190
Industry Associationsp. 190
NARUCp. 190
AEICp. 190
APPAp. 191
EEIp. 191
ELCONp. 192
NRECAp. 192
Electric Power Supply Associationp. 193
Research Organizationsp. 193
EPRIp. 193
Other Researchp. 194
NRRIp. 194
17 Where Restructuring Standsp. 195
Required Additional Analysesp. 197
Abandonment of Deregulationp. 197
Power Supplyp. 197
2002p. 197
The Futurep. 197
Energy Tradingp. 198
Reliability Concernsp. 198
Transmission Problemsp. 198
National Power Surveyp. 198
Conclusionsp. 199
Indexp. 201
About the Authorsp. 211