Cover image for The Shīʻite movement in Iraq
The Shīʻite movement in Iraq
ʻAbd al-Jabbār, Fāliḥ.
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Publication Information:
London : Saqi, 2003.
Physical Description:
391 pages : maps ; 24 cm

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DS70.8.S55 A33 2003 Adult Non-Fiction Central Closed Stacks

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Shi'i Islam has been the focus of sustained attention since the success of the Iranian revolution in 1979. Yet beyond the Iranian case, the role of Shi'ism in politics across the Middle East has attracted little serious research. Even less attention has been given to Shi'ism and Shi'ite militancy in Iraq-which preceded the Iranian revolution--and less still to their nature and origins; the social movements they engendered; the ideological responses they gave rise to and their specific sources of power and legitimacy. This book is an attempt to fill the gap in our understanding of the social and cultural identity created through the ideology of Shi'i Islam in Iraq.

Author Notes

Faleh A. Jabar is a Visiting Fellow at the School of Politics and Sociology at Birkbeck College, London University.

Table of Contents

Sami Zubaida
Tables and Mapsp. 8
Note on Transliteration and Datesp. 9
Abbreviationsp. 10
Forewordp. 13
Introduction: The US, War and Iraqi Shi`ismp. 15
The US Perspectivep. 16
The Shi`ite Perspective in Exilep. 18
The Shi`ite Perspective in Iraqp. 22
Part 1 State, Nation and Islamismp. 29
1. Overviewp. 31
The Literaturep. 32
Theoretical Approachesp. 33
Major Primary Sourcesp. 37
2. Islamism, Fundamentalism, Communalism and the Nation-Statep. 41
The Complexity of the Iraqi Casep. 41
The Changing Phases of Islamic Responsep. 42
State, Society and Communityp. 52
Part 2 Genesis and Mutationp. 73
Introductionp. 75
3. The Da`wa Founding Group: Defining the Self (1960-64)p. 78
The Legitimizing Processp. 78
4. Social Origins and Actorsp. 95
Beginningsp. 95
Conflicting Meaningsp. 99
Leadershipp. 100
The Nature of the Initiatorsp. 103
The New Generationp. 104
Social Differentiationp. 105
5. The Formation of the Jama`at al-`Ulama in Najaf, 1960p. 110
Senior `Ulamap. 110
Welfare and Educationp. 113
Adhwa' and the Ideological Battlep. 114
Schisms and al-Sadr's Retreatp. 119
Jama`at al-`Ulama and the Islamic Party: Sociopolitical Issuesp. 122
6. The Da`wa Party, 1963-68: From Universalism to Particularismp. 128
The February 1963 Coupsp. 128
Under `Arifp. 131
Al-Shibibi's Memorandump. 134
The Growth of the Da`wap. 137
Part 3 Shi`ite Cultural Spaces: Marja`ism and Popular Ritualsp. 143
Introductionp. 145
7. Sacred Moneyp. 146
The Collector of Zakatp. 147
Defining and Redefining the Khumsp. 148
Rising and Diminishing Returnsp. 150
8. The Transmission of Knowledge: The Traditional Madrasa and its Declinep. 152
Clash of Institutionsp. 152
Shi`ite Madrasa: The Drive to Autonomyp. 154
Change and Transformation: The Phase of Declinep. 154
The Madrasa: Social Group and Social Organizationp. 157
9. The Rise and Centralization of Marja`ismp. 159
Knowledge and Power: Major Conceptsp. 160
The Social, Cultural and Juristic-Theological Divide: Usuli versus Akhbarip. 165
Tendencies Towards the Centralization of Marja`ismp. 169
The Disorder of the Marja` Systemp. 171
Attempts at the Institutionalization of Marja`ism: Musa al-Sadr, Baqir al-Sadr, Taliqani and Khomeinip. 179
10. `Ashura and the Arba`in: Popular Culture and the Politicizing of Redemptive Sufferingp. 185
The Example of Twaireejp. 186
Local Solidarities, Social Actorsp. 186
Structure of the Muharram Ritualp. 189
Cultural Cleavage: the Daghara Examplep. 195
The Arba`in Pilgrimage: Pan-Shi`ite Identityp. 197
Part 4 Shi`ite Islamism and the Ba`thp. 199
11. From Peaceful Protest to Bloody Confrontationp. 201
The First Phase: 1968-78p. 201
Ayatollah al-Hakim versus the Ba`thp. 202
The Execution of Da`wa Leadersp. 206
The Marad al-Ras Upheaval, February 1977: Ritual as an Instrument of Mass Politicsp. 208
12. The Particularist-Political Model: The Origins and Structure of the MAIp. 216
13. Radicalization: 1979-82p. 225
The Iranian Factorp. 225
Growing Militancyp. 227
Crackdownp. 231
14. The Formation and Development of SAIRI: Coercive Unification, War and Schisms, 1982-90p. 235
The Formation of SAIRIp. 235
SAIRI's Structurep. 239
Strategy and Tacticsp. 249
The Badr Armyp. 253
Repercussionsp. 254
Fracture Linesp. 255
15. Wartime, the Diaspora and the 1991 Uprisingsp. 264
Iran's Failurep. 264
War and Nationalismp. 265
The Invasion of Kuwaitp. 267
The Uprisingsp. 269
Iraq Under Sanctions: Tribes and Religionp. 271
Part 5 Ideology: Sociopolitical and Economic Doctrinesp. 275
16. Political Theoryp. 277
Reformation: Two Trendsp. 277
Al-Sadr: Liberal Hierocracyp. 280
Muhammad Bahr al-`Ulum: Liberal Islamismp. 288
17. Socioeconomic Doctrinesp. 294
New Challengesp. 294
Al-Sadr: Non-capitalist, Rightful Islamic Distributionismp. 296
Al-Mudarisi: Cooperative Islamp. 307
Shirazi: Ethical Laissez-Faire Islam, Halal and Haramp. 310
Conclusionp. 315
Notesp. 320
Bibliographyp. 354
Indexp. 377