Cover image for The worldwide history of telecommunications
Title:
The worldwide history of telecommunications
Author:
Huurdeman, Anton A.
Personal Author:
Publication Information:
Hoboven, NJ : John Wiley & Sons, [2003]

©2003
Physical Description:
xx, 638 pages : illustrations (some color) ; 26 cm
Language:
English
ISBN:
9780471205050
Format :
Book

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TK5102.2 .H88 2003 Adult Non-Fiction Non-Fiction Area-Reference
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Summary

Summary

The first comprehensive history of the Information Age... how we got there and where we are going

The exchange of information is essential for both the organization of nature and the social life of mankind. Until recently, communication between people was more or less limited by geographic proximity. Today, thanks to ongoing innovations in telecommunications, we live in an Information Age where distance has ceased to be an obstacle to the sharing of ideas.

The Worldwide History of Telecommunications is the first comprehensive history ever written on the subject, covering every aspect of telecommunications from a global perspective. In clear, easy-to-understand language, the author presents telecommunications as a uniquely human achievement, dependent on the contributions of many ingenious inventors, discoverers, physicists, and engineers over a period spanning more than two centuries.

From the crude signaling methods employed in antiquity all the way to today's digital era, The Worldwide History of Telecommunications features complete and fascinating coverage of the groundbreaking innovations that have served to make telecommunications the largest industry on earth, including:

Optical telegraphy Electrical telegraphy via wires and cables Telephony and telephone switching Radio transmission technologies Cryptography Coaxial and optical fiber networks Telex and telefax Multimedia applications

Broad in scope, yet clear and logical in its presentation, this groundbreaking book will serve as an invaluable resource for anyone involved or merely curious about the ever evolving field of telecommunications.

AAP-PSP 2003 Award Winner for excellence in the discipline of the "History of Science"


Author Notes

Most recently transmission product manager with Alcatel Trade International, Paris, Anton Huurdeman has more than 30 years of experience as a transmission systems engineer and manager. He is the author of Radio-Relay Systems, also published by Artech House.

050


Reviews 1

Choice Review

This volume purports to be the first comprehensive overview in a single volume in English of the worldwide development of telecommunications. Indeed, the scope of this overview is impressive, beginning with optical telegraphy and extending through electrical telegraphy, telephony, radio transmission, photo-telegraphy, satellite transmission, cellular radio, and much more. Surprisingly, though, as Huurdeman concedes in his introduction, radio and television broadcasting and computers are omitted. Also impressive is his depth of scholarship, though, at times the sheer weight of the details he supplies bogs down the narrative. One innovative, but curious, feature of the book is what Huurdeman calls "technology boxes." These boxes contain concise descriptions of the technologies underlying various telecommunication innovations in more technical language. Although these descriptions may assist readers with technical backgrounds, they seem burdensome to general readers, who would seem to be the target audience of the book. More profitable might have been an increase in the number of simplified diagrams to accompany the many verbal descriptions of technical apparatus and systems introduced in the narrative. Despite these flaws, however, this volume is a welcome addition to the literature about a pervasive force in modern society. ^BSumming Up: Recommended. General readers; lower- and upper-division undergraduates; professionals; two-year technical program students. D. M. Gilbert Maine Maritime Academy


Table of Contents

Forewordp. xv
Prefacep. xvii
Acknowledgmentsp. xix
Part I Introduction and Period Before 1800p. 1
1 Introductionp. 3
1.1 Definition of Telecommunicationsp. 3
1.2 Telecommunications Treep. 7
1.3 Major Creators of Telecommunicationsp. 11
2 Evolution of Telecommunications Up to 1800p. 14
2.1 Evolution of Telecommunications Prior to 1750p. 14
2.2 Evolution of Telecommunications from 1750 to 1800p. 16
3 Optical Telegraphyp. 18
3.1 Tachygraphe of Claude Chappep. 18
3.2 Optical Telegraph of Claude Chappep. 20
3.3 Beginning of Optical Telegraphyp. 24
Part II Period from 1800 to 1850p. 27
4 Evolution of Telecommunications from 1800 to 1850p. 29
5 Optical Telegraph Systems Worldwidep. 34
5.1 Optical Telegraph Systems in Francep. 34
5.1.1 Chappe Systemsp. 34
5.1.2 Other Optical Telegraph Systems in Francep. 37
5.2 Optical Telegraphy Outside Francep. 45
6 Electrical Telegraphyp. 48
6.1 Evolution Leading to Electrical Telegraphyp. 48
6.2 Electrical Telegraphy in the United Statesp. 55
6.2.1 Morse Telegraphp. 55
6.2.2 Washington-Baltimore Electrical Telegraph Linep. 59
6.2.3 Pioneering Telegraph Companiesp. 61
6.2.4 House Direct Printing Telegraph Systemsp. 65
6.3 Electrical Telegraphy in Canadap. 66
6.4 Electrical Telegraphy in Great Britainp. 66
6.4.1 Electrical Telegraphs of Cooke and Wheatstonep. 66
6.4.2 Electrochemical Telegraph of Bainp. 72
6.5 Electrical Telegraphy in Francep. 72
6.6 Electrical Telegraphy in Germanyp. 74
6.6.1 Railway Telegraph Lines in Germanyp. 74
6.6.2 German Electrical Telegraph Equipment for Public Usep. 76
6.7 Electrical Telegraphy in Austriap. 83
Part III Period from 1850 to 1900p. 85
7 Evolution of Telecommunications from 1850 to 1900p. 87
8 Electrical Telegraph Systems Worldwidep. 91
8.1 Telegraph Transmission Technologyp. 91
8.1.1 Open-Wire Linesp. 91
8.1.2 Underground Cablep. 94
8.1.3 Submarine Cablep. 95
8.2 Electrical Telegraph Lines in the United Statesp. 98
8.2.1 Western Unionp. 98
8.2.2 The Pony Expressp. 98
8.2.3 First Transcontinental Telegraph Linep. 99
8.2.4 Collins Overland Telegraph Line and the Purchase of Alaskap. 100
8.2.5 The Hughes Direct Letter Printing Telegraphp. 103
8.3 Electrical Telegraph Lines in Canadap. 104
8.4 Electrical Telegraph Lines in Great Britainp. 106
8.5 Summary of National Electrical Telegraph Achievementsp. 107
8.6 Major Terrestrial Telegraph Linesp. 119
8.6.1 Australian Overland Telegraph Linep. 119
8.6.2 Indo-European Telegraph Linep. 124
8.6.3 Great Northern Telegraph Linep. 128
8.6.4 Central American Telegraph Linep. 128
8.7 Submarine Telegraph Cablesp. 129
8.7.1 European Submarine Cablesp. 129
8.7.2 Transatlantic Telegraph Cablesp. 130
8.7.3 Submarine Telegraph Cables Connecting Europe Worldwidep. 135
8.7.4 Inter-American Submarine Telegraph Cablesp. 138
8.8 Worldwide Electrical Telegraph Networkp. 139
8.9 Morse, the Father of Electrical Telegraphyp. 141
8.10 Morse Codesp. 143
8.11 Morse Telegraphersp. 145
9 Image Telegraphyp. 147
9.1 Facsimile Device of Bainp. 147
9.2 Image Telegraph of Bakewellp. 148
9.3 Pantelegraph of Casellip. 149
9.4 Autographic Telegraph of Bernhard Meyerp. 151
9.5 Telautograph of Elisha Grayp. 151
10 Telephonyp. 153
10.1 Evolution Leading to Telephonyp. 153
10.2 The Telephone of Alexander Graham Bellp. 156
10.2.1 Alexander Graham Bell, the Father of Telephonyp. 156
10.2.2 Early Days of Bell in Great Britainp. 159
10.2.3 Bell's Telephone Experiments in the United Statesp. 159
10.2.4 Bell's Telephone: "It DOES Speak"p. 163
10.2.5 Bell Telephone Companyp. 165
10.2.6 Bell's Honeymoon Trip to Europep. 167
10.2.7 Telephone Developments in Swedenp. 174
10.2.8 Biggest Patent Battle on Telecommunicationsp. 176
10.2.9 Battle of David Against Goliathp. 178
10.2.10 Pioneers Leave the Telephone Businessp. 179
10.3 Companies with Common Bell Rootsp. 180
10.4 Worldwide Introduction of Telephonyp. 181
10.5 International Telephonyp. 181
10.6 The Art of Telephone Setsp. 185
11 Telephone Switchingp. 188
11.1 Manual Switchingp. 188
11.2 Evolution Leading to Automatic Switchingp. 192
11.3 Strowger Systemp. 194
11.3.1 Strowger's First Operating Exchangep. 194
11.3.2 Strowger's Up-and-Around Switchp. 195
12 Radio Transmissionp. 199
12.1 Evolution Leading to Radio Transmissionp. 199
12.2 Experiments of Heinrich Hertzp. 201
12.3 Radio Transmission from Theory to Practicep. 204
12.4 The Radio Invented by Marconip. 207
12.5 Radios of Marconi's Competitorsp. 212
13 International Cooperationp. 217
Part IV Period From 1900 To 1950p. 223
14 Evolution of Telecommunications from 1900 to 1950p. 225
15 Worldwide Telephone Penetrationp. 229
15.1 Worldwide Telephone Statisticsp. 229
15.2 Telephone Penetration in the United Statesp. 231
15.3 Telephone Penetration Outside the United Statesp. 234
16 Electromechanical Telephone Switchingp. 237
16.1 Worldwide Introduction of the Strowger Systemp. 237
16.1.1 Strowger System in the United Statesp. 237
16.1.2 Strowger System in Canadap. 238
16.1.3 Strowger System in Japanp. 240
16.1.4 Strowger System in Germanyp. 241
16.1.5 Strowger System in Great Britainp. 244
16.1.6 Strowger System in Austriap. 246
16.1.7 Strowger System in Swedenp. 246
16.2 Automatic or Semiautomatic Switching?p. 247
16.3 Electromechanical Indirect-Control Systemsp. 250
16.3.1 Automanual and All-Relay Systemsp. 251
16.3.2 Lorimer Systemp. 252
16.3.3 Panel Systemp. 255
16.3.4 Rotary Systemp. 258
16.3.5 Uniselector System in Francep. 260
16.3.6 LME 500-Point Systemp. 261
16.3.7 Hasler Hs 31 Systemp. 262
16.3.8 Automatic Switching Systems in the USSRp. 264
16.4 Crossbar Switchingp. 264
16.5 Private Switchingp. 266
17 High-Frequency Radio Transmissionp. 269
17.1 Evolution of Radio Technologyp. 269
17.1.1 Spark Radio Transmittersp. 269
17.1.2 Squenched Spark Radio Transmitterp. 271
17.1.3 Poulsen Convertor Arc Radio Transmitterp. 274
17.1.4 Frequency Alternator Radio Transmitterp. 277
17.1.5 Electronic Radio Equipmentp. 279
17.1.6 Shortwave Transmissionp. 280
17.2 Maritime Radiop. 281
17.3 Mobile Radiop. 285
17.4 Intercontinental Radiotelephonyp. 287
17.5 RCA and C&W Created to Beat Marconip. 289
17.5.1 Radio Corporation of Americap. 289
17.5.2 Cable & Wirelessp. 290
18 Phototelegraphyp. 294
18.1 Kopiertelegraph of Gustav Grzannap. 294
18.2 Telautograph of Arthur Kornp. 294
18.3 Telegraphoscope of Edouard Belinp. 295
18.4 Siemens--Karolus--Telefunken Picture Transmission Systemp. 296
18.5 Facsimile Machines of AT&T and Western Unionp. 297
18.6 Photograph Transmission Equipment in Japanp. 298
19 Teleprintersp. 300
19.1 Teleprinter Development in the United Statesp. 300
19.2 Teleprinter Development in Great Britainp. 303
19.3 Teleprinter Development in Germanyp. 306
19.4 Teleprinter Development in Japanp. 307
20 Copper-Line Transmissionp. 308
20.1 Telegraphy Transmission on Copper Linesp. 308
20.2 Telephony Transmission on Copper Linesp. 314
20.3 Phantom Circuitsp. 316
20.4 Pupin Coilsp. 317
20.5 Krarup Cablep. 321
20.6 Telephone Amplifiersp. 322
20.7 Analog Multiplexingp. 324
20.8 Digital Multiplexingp. 327
20.9 Coaxial Cablep. 331
21 Radio-Relay Transmissionp. 337
21.1 Evolution Leading to Radio-Relay Transmissionp. 337
21.2 World's First Radio-Relay Linkp. 342
21.3 Initial Radio-Relay Systemsp. 343
22 Cryptographyp. 350
22.1 Manual Codingp. 351
22.2 Automatic Codingp. 352
23 International Cooperationp. 357
Part V Period from 1950 To 2000p. 361
24 Evolution of Telecommunications from 1950 to 2000p. 363
24.1 The Semiconductor Erap. 364
24.2 Digitalizationp. 366
24.3 New Telecommunications Networksp. 367
25 Radio-Relay Networksp. 369
25.1 Technological Development of Radio-Relay Systemsp. 369
25.1.1 All-Solid-State Radio-Relay Systemsp. 370
25.1.2 Digital Radio-Relay Systemsp. 371
25.1.3 Radio-Relay Systems for the Synchronous Digital Hierarchyp. 374
25.1.4 Transhorizon Radio-Relay Systemsp. 375
25.2 Radio-Relay Systems Worldwidep. 376
25.2.1 Radio-Relay Systems in North Americap. 376
25.2.2 Radio-Relay Systems in Latin Americap. 376
25.2.3 Radio-Relay Systems in Europep. 379
25.2.4 Radio-Relay Systems in Asiap. 381
25.2.5 Radio-Relay Systems in Australiap. 382
25.2.6 Radio-Relay Systems in Africap. 383
25.3 Wireless Access Systemsp. 386
25.4 Radio-Relay Towers and Aestheticsp. 391
26 Coaxial Cable Transmissionp. 397
26.1 Terrestrial Coaxial Cablep. 397
26.2 Submarine Coaxial Cablep. 399
26.2.1 Transatlantic Coaxial Telephone Cablesp. 399
26.2.2 Worldwide Submarine Coaxial Telephone Cablesp. 404
27 Satellite Transmissionp. 407
27.1 Evolution Leading to Satellite Transmissionp. 407
27.1.1 Rocketry Pioneersp. 408
27.1.2 Passive Satellitesp. 410
27.1.3 Postwar Rocket Development in the United Statesp. 410
27.1.4 Postwar Rocket Development in the USSRp. 411
27.1.5 Sputnik, the First Satellitep. 412
27.1.6 First Communication Satellitesp. 413
27.2 First Synchronous Communication Satellitesp. 419
27.3 Satellite Launchingp. 421
27.4 Satellite Transmission Systemsp. 426
27.4.1 Global Satellite Systemsp. 427
27.4.2 Regional Satellite Systemsp. 428
27.4.3 Domestic Satellite Systemsp. 431
27.4.4 Mobile Satellite Systemsp. 433
27.4.5 Global Mobile Personal Communication by Satellitep. 435
27.4.6 Multimedia Satellite Systemsp. 439
28 Optical Fiber Transmissionp. 445
28.1 Evolution Leading to Optical Fiber Transmissionp. 445
28.2 Terrestrial Optical Fiber Cable Systemsp. 456
28.3 Submarine Optical Fiber Cable Systemsp. 459
28.3.1 Transatlantic Optical Fiber Cablesp. 460
28.3.2 SEA-ME-WE Cable Systemp. 461
28.3.3 Caribbean ARCOS Networkp. 463
28.3.4 Global Submarine Optical Fiber Cable Systemsp. 463
28.3.5 African Cable Network Africa ONEp. 466
28.3.6 Various Submarine Cable Systemsp. 467
28.3.7 Repeaterless Submarine Cable Systemsp. 467
28.4 Fiber-in-the-Loop Systemsp. 471
28.4.1 Worldwide Testing of FITL Solutionsp. 472
28.4.2 Delay of FITL Deploymentp. 475
29 Electronic Switchingp. 480
29.1 Continuation of Deployment of the Prewar Switching Systemsp. 480
29.1.1 Crossbar Switchingp. 480
29.1.2 Siemens Rotary Switchp. 480
29.1.3 End of the Strowger Switchp. 482
29.2 Implementation of Automatic Telephone Switchingp. 483
29.2.1 National Automatic Switchingp. 483
29.2.2 International Automatic Switchingp. 484
29.3 Electronic Switching Systemsp. 485
29.3.1 Evolution toward Electronic Switchingp. 485
29.3.2 Preliminary Electronic Switching Systemsp. 489
29.3.3 Commercial Electronic Switching Systemsp. 494
29.4 Digital Switching Systemsp. 495
29.5 Data Switchingp. 500
29.6 Integrated Services Digital Networkp. 505
29.7 Broadband Switchingp. 506
29.8 Private Switchingp. 507
30 Telexp. 510
30.1 Continuation of Teleprinter Deploymentp. 510
30.2 Telex Servicep. 510
30.3 Teletexp. 512
30.4 Termination of Telex Servicesp. 512
31 Telefaxp. 515
31.1 Technological Development of Telefaxp. 515
31.2 Worldwide Telefax Penetrationp. 517
32 Cellular Radiop. 519
32.1 Evolution of Cellular Radiop. 519
32.2 Analog Cellular Radiop. 521
32.2.1 Analog Cellular Radio in Japanp. 522
32.2.2 Analog Cellular Radio in Scandinaviap. 523
32.2.3 Analog Cellular Radio in North Americap. 523
32.2.4 Analog Cellular Radio in West Europep. 524
32.3 Digital Cellular Radiop. 524
32.3.1 Global System for Mobile Communicationp. 528
32.3.2 D-AMPS Systemp. 532
32.3.3 Personal Digital Cellular Systemp. 534
32.4 Personal Communications Networkp. 535
32.4.1 CT1-CT3 Systemsp. 536
32.4.2 Japanese Personal Handyphone Systemp. 537
32.4.3 Digital European Cordless Telecommunicationsp. 537
32.4.4 Personal Access Communications Systemp. 539
32.5 International Mobile Telecommunication Systemp. 540
33 Telephony and Deregulationp. 546
33.1 Telecommunications Deregulation and Liberalizationp. 546
33.2 Telephony and Deregulation in the Americasp. 551
33.2.1 Telephony and Deregulation in the United Statesp. 551
33.2.2 Telephony and Deregulation in Canadap. 555
33.2.3 Telephony and Deregulation in Mexicop. 556
33.2.4 Telephony and Deregulation in Central Americap. 557
33.2.5 Telephony and Deregulation in the Caribbeanp. 558
33.2.6 Telephony and Deregulation in Brazilp. 558
33.2.7 Telephony and Deregulation in Chilep. 559
33.2.8 Telephony and Deregulation in Argentinap. 561
33.2.9 Telephony and Deregulation in Perup. 561
33.2.10 Telephony and Deregulation in Venezuelap. 561
33.2.11 Telephony and Deregulation in Colombiap. 561
33.2.12 Telephony and Deregulation in Ecuadorp. 562
33.2.13 Telephony and Deregulation in Boliviap. 563
33.2.14 Telephony and Deregulation in Uruguayp. 563
33.2.15 Telephony and Deregulation in Paraguayp. 563
33.3 Telephony and Deregulation in Africap. 563
33.3.1 Telephony and Deregulation in North Africap. 565
33.3.2 Telephony and Deregulation in South Africap. 566
33.3.3 Telephony and Deregulation in Sub-Saharan Africap. 566
33.4 Telephony and Deregulation in Asiap. 567
33.4.1 Telephony and Deregulation in Indiap. 568
33.4.2 Telephony and Deregulation in Chinap. 569
33.4.3 Telephony and Deregulation in Japanp. 571
33.4.4 Telephony and Deregulation in Other Asian Countriesp. 573
33.5 Telephony and Deregulation in Europep. 574
33.5.1 Telephony and Deregulation in the European Unionp. 575
33.5.2 Telephony and Deregulation in Eastern Europep. 575
33.6 Telephony and Deregulation in Oceaniap. 577
34 Multimediap. 580
34.1 Evolution Leading to Multimediap. 580
34.2 Computers and Communicationsp. 581
34.3 Global Information Infrastructurep. 581
34.4 Internetp. 583
34.5 Global Villagep. 589
34.6 Multimedia Servicesp. 590
35 International Cooperationp. 597
Appendices
A Chronology of the Major Events in the Two Centuries of Telecommunicationsp. 601
B Worldwide Statistics of Population, Internet Users, Cellular Phones, and Main Telephonesp. 607
C Glossaryp. 613
Indexp. 621