Cover image for Sanskrit grammar
Title:
Sanskrit grammar
Author:
Whitney, William Dwight, 1827-1894.
Publication Information:
Mineola, N.Y. : Dover Publications, 2003.
Physical Description:
xxiii, 551 pages ; 22 cm
General Note:
"Unabridged reprint of the third edition of A Sanskrit grammar, including both the classical language, and the older dialects, of Veda and Brahmana, originally published by Ginn and Company, Boston, 1896"--T.p. verso.

Includes index.
Language:
English
ISBN:
9780486431369
Format :
Book

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Summary

Summary

As Latin is key to the study of Western classics, so Sanskrit is the language of ancient Indian literature. This guide begins with an introduction to the Sanskrit alphabet, followed by a treatment of the accent -- its changes in combination, inflection, and tone. Succeeding chapters discuss declension, conjugation, parts of speech, more.


Table of Contents

Prefacep. iii
Introductionp. ix
I. Alphabetp. 1
II. System of Sounds; Pronunciationp. 10
Vowelsp. 10
Consonantsp. 13
Quantityp. 27
Accentp. 28
III. Rules of Euphonic Combinationp. 34
Introductoryp. 34
Principlesp. 37
Rules of Vowel Combinationp. 42
Permitted Finalsp. 49
Deaspirationp. 53
Surd and Sonant Assimilationp. 54
Combinations of Final s and rp. 56
Conversion of s to sp. 61
Conversion of n to np. 54
Conversion of Dental Mutes to Linguals and Palatalsp. 66
Combinations of Final np. 69
Combinations of Final mp. 71
The Palatal Mutes and Sibilant, and hp. 72
The Lingual Sibilantp. 77
Extension and Abbreviationp. 78
Strengthening and Weakening Processesp. 81
Guna and Vrddhip. 81
Vowel-lengtheningp. 84
Vowel-lighteningp. 85
Nasal Incrementp. 86
Reduplicationp. 87
IV. Declensionp. 88
Gender, Number, Casep. 88
Uses of the Casesp. 89
Endings of Declensionp. 103
Variation of Stemp. 107
Accent in Declensionp. 108
V. Nouns and Adjectivesp. 111
Classification etc.p. 111
Declension I. Stems in ap. 112
Declension II. Stems in i and up. 116
Declension III. Stems in Long Vowels (a, i, u): A. Root-words etc.p. 124
Stems in Diphthongsp. 130
B. Derivative Stems etc.p. 131
Declension IV. Stems in r or arp. 137
Declension V. Stems in Consonantsp. 141
A. Root-stems etc.p. 143
B. Derivative Stems in as is, usp. 153
C. Derivative Stems in anp. 156
D. In inp. 161
E. In ant or atp. 163
F. Perfect Participles in vansp. 169
G. Comparatives in yans or yasp. 172
Comparisonp. 173
VI. Numeralsp. 177
Cardinalsp. 177
Ordinals etc.p. 183
VII. Pronounsp. 185
Personalp. 185
Demonstrativep. 188
Interrogativep. 194
Relativep. 195
Other Pronouns: Emphatic, Indefinitep. 196
Nouns used pronominallyp. 197
Pronominal Derivatives, Possessives etc.p. 197
Adjectives declined pronominallyp. 199
VIII. Conjugationp. 200
Voice, Tense, Mode, Number, Personp. 200
Verbal Adjectives and Nounsp. 203
Secondary Conjugationsp. 203
Personal Endingsp. 204
Subjunctive Modep. 209
Optativep. 211
Imperativep. 213
Uses of the Modesp. 215
Participlesp. 220
Augmentp. 220
Reduplicationp. 222
Accent of the Verbp. 223
IX. The Present-Systemp. 227
Generalp. 227
Conjugations and Conjugation Classesp. 228
Root-Class (second or ad-class)p. 231
Reduplicating Class (third or hu-class)p. 242
Nasal Class (seventh or rudh-class)p. 250
nu and u-Classes (fifth and eighth, or su- and tan-classes)p. 254
na-Class (ninth or kri-class)p. 260
a-Class (first or bhu-class)p. 264
Accented a-Class (sixth or tud-class)p. 269
ya-Class (fourth or div-class)p. 271
Accented ya-Class or Passive Conjugationp. 275
So-called tenth or cur-classp. 277
Uses of the Present and Imperfectp. 278
X. The Perfect-Systemp. 279
Perfect Tensep. 279
Perfect Participlep. 291
Modes of the Perfectp. 292
Pluperfectp. 295
Uses of the Perfectp. 295
XI. The Aorist-Systemsp. 297
Classificationp. 297
I. Simple Aorist
1. Root-Aoristp. 299
Passive Aorist 3d singp. 304
2. The a-Aoristp. 305
II.
3. Reduplicated Aoristp. 308
III. Sibilant Aoristp. 313
4. The s-Aoristp. 314
5. The is-Aoristp. 320
6. The sis-Aoristp. 323
7. The sa-Aoristp. 325
Precativep. 326
Uses of the Aoristp. 328
XII. The Future-Systemsp. 330
I. The s-Futurep. 331
Preterit of the s-Future, Conditionalp. 334
II. The Periphrastic Futurep. 335
Uses of the Futures and Conditionalp. 337
XIII. Verbal adjectives and Nouns: Participles, Infinitives, Gerundsp. 340
Passive Participle in ta or nap. 340
Past Active Participle in tavantp. 344
Future Passive Participles, Gerundivesp. 345
Infinitivesp. 347
Uses of the Infinitivesp. 351
Gerundsp. 355
Adverbial Gerund in amp. 359
XIV. Derivative or Secondary Conjugationp. 360
I. Passivep. 361
II. Intensivep. 362
Present-Systemp. 365
Perfect, Aorist, Future, etc.p. 370
III. Desiderativep. 372
Present-Systemp. 374
Perfect, Aorist, Future, etc.p. 376
IV. Causativep. 378
Present-Systemp. 380
Perfect, Aorist, Future, etc.p. 383
V. Denominativep. 386
XV. Periphrastic and Compound Conjugationp. 391
The Periphrastic Perfectp. 392
Participial Periphrastic Phrasesp. 394
Composition with Prepositional Prefixesp. 395
Other Verbal Compoundsp. 400
XVI. Indeclinablesp. 403
Adverbsp. 403
Prepositionsp. 414
Conjunctionsp. 416
Interjectionsp. 417
XVII. Derivation of Declinable Stemsp. 418
A. Primary Derivativesp. 420
B. Secondary Derivativesp. 454
XVIII. Formation of Compound Stemsp. 480
Classificationp. 480
I. Copulative Compoundsp. 485
II. Determinative Compoundsp. 489
A. Dependent Compoundsp. 489
B. Descriptive Compoundsp. 494
III. Secondary Adjective Compoundsp. 501
A. Possessive Compoundsp. 501
B. Compounds with Governed Final Memberp. 511
Adjective Compounds as Nouns and as Adverbsp. 512
Anomalous Compoundsp. 514
Stem-finals altered in Compositionp. 514
Loose Construction with Compoundsp. 515
Appendixp. 516
A. Examples of Various Sanskrit Typep. 516
B. Example of Accentuated Textp. 518
Synopsis of the conjugation of roots bhu and krp. 520
Sanskrit-Indexp. 521
General-Indexp. 540