Cover image for Optical transmission systems engineering
Title:
Optical transmission systems engineering
Author:
Cvijetic, Milorad.
Personal Author:
Publication Information:
Boston : Artech House, [2004]

©2004
Physical Description:
xi, 288 pages : illustrations ; 26 cm.
Language:
English
ISBN:
9781580536363
Format :
Book

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TK5103.59 .C78 2004 Adult Non-Fiction Non-Fiction Area
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Summary

Summary

This practitioner's look at optical transmission gives you essential, hands-on guidance to engineering for optimal network performance. Real-world applications illustrate in detail the principles of transmission systems engineering. Complete with tables containing optical signal, noise and impairment parameters, this book is a useful tool for calculating and modelling network transmission capabilities, evaluating tradeoffs among systems parameters and transmission optimization, and assessing optical transport limits and penalties. network transmission under worst case conditions, establish benchmarks for innovating high-performance, high-reliability optical transmission equipment, and achieve other network performance goals. An overview of systems engineering and optical networking fundamentals quickly brings students and novices up to speed on a wide range of critical topics all practitioners need to understand.


Table of Contents

Prefacep. ix
Acknowledgmentsp. xi
Chapter 1 Introduction to Optical Bandwidth and Lightwave Pathsp. 1
1.1 Optical Transmission and Networkingp. 1
1.2 Optical Transmission System Definitionp. 3
1.3 Organization of the Bookp. 11
1.4 Summaryp. 12
Referencesp. 13
Chapter 2 Optical Components as Constituents of Lightwave Pathsp. 15
2.1 Semiconductor Light Sourcesp. 17
2.1.1 Light Emitting Diodesp. 17
2.1.2 Semiconductor Lasersp. 18
2.1.3 Wavelength Selectable Lasersp. 22
2.2 Optical Modulatorsp. 24
2.2.1 Direct Optical Modulationp. 24
2.2.2 External Optical Modulationp. 25
2.3 Optical Fibersp. 28
2.3.1 Single-Mode Optical Fibersp. 31
2.3.2 Optical Fiber Manufacturing and Cablingp. 35
2.4 Optical Amplifiersp. 39
2.5 Photodiodesp. 45
2.6 Key Optical Componentsp. 47
2.6.1 Optical Couplers, Isolators, Variable Optical Attenuators, and Optical Circulatorsp. 48
2.6.2 Optical Switchesp. 52
2.6.3 Optical Filtersp. 53
2.6.4 Optical Multiplexers and Demultiplexersp. 59
2.7 Summaryp. 61
Referencesp. 61
Chapter 3 Optical Signal, Noise, and Impairments Parametersp. 65
3.1 Optical Signal Parametersp. 65
3.1.1 Output Signal Powerp. 66
3.1.2 The Extinction Ratiop. 67
3.1.3 Optical Amplifier Gainp. 67
3.1.4 Photodiode Responsivityp. 69
3.2 Noise Parametersp. 70
3.2.1 Mode Partition Noisep. 73
3.2.2 Laser Intensity and Phase Noisep. 74
3.2.3 Modal Noisep. 75
3.2.4 Quantum Shot Noisep. 76
3.2.5 Dark Current Noisep. 79
3.2.6 Thermal Noisep. 79
3.2.7 Spontaneous Emission Noisep. 81
3.2.8 Noise Beat Componentsp. 83
3.2.9 Crosstalk Noise Componentsp. 84
3.3 Signal Impairmentsp. 86
3.3.1 Fiber Attenuationp. 86
3.3.2 Insertion Lossesp. 87
3.3.3 Frequency Chirpp. 87
3.3.4 Chromatic Dispersionp. 89
3.3.5 Polarization Mode Dispersionp. 103
3.3.6 Self-Phase Modulationp. 108
3.3.7 Cross-Phase Modulationp. 115
3.3.8 Four-Wave Mixingp. 116
3.3.9 Stimulated Raman Scatteringp. 119
3.3.10 Stimulated Brillouin Scatteringp. 122
3.4 Summaryp. 125
Referencesp. 125
Chapter 4 Assessment of the Optical Transmission Limitations and Penaltiesp. 127
4.1 Attenuation Impactp. 128
4.2 Noise Impactp. 129
4.3 Modal Dispersion Impactp. 132
4.4 Polarization Mode Dispersion Impactp. 136
4.5 Impact of Nonlinear Effectsp. 140
4.6 Summaryp. 147
Referencesp. 147
Chapter 5 Optical Transmission Systems Engineeringp. 149
5.1 Transmission Quality Definitionp. 149
5.2 Receiver Sensitivity Handlingp. 154
5.2.1 Receiver Sensitivity Defined by Shot Noise and Thermal Noisep. 155
5.2.2 Receiver Sensitivity Defined by Optical Preamplifierp. 158
5.2.3 Optical Signal-to-Noise Ratiop. 159
5.3 Power Penalty Handlingp. 160
5.3.1 Power Penalty Due to Extinction Ratiop. 162
5.3.2 Power Penalty Due to Intensity Noisep. 163
5.3.3 Power Penalty Due to Timing Jitterp. 166
5.3.4 Power Penalty Due to Signal Crosstalkp. 167
5.3.5 Comparative Review of Power Penaltiesp. 169
5.3.6 Handling of Accumulation Effectsp. 172
5.4 Systems Engineering and Margin Allocationp. 175
5.4.1 Systems Engineering of Power-Budget Limited Point-to-Point Lightwave Systemsp. 177
5.4.2 Systems Engineering of Bandwidth-Limited Point-to-Point Lightwave Systemsp. 179
5.4.3 Systems Engineering for High-Speed Optical Transmission Systemsp. 182
5.4.4 Optical Performance Monitoringp. 187
5.4.5 Computer-Based Modeling and Systems Engineeringp. 189
5.5 Summaryp. 193
Referencesp. 194
Chapter 6 Optical Transmission Enabling Technologies and Trade-offsp. 195
6.1 Enabling Technologiesp. 195
6.1.1 Optical Amplifiersp. 196
6.1.2 Advanced Dispersion Compensationp. 204
6.1.3 Advanced Modulation Schemesp. 220
6.1.4 Advanced Detection Schemesp. 230
6.1.5 Forward Error Correctionp. 233
6.1.6 Wavelength Conversion and Optical 3Rp. 237
6.2 Transmission System Engineering Trade-offsp. 243
6.2.1 Optical Fiber Type Selectionp. 244
6.2.2 Spectral Efficiencyp. 245
6.2.3 Chromatic Dispersion Managementp. 247
6.2.4 Optical Power Levelp. 248
6.2.5 Optical Path Lengthp. 249
6.3 Summaryp. 250
Referencesp. 251
Chapter 7 Optical Transmission Systems Engineering Toolboxp. 253
7.1 Physical Quantities, Units, and Constants Used in This Bookp. 253
7.2 Electromagnetic Field and the Wave Equationp. 254
7.3 The Propagation Equation for Single-Mode Optical Fiberp. 257
7.4 Frequency and Wavelength of the Optical Signalp. 260
7.5 Stimulated Emission of Lightp. 260
7.6 Semiconductors as Basic Materials for Lasers and Photodiodesp. 262
7.7 Laser Rate Equationsp. 267
7.8 Modulation of an Optical Signalp. 269
7.9 Optical Receiver Transfer Function and Signal Equalizationp. 269
7.10 Summaryp. 271
Referencesp. 271
List of Acronymsp. 273
About the Authorp. 277
Indexp. 279