Cover image for Advanced systems thinking, engineering, and management
Title:
Advanced systems thinking, engineering, and management
Author:
Hitchins, Derek K.
Personal Author:
Publication Information:
Boston, MA : Artech House, [2003]

©2003
Physical Description:
xv, 469 pages : illustrations ; 24 cm.
Language:
English
ISBN:
9781580536196
Format :
Book

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T57.6 .H58 2003 Adult Non-Fiction Non-Fiction Area
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Summary

Summary

Written by an exponent of systems engineering, this is a comprehensive examination of systems thinking and methods, demonstrating how to use the ideas to create and manage more effective engineering systems. Using this resource, engineers should be able to apply systems thinking to the design, implementation and management of engineering systems.


Author Notes

Derek K. Hitchins is now a part-time consultant, teacher, visiting professor, and international lecturer. Formerly, he held the British Aerospace Chairs in Systems Science and in Command and Control, Cranfield University at RMCS Shrivenham, and before that the Chair in Engineering Management at City University, London, England


Table of Contents

Prefacep. xv
Part I Systems Philosophy, Systems Sciencep. 1
Chapter 1 The Need for, and Value of, Systemsp. 3
The Book as a Systemp. 3
Origins of Systems Sciencep. 3
A Mechanistic Worldp. 3
Perceived Limitations in the Traditional Sciencesp. 4
Life and the Second Lawp. 5
Information and Entropyp. 5
Causality and Teleologyp. 6
Concept of Open Systemsp. 6
General Systems Theoryp. 6
Identifying and Defining a Systemp. 8
Basic System Modelsp. 8
Fundamental System Constructsp. 23
Definitions and Justificationp. 25
Systems Principlesp. 26
Classifying Systemsp. 27
Classifying Systems by Complexityp. 29
Classifying Systems by Morphologyp. 29
Classifying Systems by Behaviorp. 38
Summaryp. 41
Assignmentsp. 42
Chapter 2 Measure for Measurep. 45
Measuring Valuep. 45
Measuring Properties, Capabilities, and Behaviorsp. 49
Trade-offsp. 49
Limitationsp. 50
Entropyp. 53
System Efficiencyp. 54
System Effectivenessp. 56
Efficiency, Effectiveness, and Entropyp. 56
Genetic Algorithmic Methods of Adjustmentp. 57
Optimizing Measuresp. 58
Value for Money, and Cost Effectivenessp. 58
Cost Exchange Ratiosp. 59
Casualty Exchange Ratiosp. 60
Summaryp. 60
Assignmentp. 60
Chapter 3 The Human Elementp. 64
Categorizationp. 64
Motivation, Instinct, and Inheritancep. 65
Intelligence and Behaviorp. 66
Belief Systemsp. 68
Resistance to Changep. 70
Decision Makingp. 71
Perceived Entropy Reductionp. 73
Summaryp. 73
Assignmentp. 73
Chapter 4 Systems Engineering Philosophyp. 75
Holism and Emergencep. 75
Problem Solvingp. 78
Perceptions of Connectednessp. 79
Systems of Systemsp. 80
Bottom-up Integrationp. 81
Systems of Systems: Volume Supplyp. 83
Systems of Systems in Defensep. 84
Systems Engineering Philosophy in Methodsp. 88
Summaryp. 89
Assignmentp. 89
Chapter 5 A Theory of Complexityp. 91
Characterizing Complexityp. 91
Elaborationp. 93
Encapsulationp. 95
Varietyp. 97
Minimum Varietyp. 97
Useful Varietyp. 98
Limited Varietyp. 99
Generation of Varietyp. 100
Energy as a Source of Varietyp. 101
Open Systems Interactionsp. 101
Summaryp. 104
Assignmentsp. 104
Chapter 6 Systems Life Cycle Theoryp. 107
Introductionp. 107
The Seven Principles of Open Systemsp. 107
The Principle of System Reactionsp. 107
The Principle of System Cohesionp. 108
The Principle of System Adaptationp. 109
The Principle of Connected Varietyp. 109
The Principle of Limited Varietyp. 111
The Principle of Preferred Patternsp. 111
The Principle of Cyclic Progressionp. 112
Synthesizing the System Life Cyclep. 112
Applying Life Cycle Theoryp. 115
Economic Systemsp. 115
Political Systemsp. 116
Business Systemsp. 117
Organizational Systemsp. 117
Changing System Behaviorp. 118
Predicting System Behaviorp. 118
Systems Engineeringp. 119
Summaryp. 120
Assignmentsp. 120
Chapter 7 The Social Genotypep. 123
Introductionp. 123
Change and the Social Genotypep. 124
Quantifying the Social Genotypep. 125
Change by "Budding Off"p. 127
Progressive Conversionp. 127
Continuous Revolutionp. 128
The Military and the Social Genotypep. 129
Systems Engineering and the Social Genotypep. 129
Summaryp. 130
Assignmentp. 130
Part II Systems Thinkingp. 131
Chapter 8 Tools and Methods for Systems Thinkingp. 133
About Systems Thinkingp. 133
Facing Up to Our Real, Nonlinear, Dynamic Worldp. 133
Chaotic Perspectivesp. 135
Minimalist Behavioral Systems Thinkingp. 136
Causal Loop Modelingp. 137
Promoting Completeness with CLMsp. 140
Patterns in CLMsp. 142
N[superscript 2] Chartsp. 143
The Hand-Drawn Toolp. 143
Encapsulation and Elaborationp. 146
Dynamic N[superscript 2] Chartsp. 147
Automating the N[superscript 2] Chartp. 147
Interpretive Structural Modelingp. 148
R-Netsp. 151
Behavior Diagrammingp. 153
Soft Methodsp. 155
Soft Systems Thinkingp. 155
The Soft Systems Methodologyp. 156
The Rigorous Soft Methodp. 157
The TRIAD Building Systemp. 161
The Generic Reference Modelp. 163
Characterizing a Systemp. 163
Beingp. 165
Doingp. 165
Thinkingp. 169
Synthesizing the Whole GRM from the Partsp. 171
Using the Generic Reference Modelp. 173
Nonlinear Dynamic System Synthesisp. 175
Summaryp. 179
Assignmentsp. 179
Chapter 9 System Thinking at Work: Case Studiesp. 181
The Doctors' Surgeryp. 182
Hospital Waiting Timep. 185
Societal Powerp. 187
National Energy Strategyp. 190
The Symptomsp. 192
Bringing the Imbalanced Implicit Systems Togetherp. 196
Assessmentp. 198
Options for Addressing the Issuep. 200
Conclusion to RSM Issue Developmentp. 203
The Railway Dilemmap. 203
Stakeholder Analysisp. 203
The Railwayp. 204
Computing Integrityp. 205
Crime Managementp. 209
Crime and Punishmentp. 209
Proactive Policingp. 211
Police Test Bedp. 215
A Different Approach to Policingp. 217
Defense Acquisitionp. 219
Cold War Inheritancep. 219
A Changing Worldp. 220
U.K. Defense Procurementp. 222
COTS Procurement Behavior Diagramp. 226
Building Pyramidsp. 227
Architectonics: The Study of Architecturep. 230
Systems Engineering: The Costs of Reworkp. 236
Summaryp. 239
Assignmentsp. 239
Part III Systems Engineeringp. 243
Chapter 10 System Concept and Designp. 245
System Solutionsp. 245
Creating Solution Conceptsp. 246
Developing Concepts: The TRIAD Building Systemp. 248
Developing System Concepts: The Seven-Step Continuump. 254
The Far Side: Case Studyp. 257
System Designp. 265
Design for Operationp. 268
Scenario-driven Designp. 268
CONOPSp. 268
Industrial Design Paradigmsp. 270
Design for Availabilityp. 272
Design for Maintenancep. 274
Designing Open, Interactive Systemsp. 276
Design Capability Ratchetingp. 279
Operational Design Approachp. 280
Evaluating and Optimizing Military Capabilityp. 282
Advanced Design Methodsp. 297
Famine Reliefp. 297
Afghanistanp. 301
Summaryp. 307
Assignmentsp. 307
Chapter 11 Classification of Systems Engineeringp. 309
Defining Systems Engineeringp. 309
Extending System Useful Lifep. 310
Characterizing Systems Engineeringp. 311
The Five-Layer System Structurep. 312
Level 1 Artifact Systems Engineeringp. 314
Level 2 Project Systems Engineeringp. 315
The Classic Systems Engineering Procedurep. 315
Process-Oriented Systems Engineeringp. 317
Goal-Oriented Systems Engineeringp. 321
Unprecedented Systems Engineeringp. 323
Level 3 Business Systems Engineeringp. 323
Evolutionary Systems Engineeringp. 325
Level 4 Industry Systems Engineeringp. 326
Mass Productionp. 326
Lean Volume Supply Systems Engineeringp. 328
Comparing Mass Production and Lean Volume Supplyp. 330
Nesting at Levels 2, 3, and 4p. 333
Level 5 Socioeconomic Systems Engineeringp. 334
Science-based Systems Engineeringp. 336
Summaryp. 339
Assignmentsp. 340
Chapter 12 From Systems Thinking to Systems in Operationp. 343
Systems Thinking: About Systems Engineeringp. 343
Beyond Technologyp. 343
Always Two Systems: Creating and Createdp. 344
Identifying the Streamp. 347
The Sourcep. 347
Partitioning the Streamp. 349
Confluencep. 351
The End-to-End Life Cycle Processp. 354
Outline Level 2/3: Conceptual Processp. 354
The Systems Engineering Shadow-boardp. 356
System-level Elaboration and Specificationp. 357
Integration, Test, and Provingp. 358
Focusing Developing Emergent Propertiesp. 359
Systems Engineering Goals and Objectivesp. 360
Developing Structural Supportp. 363
Process Resourcingp. 363
Understanding the Process as a Systemp. 364
Calibrating the Creating Systemp. 367
Tailoring the Systems Engineering Processp. 369
Accommodating Legacy and Changep. 369
Police Information Systemp. 370
The New Interceptorp. 371
Summaryp. 373
Assignmentsp. 374
Chapter 13 Operational Systems Engineeringp. 375
Operational Systems Engineering: Levels 2-4p. 375
Operational Systems Engineering at Level 2p. 375
Operational Maintenance Systemsp. 378
Operational Systems Engineering at Level 3p. 380
Operational Systems Engineering at Level 4p. 382
Underground Railwaysp. 384
Heijunkap. 386
Market Systems Engineeringp. 388
Socioeconomic Systems Engineering: Level 5p. 390
Social Capitalp. 392
Historical Systems Engineering at Level 5p. 393
Summaryp. 395
Assignmentsp. 395
Part IV Systems Management and Organizationp. 397
Chapter 14 Managing Systemsp. 399
Managing Systems Conceptsp. 399
The Need for Managementp. 399
Management by Controlp. 401
The "Control Freak"p. 402
Management by Incentivep. 403
Management by Competitionp. 405
Organized Management Systemsp. 406
Organized Creating Systemsp. 406
Tensions within Organizationsp. 407
Organized Military C[superscript 2]p. 410
Government C[superscript 2]p. 411
Systems Organization at Industry Level 4p. 412
Creating the Culturep. 413
Project Management Versus Systems Engineeringp. 414
To Phase or not to Phasep. 416
Stages and Phasesp. 416
Phased Defense Procurementp. 417
Elicitation and Requirementsp. 418
Managing Customer Controlp. 420
Specification Treesp. 421
Looking the Gift-Requirement in the Teethp. 422
Project Versus Functional Versus Matrix Organizationp. 423
Organizational Paradigmsp. 423
Dynamics of Organizational Changep. 425
Maintaining the Edgep. 426
Summaryp. 427
Assignmentsp. 427
Chapter 15 Societal Systems Evolutionp. 431
Outcome as the Measure of Systemsp. 431
Social Engineeringp. 432
The Outlookp. 437
Increasing Populationp. 437
Spreading Concretep. 438
Atmospheric Pollutionp. 439
Fresh Water Shortagesp. 439
Energy Shortagesp. 440
System Thinking: Societal Evolutionp. 440
Mountain Retreatsp. 441
Island Communitiesp. 442
Littoral Enclavesp. 443
Submersible Citiesp. 445
Pursuing the Goalp. 447
Summaryp. 448
Assignmentsp. 448
Appendix A Configuration Entropy as a Useful Measure of Systemsp. 449
Measuring N[superscript 2] Chartsp. 449
Scoring N[superscript 2] Chartsp. 450
Minimizing N[superscript 2] Chart Entropyp. 450
Practical Example of Entropy Measurement and Reductionp. 452
Measuring Process Entropyp. 453
Summaryp. 457
Appendix B Set Theoretic Proof of Method: Rigorous Soft Methodp. 459
Diagrammatic Representationp. 459
Set Theory Proof of Rigorous Soft Methodp. 460
About the Authorp. 463
Indexp. 465