Cover image for Protecting the ozone layer : the United Nations history
Protecting the ozone layer : the United Nations history
Andersen, Stephen O.
Personal Author:
Publication Information:
London ; Sterling, VA : Earthscan Publications, [2002]

Physical Description:
xxix, 513 pages : illustrations (some color) ; 25 cm
General Note:
Includes index.
The science of ozone depletion : from theory to certainty -- Diplomacy : the beginning, 1974-1987 -- Diplomacy : from strength to strength, 1988-1992 -- Diplomacy : racing towards success, 1993-2001 -- Technology and business policy -- Implementation of the Montreal Protocol -- Compliance with the Montreal Protocol -- Media coverage fo the ozone-layer issue -- Environmental NGOs, the ozone layer and the Montreal Protocol -- Conclusion : a perspective and a caution.
Format :


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QC879.7 .A53 2002 Adult Non-Fiction Central Closed Stacks

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In the 1970s the world became aware of a huge danger: the destruction of the stratospheric ozone layer by CFCs escaping into the atmosphere, and the damage this could do to human health and the food chain. So great was the threat that by 1987 the UN had succeeded in coordinating an international treaty to phase out emissions; which, over the following 15 years has been implemented. It has been hailed as an outstanding success. It needed the participation of all the parties: governments, industry, scientists, campaigners, NGOs and the media, and is a model for future treaties. This volume provides the authoritative and comprehensive history of the whole process from the earliest warning signs to the present. It is an invaluable record for all those involved and a necessary reference for future negotiations to a wide range of scholars, students and professionals.

Author Notes

Stephen O. Andersen is a Director of Strategic Projects in the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Climate Protection Partnerships Division and a Co-Chair of the Montreal Protocol Technology and Economic Assessment Panel.

Reviews 1

Choice Review

Inside the cover of this book is a dramatic and factual account of a major UN success in reducing the environmental threat resulting from the use of chlorofluorocarbons. Wisely following Lewis Carroll's adage in Alice's Adventures in Wonderland, Andersen (EPA) and Sarma (retired, UNEP) "begin at the beginning," including editor Sinclair's brilliant peer-reviewed exposition on the discovery and characterization of ozone as the opening chapter. Subsequent chapters skillfully weave together the diplomacy, science, players, and public relations efforts through a logical sequence of artwork, quotations, and even newspaper columns. Lists of plates, figures, tables, and boxes assure easy access to enlightening contributions from a variety of individuals and groups. Laypersons and experts alike will appreciate the glossaries and appendixes that offer immediate access to everything from time lines to control measures in an impressive multipurpose package. ^BSumming Up: Highly recommended. All levels. R. M. Ferguson Eastern Connecticut State University

Table of Contents

Kofi A AnnanKlaus Topfer
List of plates, figures, tables and boxesp. xii
About the authorsp. xvi
Forewordp. xix
Prefacep. xxi
Acknowledgementsp. xxv
Introduction and reader's guidep. xxvii
1 The science of ozone depletion: From theory to certaintyp. 1
Introductionp. 1
Early theories: Scientists identify and name ozonep. 2
Modern scientists hypothesize threats to ozonep. 6
Discovering and measuring the Antarctic ozone 'hole'p. 13
International scientific teams link CFCs and ozone depletionp. 19
First assessment, 1989: 1987 Protocol inadequate, total phase-out requiredp. 24
Second assessment, 1991: Quicker phase-out possible, control HCFCs and methyl bromidep. 29
Expedition finds significant depletion over the northern hemispherep. 31
Third assessment, 1994: Mount Pinatubo volcano depletes ozone, Arctic ozone depletion confirmedp. 32
Fourth assessment, 1998: Montreal Protocol working, ODSs in the atmosphere peak in 1994p. 35
The ozone layer todayp. 40
2 Diplomacy: The beginning, 1974-1987p. 42
Introductionp. 42
The World Plan of Action, 1977p. 45
Coordinating Committee on the Ozone Layer (CCOL) and the Ozone Layer Bulletinsp. 48
Harmonizing national policies, 1979-1981p. 50
The Governing Council sets up a negotiating group, 1981p. 51
Ad Hoc Working Group of Legal and Technical Experts, 1982p. 53
First draft convention and discussions, 1982p. 55
First specific proposal to control CFCs, 1983p. 57
Further negotiations, 1983-1985p. 58
The Vienna Convention for the Protection of the Ozone Layer, 1985p. 63
First comprehensive scientific assessment, 1985p. 66
Economic and environmental workshops, 1986p. 67
Negotiations on the protocol, 1986-1987p. 72
Focusing on the key questionsp. 75
The 'breakthrough' session, April 1987p. 78
Seventh draft protocol, 1987, and country commentsp. 81
The Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer, 1987p. 84
3 Diplomacy: From strength to strength, 1988-1992p. 95
Introductionp. 95
Preparations for the entry into force of the Convention and the Protocolp. 96
Dissatisfaction of major developing countriesp. 100
First Meeting of the Parties, Helsinki, 1989: Resolve to phase out by 2000p. 102
Preparatory work for the Second Meeting of the Partiesp. 109
Discussions on the financial mechanism, control measures and technology, 1990p. 116
Second Meeting of the Parties, London, 1990: Phase-out by 2000 and US$240 million fund approvedp. 120
Preparatory work for the third Meeting of the Partiesp. 128
Third Meeting of the Parties, Nairobi, 1991: Import of products with CFCs banned from non-Partiesp. 129
Further progress in 1991p. 132
Proposals to accelerate the phase-outp. 134
Multilateral Fund or Global Environment Facility?p. 135
Earth Summit, Rio de Janeiro, 1992p. 135
Opposition to methyl bromide controlsp. 136
Faster phase-outs welcomed by industrialized countriesp. 137
Incremental costsp. 137
Fourth Meeting of the Parties, Copenhagen, 1992: HCFCs, methyl bromide controlled, Fund confirmedp. 138
4 Diplomacy: Racing towards success, 1993-2001p. 145
Introductionp. 145
Fifth Meeting of the Parties, Bangkok, 1993: Second replenishment of the Fund by US$455 millionp. 146
Sixth Meeting of the Parties, Nairobi, 1994: Russian Federation gives notice of non-compliancep. 149
Third reports of the assessment panels, 1994p. 153
Review of control measures and financial mechanism for developing countries, 1995p. 154
Proposals for adjustments before working group meetings, 1995p. 156
Seventh Meeting of the Parties, Vienna, 1995: Further strengthening of the control measuresp. 158
Meetings in 1996: Illegal trade discussed, replenishment of the Fund by US$466 million in San Jose, Costa Ricap. 163
Tenth anniversary, Montreal, 1997: Control measures on methyl bromide tightenedp. 167
Meetings in 1998: 1998 assessment confirms Protocol working, tenth Meeting of the Parties in Cairo discusses link between ozone depletion and climate change, non-compliancep. 171
Meetings in 1999: Beijing Amendment, freeze in production of HCFCs and trade restrictions, replenishment of the Fund by US$440 millionp. 174
Twelfth Meeting of the Parties, Ouagadougou, 2000: Further attempts to tighten controls on HCFCsp. 179
Meetings in 2001: Thirteenth Meeting of the Parties in Colombo, non-compliance, new ODSp. 181
5 Technology and business policyp. 187
Introductionp. 187
Commercial history of ozone-depleting substancesp. 188
Industry opposition and then support for regulation of ozone-depleting substancesp. 197
Industry response to the Montreal Protocol: What a difference a treaty makes!p. 201
Industry and military motivations for leadership on ozone protectionp. 205
Phasing out ozone-depleting substances from US military applicationsp. 211
Alternatives: Criteria and evolution after the Montreal Protocolp. 214
Technical strategies to reduce and eliminate ozone-depleting substancesp. 221
Environmental perspective on substitutes and alternativesp. 225
Economics of phasing out ozone-depleting substancesp. 228
6 Implementation of the Montreal Protocolp. 234
Introductionp. 234
Structure of the obligations of the Montreal Protocolp. 235
The role and activities of the Multilateral Fund for the Implementation of the Montreal Protocolp. 236
Multilateral Fund replenishment and contributionsp. 244
Implementing agencies of the Multilateral Fundp. 246
The Global Environment Facility (GEF)p. 249
The role of national governmentsp. 252
The role of government agencies as customers and market leadersp. 258
The role of industry and industry non-governmental organizationsp. 263
Regulations force new technologiesp. 265
Regional and bilateral cooperationp. 268
The role of conferences and workshopsp. 268
The role of environmental NGOsp. 268
The role of professional membership organizationsp. 271
The importance of awareness campaignsp. 271
7 Compliance with the Montreal Protocolp. 274
Introductionp. 274
Reporting on compliance measuresp. 275
The role of the Implementation Committeep. 276
Results of implementation, 1989-1999p. 278
Non-compliance by Parties with economies in transitionp. 281
Compliance by developing countries operating under Article 5p. 284
The response of the Meetings of the Parties to non-compliancep. 285
Conclusionp. 288
8 Media coverage of the ozone-layer issuep. 290
Introductionp. 290
Analysis of media coveragep. 290
Media coverage of seminal ozone-layer eventsp. 293
The Molina--Rowland Hypothesis, 1974-1975p. 294
US ban on CFC aerosol products, 1977-1978p. 297
The discovery of the Antarctic ozone hole, 1985p. 299
Negotiating and signing the Montreal Protocol, 1987p. 300
London Conference on Saving the Ozone Layer, 1989p. 303
Second Meeting of the Parties, London, 1990p. 308
Fourth Meeting of the Parties, Copenhagen, 1992p. 314
Ninth Meeting of the Parties, Montreal, 1997p. 317
Eleventh Meeting of the Parties, Beijing, 1999p. 319
9 Environmental NGOs, the ozone layer and the Montreal Protocolp. 323
Introduction: NGOs as 'shapers of policy'p. 323
The role of environmental NGOs in the ozone campaignp. 324
Litigation and collaboration: Complementary approachesp. 332
Raising awareness and generating media coveragep. 333
Advocacy work on policy and alternative technologiesp. 336
Working with industry and governmentp. 339
Boycotting ODS products and creating demand for ozone-friendly productsp. 342
Monitoring implementation of the Montreal Protocolp. 343
Conclusionp. 344
10 Conclusion: A perspective and a cautionp. 345
The successes of the ozone regimep. 345
Why was the ozone regime successful?p. 346
Lessons from the development of the Montreal Protocolp. 351
Features of the Protocol promoting participationp. 353
Partnership led by science and technologyp. 358
Why did industry cooperate: Regulation or availability of alternatives to ODSs?p. 361
Caution for the futurep. 362
Appendix 1 Ozone layer timelines: 4500 million years ago to presentp. 369
Appendix 2 World Plan of Action, April 1977p. 402
Appendix 3 Controlled substances under the Montreal Protocolp. 407
Appendix 4 Control measures of the Montreal Protocolp. 410
Appendix 5 Indicative list of categories of incremental costsp. 414
Appendix 6 Awards for ozone-layer protection: Nobel Prize, United Nations and othersp. 416
Appendix 7 Assessment Panels of the Montreal Protocolp. 438
Appendix 8 Core readings on the history of ozone-layer protectionp. 443
Appendix 9 Selected ozone websitesp. 447
Notesp. 451
List of acronyms and abbreviationsp. 471
Glossaryp. 477
About the contributorsp. 483
Indexp. 489