Table of contents http://www.loc.gov/catdir/toc/wiley032/2003269979.html

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### Summary

### Summary

An Introduction to Modern Cosmology Third Edition is an accessible account of modern cosmological ideas. The Big Bang Cosmology is explored, looking at its observational successes in explaining the expansion of the Universe, the existence and properties of the cosmic microwave background, and the origin of light elements in the universe. Properties of the very early Universe are also covered, including the motivation for a rapid period of expansion known as cosmological inflation. The third edition brings this established undergraduate textbook up-to-date with the rapidly evolving observational situation.

This fully revised edition of a bestseller takes an approach which is grounded in physics with a logical flow of chapters leading the reader from basic ideas of the expansion described by the Friedman equations to some of the more advanced ideas about the early universe. It also incorporates up-to-date results from the Planck mission, which imaged the anisotropies of the Cosmic Microwave Background radiation over the whole sky. The Advanced Topic sections present subjects with more detailed mathematical approaches to give greater depth to discussions. Student problems with hints for solving them and numerical answers are embedded in the chapters to facilitate the reader's understanding and learning.

Cosmology is now part of the core in many degree programs. This current, clear and concise introductory text is relevant to a wide range of astronomy programs worldwide and is essential reading for undergraduates and Masters students, as well as anyone starting research in cosmology.

### Author Notes

Andrew Liddle is Professor of Astrophysics at the University of Sussex.

### Reviews 1

### Choice Review

Cosmology has made many advances over the last few decades and most of these advances are contained in this book, meant for a fourth-year undergraduate or first-year graduate class. The basics of cosmology are covered adequately, but not in as much depth as books such as Steven Weinberg's Gravitation and Cosmology (CH, Mar'73). Mathematics is used freely throughout and there are problems to solve at the end of each chapter, with solutions to many of the problems given at the back of the book. The writing is concise but lucid and there are many diagrams to help in the understanding of the text. Emphasis is on theoretical cosmology rather than observational cosmology, but modern topics such as inflation and the large-scale structure of the universe are covered. There are very few books at this level available and this one will be a welcome addition to a library collection. Highly recommended for students of cosmology. Upper-division undergraduates through faculty. B. R. Parker Idaho State University

### Table of Contents

Preface | p. xi |

Constants, conversion factors and symbols | p. xiv |

1 A (Very) Brief History of Cosmological Ideas | p. 1 |

2 Observational Overview | p. 3 |

2.1 In visible light | p. 3 |

2.2 In other wavebands | p. 7 |

2.3 Homogeneity and isotropy | p. 8 |

2.4 The expansion of the Universe | p. 9 |

2.5 Particles in the Universe | p. 11 |

2.5.1 What particles are there? | p. 11 |

2.5.2 Thermal distributions and the black-body spectrum | p. 13 |

3 Newtonian Gravity | p. 17 |

3.1 The Friedmann equation | p. 18 |

3.2 On the meaning of the expansion | p. 21 |

3.3 Things that go faster than light | p. 21 |

3.4 The fluid equation | p. 22 |

3.5 The acceleration equation | p. 23 |

3.6 On mass, energy and vanishing factors of c[superscript 2] | p. 24 |

4 The Geometry of the Universe | p. 25 |

4.1 Flat geometry | p. 25 |

4.2 Spherical geometry | p. 26 |

4.3 Hyperbolic geometry | p. 28 |

4.4 Infinite and observable Universes | p. 29 |

4.5 Where did the Big Bang happen? | p. 29 |

4.6 Three values of k | p. 30 |

5 Simple Cosmological Models | p. 33 |

5.1 Hubble's law | p. 33 |

5.2 Expansion and redshift | p. 34 |

5.3 Solving the equations | p. 35 |

5.3.1 Matter | p. 36 |

5.3.2 Radiation | p. 37 |

5.3.3 Mixtures | p. 38 |

5.4 Particle number densities | p. 39 |

5.5 Evolution including curvature | p. 40 |

6 Observational Parameters | p. 45 |

6.1 The expansion rate H[subscript 0] | p. 45 |

6.2 The desnity parameter [Omega subscript 0] | p. 47 |

6.3 The deceleration parameter q[subscript 0] | p. 48 |

7 The Cosmological Constant | p. 51 |

7.1 Introducing [Lambda] | p. 51 |

7.2 Fluid description of [Lambda] | p. 52 |

7.3 Cosmological models with [Lambda] | p. 53 |

8 The Age of the Universe | p. 57 |

9 The Density of the Universe and Dark Matter | p. 63 |

9.1 Weighing the Universe | p. 63 |

9.1.1 Counting stars | p. 63 |

9.1.2 Nucleosynthesis foreshadowed | p. 64 |

9.1.3 Galaxy rotation curves | p. 64 |

9.1.4 Galaxy cluster composition | p. 66 |

9.1.5 Bulk motions in the Universe | p. 67 |

9.1.6 The formation of structure | p. 68 |

9.1.7 The geometry of the Universe and the brightness of supernovae | p. 68 |

9.1.8 Overview | p. 69 |

9.2 What might the dark matter be? | p. 69 |

9.3 Dark matter searches | p. 72 |

10 The Cosmic Microwave Background | p. 75 |

10.1 Properties of the microwave background | p. 75 |

10.2 The photon to baryon ratio | p. 77 |

10.3 The origin of the microwave background | p. 78 |

10.4 The origin of the microwave background (advanced) | p. 81 |

11 The Early Universe | p. 85 |

12 Nucleosynthesis: The Origin of the Light Elements | p. 91 |

12.1 Hydrogen and Helium | p. 91 |

12.2 Comparing with observations | p. 94 |

12.3 Contrasting decoupling and nucleosynthesis | p. 96 |

13 The Inflationary Universe | p. 99 |

13.1 Problems with the Hot Big Bang | p. 99 |

13.1.1 The flatness problem | p. 99 |

13.1.2 The horizon problem | p. 101 |

13.1.3 Relic particle abundances | p. 102 |

13.2 Inflationary expansion | p. 103 |

13.3 Solving the Big Bang problems | p. 104 |

13.3.1 The flatness problem | p. 104 |

13.3.2 The horizon problem | p. 105 |

13.3.3 Relic particle abundances | p. 106 |

13.4 How much inflation? | p. 106 |

13.5 Inflation and particle physics | p. 107 |

14 The Initial Singularity | p. 111 |

15 Overview: The Standard Cosmological Model | p. 115 |

Advanced Topic 1 General Relativistic Cosmology | p. 119 |

1.1 The metric of space-time | p. 119 |

1.2 The Einstein equations | p. 120 |

1.3 Aside: Topology of the Universe | p. 122 |

Advanced Topic 2 Classic Cosmology: Distances and Luminosities | p. 125 |

2.1 Light propagation and redshift | p. 125 |

2.2 The observable Universe | p. 128 |

2.3 Luminosity distance | p. 128 |

2.4 Angular diameter distance | p. 132 |

2.5 Source counts | p. 134 |

Advanced Topic 3 Neutrino Cosmology | p. 137 |

3.1 The massless case | p. 137 |

3.2 Massive neutrinos | p. 139 |

3.2.1 Light neutrinos | p. 139 |

3.2.2 Heavy neutrinos | p. 140 |

3.3 Neutrinos and structure formation | p. 140 |

Advanced Topic 4 Baryogenesis | p. 143 |

Advanced Topic 5 Structures in the Universe | p. 147 |

5.1 The observed structures | p. 147 |

5.2 Gravitational instability | p. 149 |

5.3 The clustering of galaxies | p. 150 |

5.4 Cosmic microwave background anisotropies | p. 152 |

5.4.1 Statistical description of anisotropies | p. 152 |

5.4.2 Computing the C[subscript l] | p. 154 |

5.4.3 Microwave background observations | p. 155 |

5.4.4 Spatial geometry | p. 156 |

5.5 The origin of structure | p. 157 |

Bibliography | p. 161 |

Numerical answers and hints to problems | p. 163 |

Index | p. 167 |