Cover image for Radio frequency integrated circuit design
Title:
Radio frequency integrated circuit design
Author:
Rogers, John (John W. M.)
Personal Author:
Publication Information:
Boston : Artech House, [2003]

©2003
Physical Description:
xx, 410 pages : illustrations ; 24 cm.
Language:
English
Added Author:
ISBN:
9781580535021
Format :
Book

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Call Number
Material Type
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Status
Central Library TK7874.78 .R64 2003 Adult Non-Fiction Non-Fiction Area
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Summary

Summary

This reference offers practical explanations of the full range of radio frequency integrated circuits (RFICs). It focuses mainly on bipolar technology to demonstrate circuits, but CMOS is included as well. By emphasizing working designs, it seeks to transport the reader into the authors' own RFIC lab so that you can understand the function of each design detailed in the text. Among the RFIC designs examined are RF integrated LC-based filters, VCO automatic amplitude control loops, and fully-integrated transformer-based circuits, as well as image reject mixers and power amplifiers.


Author Notes

Calvin Plett holds a Ph.D. in electrical engineering from Carleton University.

He is an associate professor in the Department of Electronics at Carleton University and a member of the Professional Engineers of Ontario.

050


Reviews 1

Choice Review

Rogers and Plett (both, Carleton Univ., Canada) treat an advanced topic in electronics and semiconductors by providing excellent information in a little-discussed, yet important area of circuit design for devices using radio frequencies. The book organizes the topics into logical and easy-to-use areas so that the radio-frequency integrated circuit designer can understand the advantage of modeling and analyzing the radio frequency (RF) module within each respective domain. The book details a "top-down" design flow approach in RF design simulation from the components devices and block representation of the circuitry. Basic component attributes such as integrated circuit (IC) technologies, transistor performance, methods of machine impedance, passive circuits, and criteria for their selection in the simulation are introduced in the early chapters. Later chapters are devoted to operational mode and design of block levels circuitry of RF modules: low-noise amplifiers (LNA), mixers, voltage-controlled oscillation (VCO), and power amplifiers. Understanding the book requires good knowledge of electronic fundamentals. ^BSumming Up: Recommended. Upper-division undergraduates through professionals. F. M. Fayemi Indiana State University


Table of Contents

Forewordp. xv
Acknowledgmentsp. xix
1 Introduction to Communications Circuitsp. 1
1.1 Introductionp. 1
1.2 Lower Frequency Analog Design and Microwave Design Versus Radio Frequency Integrated Circuit Designp. 2
1.2.1 Impedance Levels for Microwave and Low-Frequency Analog Designp. 2
1.2.2 Units for Microwave and Low-Frequency Analog Designp. 3
1.3 Radio Frequency Integrated Circuits Used in a Communications Transceiverp. 4
1.4 Overviewp. 6
Referencesp. 6
2 Issues in RFIC Design, Noise, Linearity, and Filteringp. 9
2.1 Introductionp. 9
2.2 Noisep. 9
2.2.1 Thermal Noisep. 10
2.2.2 Available Noise Powerp. 11
2.2.3 Available Power from Antennap. 11
2.2.4 The Concept of Noise Figurep. 13
2.2.5 The Noise Figure of an Amplifier Circuitp. 14
2.2.6 The Noise Figure of Components in Seriesp. 16
2.3 Linearity and Distortion in RF Circuitsp. 23
2.3.1 Power Series Expansionp. 23
2.3.2 Third-Order Intercept Pointp. 27
2.3.3 Second-Order Intercept Pointp. 29
2.3.4 The 1-dB Compression Pointp. 30
2.3.5 Relationships Between 1-dB Compression and IP3 Pointsp. 31
2.3.6 Broadband Measures of Linearityp. 32
2.4 Dynamic Rangep. 35
2.5 Filtering Issuesp. 37
2.5.1 Image Signals and Image Reject Filteringp. 37
2.5.2 Blockers and Blocker Filteringp. 39
Referencesp. 41
Selected Bibliographyp. 42
3 A Brief Review of Technologyp. 43
3.1 Introductionp. 43
3.2 Bipolar Transistor Descriptionp. 43
3.3 [beta] Current Dependencep. 46
3.4 Small-Signal Modelp. 47
3.5 Small-Signal Parametersp. 48
3.6 High-Frequency Effectsp. 49
3.6.1 f[subscript T] as a Function of Currentp. 51
3.7 Noise in Bipolar Transistorsp. 53
3.7.1 Thermal Noise in Transistor Componentsp. 53
3.7.2 Shot Noisep. 53
3.7.3 1/f Noisep. 54
3.8 Base Shot Noise Discussionp. 55
3.9 Noise Sources in the Transistor Modelp. 55
3.10 Bipolar Transistor Design Considerationsp. 56
3.11 CMOS Transistorsp. 57
3.11.1 NMOSp. 58
3.11.2 PMOSp. 58
3.11.3 CMOS Small-Signal Model Including Noisep. 58
3.11.4 CMOS Square Law Equationsp. 60
Referencesp. 61
4 Impedance Matchingp. 63
4.1 Introductionp. 63
4.2 Review of the Smith Chartp. 66
4.3 Impedance Matchingp. 69
4.4 Conversions Between Series and Parallel Resistor-Inductor and Resistor-Capacitor Circuitsp. 74
4.5 Tapped Capacitors and Inductorsp. 76
4.6 The Concept of Mutual Inductancep. 78
4.7 Matching Using Transformersp. 81
4.8 Tuning a Transformerp. 82
4.9 The Bandwidth of an Impedance Transformation Networkp. 83
4.10 Quality Factor of an LC Resonatorp. 85
4.11 Transmission Linesp. 88
4.12 S, Y, and Z Parametersp. 89
Referencesp. 93
5 The Use and Design of Passive Circuit Elements in IC Technologiesp. 95
5.1 Introductionp. 95
5.2 The Technology Back End and Metallization in IC Technologiesp. 95
5.3 Sheet Resistance and the Skin Effectp. 97
5.4 Parasitic Capacitancep. 100
5.5 Parasitic Inductancep. 101
5.6 Current Handling in Metal Linesp. 102
5.7 Poly Resistors and Diffusion Resistorsp. 103
5.8 Metal-Insulator-Metal Capacitors and Poly Capacitorsp. 103
5.9 Applications of On-Chip Spiral Inductors and Transformersp. 104
5.10 Design of Inductors and Transformersp. 106
5.11 Some Basic Lumped Models for Inductorsp. 108
5.12 Calculating the Inductance of Spiralsp. 110
5.13 Self-Resonance of Inductorsp. 110
5.14 The Quality Factor of an Inductorp. 111
5.15 Characterization of an Inductorp. 115
5.16 Some Notes About the Proper Use of Inductorsp. 117
5.17 Layout of Spiral Inductorsp. 119
5.18 Isolating the Inductorp. 121
5.19 The Use of Slotted Ground Shields and Inductorsp. 122
5.20 Basic Transformer Layouts in IC Technologiesp. 122
5.21 Multilevel Inductorsp. 124
5.22 Characterizing Transformers for Use in ICsp. 127
5.23 On-Chip Transmission Linesp. 129
5.23.1 Effect of Transmission Linep. 130
5.23.2 Transmission Line Examplesp. 131
5.24 High-Frequency Measurement of On-Chip Passives and Some Common De-Embedding Techniquesp. 134
5.25 Packagingp. 135
5.25.1 Other Packaging Techniquesp. 138
Referencesp. 139
6 LNA Designp. 141
6.1 Introduction and Basic Amplifiersp. 141
6.1.1 Common-Emitter Amplifier (Driver)p. 141
6.1.2 Simplified Expressions for Widely Separated Polesp. 146
6.1.3 The Common-Base Amplifier (Cascode)p. 146
6.1.4 The Common-Collector Amplifier (Emitter Follower)p. 148
6.2 Amplifiers with Feedbackp. 152
6.2.1 Common-Emitter with Series Feedback (Emitter Degeneration)p. 152
6.2.2 The Common-Emitter with Shunt Feedbackp. 154
6.3 Noise in Amplifiersp. 158
6.3.1 Input-Referred Noise Model of the Bipolar Transistorp. 159
6.3.2 Noise Figure of the Common-Emitter Amplifierp. 161
6.3.3 Input Matching of LNAs for Low Noisep. 163
6.3.4 Relationship Between Noise Figure and Bias Currentp. 169
6.3.5 Effect of the Cascode on Noise Figurep. 170
6.3.6 Noise in the Common-Collector Amplifierp. 171
6.4 Linearity in Amplifiersp. 172
6.4.1 Exponential Nonlinearity in the Bipolar Transistorp. 172
6.4.2 Nonlinearity in the Output Impedance of the Bipolar Transistorp. 180
6.4.3 High-Frequency Nonlinearity in the Bipolar Transistorp. 182
6.4.4 Linearity in Common-Collector Configurationp. 182
6.5 Differential Pair (Emitter-Coupled Pair) and Other Differential Amplifiersp. 183
6.6 Low-Voltage Topologies for LNAs and the Use of On-Chip Transformersp. 184
6.7 DC Bias Networksp. 187
6.7.1 Temperature Effectsp. 189
6.8 Broadband LNA Design Examplep. 189
Referencesp. 194
Selected Bibliographyp. 195
7 Mixersp. 197
7.1 Introductionp. 197
7.2 Mixing with Nonlinearityp. 197
7.3 Basic Mixer Operationp. 198
7.4 Controlled Transconductance Mixerp. 198
7.5 Double-Balanced Mixerp. 200
7.6 Mixer with Switching of Upper Quadp. 202
7.6.1 Why LO Switching?p. 203
7.6.2 Picking the LO Levelp. 204
7.6.3 Analysis of Switching Modulatorp. 205
7.7 Mixer Noisep. 206
7.8 Linearityp. 215
7.8.1 Desired Nonlinearityp. 215
7.8.2 Undesired Nonlinearityp. 215
7.9 Improving Isolationp. 217
7.10 Image Reject and Single-Sideband Mixerp. 217
7.10.1 Alternative Single-Sideband Mixersp. 219
7.10.2 Generating 90[degree] Phase Shiftp. 220
7.10.3 Image Rejection with Amplitude and Phase Mismatchp. 224
7.11 Alternative Mixer Designsp. 227
7.11.1 The Moore Mixerp. 228
7.11.2 Mixers with Transformer Inputp. 228
7.11.3 Mixer with Simultaneous Noise and Power Matchp. 229
7.11.4 Mixers with Coupling Capacitorsp. 230
7.12 General Design Commentsp. 231
7.12.1 Sizing Transistorsp. 232
7.12.2 Increasing Gainp. 232
7.12.3 Increasing IP3p. 232
7.12.4 Improving Noise Figurep. 233
7.12.5 Effect of Bond Pads and the Packagep. 233
7.12.6 Matching, Bias Resistors, and Gainp. 234
7.13 CMOS Mixersp. 242
Referencesp. 244
Selected Bibliographyp. 244
8 Voltage-Controlled Oscillatorsp. 245
8.1 Introductionp. 245
8.2 Specification of Oscillator Propertiesp. 245
8.3 The LC Resonatorp. 247
8.4 Adding Negative Resistance Through Feedback to the Resonatorp. 248
8.5 Popular Implementations of Feedback to the Resonatorp. 250
8.6 Configuration of the Amplifier (Colpitts or -G[subscript m])p. 251
8.7 Analysis of an Oscillator as a Feedback Systemp. 252
8.7.1 Oscillator Closed-Loop Analysisp. 252
8.7.2 Capacitor Ratios with Colpitts Oscillatorsp. 255
8.7.3 Oscillator Open-Loop Analysisp. 258
8.7.4 Simplified Loop Gain Estimatesp. 260
8.8 Negative Resistance Generated by the Amplifierp. 262
8.8.1 Negative Resistance of Colpitts Oscillatorp. 262
8.8.2 Negative Resistance for Series and Parallel Circuitsp. 263
8.8.3 Negative Resistance Analysis of -G[subscript m] Oscillatorp. 265
8.9 Comments on Oscillator Analysisp. 268
8.10 Basic Differential Oscillator Topologiesp. 270
8.11 A Modified Common-Collector Colpitts Oscillator with Bufferingp. 270
8.12 Several Refinements to the -G[subscript m] Topologyp. 270
8.13 The Effect of Parasitics on the Frequency of Oscillationp. 274
8.14 Large-Signal Nonlinearity in the Transistorp. 275
8.15 Bias Shifting During Startupp. 277
8.16 Oscillator Amplitudep. 277
8.17 Phase Noisep. 283
8.17.1 Linear or Additive Phase Noise and Leeson's Formulap. 283
8.17.2 Some Additional Notes About Low-Frequency Noisep. 291
8.17.3 Nonlinear Noisep. 292
8.18 Making the Oscillator Tunablep. 295
8.19 VCO Automatic-Amplitude Control Circuitsp. 302
8.20 Other Oscillatorsp. 313
Referencep. 316
Selected Bibliographyp. 317
9 High-Frequency Filter Circuitsp. 319
9.1 Introductionp. 319
9.2 Second-Order Filtersp. 320
9.3 Integrated RF Filtersp. 321
9.3.1 A Simple Bandpass LC Filterp. 321
9.3.2 A Simple Bandstop Filterp. 322
9.3.3 An Alternative Bandstop Filterp. 323
9.4 Achieving Filters with Higher Qp. 327
9.4.1 Differential Bandpass LNA with Q-Tuned Load Resonatorp. 327
9.4.2 A Bandstop Filter with Colpitts-Style Negative Resistancep. 329
9.4.3 Bandstop Filter with Transformer-Coupled -G[subscript m] Negative Resistancep. 331
9.5 Some Simple Image Rejection Formulasp. 333
9.6 Linearity of the Negative Resistance Circuitsp. 336
9.7 Noise Added Due to the Filter Circuitryp. 337
9.8 Automatic Q Tuningp. 339
9.9 Frequency Tuningp. 342
9.10 Higher-Order Filtersp. 343
Referencesp. 346
Selected Bibliographyp. 347
10 Power Amplifiersp. 349
10.1 Introductionp. 349
10.2 Power Capabilityp. 350
10.3 Efficiency Calculationsp. 350
10.4 Matching Considerationsp. 351
10.4.1 Matching to S*[subscript 22] Versus Matching to [Gamma subscript opt]p. 352
10.5 Class A, B, and C Amplifiersp. 353
10.5.1 Class A, B, and C Analysisp. 356
10.5.2 Class B Push-Pull Arrangementsp. 362
10.5.3 Models for Transconductancep. 363
10.6 Class D Amplifiersp. 367
10.7 Class E Amplifiersp. 368
10.7.1 Analysis of Class E Amplifierp. 370
10.7.2 Class E Equationsp. 371
10.7.3 Class E Equations for Finite Output Qp. 372
10.7.4 Saturation Voltage and Resistancep. 373
10.7.5 Transition Timep. 373
10.8 Class F Amplifiersp. 375
10.8.1 Variation on Class F: Second-Harmonic Peakingp. 379
10.8.2 Variation on Class F: Quarter-Wave Transmission Linep. 379
10.9 Class G and H Amplifiersp. 381
10.10 Class S Amplifiersp. 383
10.11 Summary of Amplifier Classes for RF Integrated Circuitsp. 384
10.12 AC Load Linep. 385
10.13 Matching to Achieve Desired Powerp. 385
10.14 Transistor Saturationp. 388
10.15 Current Limitsp. 388
10.16 Current Limits in Integrated Inductorsp. 390
10.17 Power Combiningp. 390
10.18 Thermal Runaway--Ballastingp. 392
10.19 Breakdown Voltagep. 393
10.20 Packagingp. 394
10.21 Effects and Implications of Nonlinearityp. 394
10.21.1 Cross Modulationp. 395
10.21.2 AM-to-PM Conversionp. 395
10.21.3 Spectral Regrowthp. 395
10.21.4 Linearization Techniquesp. 396
10.21.5 Feedforwardp. 396
10.21.6 Feedbackp. 397
10.22 CMOS Power Amplifier Examplep. 398
Referencesp. 399
About the Authorsp. 401
Indexp. 403

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