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### Summary

### Summary

This reference offers practical explanations of the full range of radio frequency integrated circuits (RFICs). It focuses mainly on bipolar technology to demonstrate circuits, but CMOS is included as well. By emphasizing working designs, it seeks to transport the reader into the authors' own RFIC lab so that you can understand the function of each design detailed in the text. Among the RFIC designs examined are RF integrated LC-based filters, VCO automatic amplitude control loops, and fully-integrated transformer-based circuits, as well as image reject mixers and power amplifiers.

### Author Notes

Calvin Plett holds a Ph.D. in electrical engineering from Carleton University.

He is an associate professor in the Department of Electronics at Carleton University and a member of the Professional Engineers of Ontario.

050

### Reviews 1

### Choice Review

Rogers and Plett (both, Carleton Univ., Canada) treat an advanced topic in electronics and semiconductors by providing excellent information in a little-discussed, yet important area of circuit design for devices using radio frequencies. The book organizes the topics into logical and easy-to-use areas so that the radio-frequency integrated circuit designer can understand the advantage of modeling and analyzing the radio frequency (RF) module within each respective domain. The book details a "top-down" design flow approach in RF design simulation from the components devices and block representation of the circuitry. Basic component attributes such as integrated circuit (IC) technologies, transistor performance, methods of machine impedance, passive circuits, and criteria for their selection in the simulation are introduced in the early chapters. Later chapters are devoted to operational mode and design of block levels circuitry of RF modules: low-noise amplifiers (LNA), mixers, voltage-controlled oscillation (VCO), and power amplifiers. Understanding the book requires good knowledge of electronic fundamentals. ^BSumming Up: Recommended. Upper-division undergraduates through professionals. F. M. Fayemi Indiana State University

### Table of Contents

Foreword | p. xv |

Acknowledgments | p. xix |

1 Introduction to Communications Circuits | p. 1 |

1.1 Introduction | p. 1 |

1.2 Lower Frequency Analog Design and Microwave Design Versus Radio Frequency Integrated Circuit Design | p. 2 |

1.2.1 Impedance Levels for Microwave and Low-Frequency Analog Design | p. 2 |

1.2.2 Units for Microwave and Low-Frequency Analog Design | p. 3 |

1.3 Radio Frequency Integrated Circuits Used in a Communications Transceiver | p. 4 |

1.4 Overview | p. 6 |

References | p. 6 |

2 Issues in RFIC Design, Noise, Linearity, and Filtering | p. 9 |

2.1 Introduction | p. 9 |

2.2 Noise | p. 9 |

2.2.1 Thermal Noise | p. 10 |

2.2.2 Available Noise Power | p. 11 |

2.2.3 Available Power from Antenna | p. 11 |

2.2.4 The Concept of Noise Figure | p. 13 |

2.2.5 The Noise Figure of an Amplifier Circuit | p. 14 |

2.2.6 The Noise Figure of Components in Series | p. 16 |

2.3 Linearity and Distortion in RF Circuits | p. 23 |

2.3.1 Power Series Expansion | p. 23 |

2.3.2 Third-Order Intercept Point | p. 27 |

2.3.3 Second-Order Intercept Point | p. 29 |

2.3.4 The 1-dB Compression Point | p. 30 |

2.3.5 Relationships Between 1-dB Compression and IP3 Points | p. 31 |

2.3.6 Broadband Measures of Linearity | p. 32 |

2.4 Dynamic Range | p. 35 |

2.5 Filtering Issues | p. 37 |

2.5.1 Image Signals and Image Reject Filtering | p. 37 |

2.5.2 Blockers and Blocker Filtering | p. 39 |

References | p. 41 |

Selected Bibliography | p. 42 |

3 A Brief Review of Technology | p. 43 |

3.1 Introduction | p. 43 |

3.2 Bipolar Transistor Description | p. 43 |

3.3 [beta] Current Dependence | p. 46 |

3.4 Small-Signal Model | p. 47 |

3.5 Small-Signal Parameters | p. 48 |

3.6 High-Frequency Effects | p. 49 |

3.6.1 f[subscript T] as a Function of Current | p. 51 |

3.7 Noise in Bipolar Transistors | p. 53 |

3.7.1 Thermal Noise in Transistor Components | p. 53 |

3.7.2 Shot Noise | p. 53 |

3.7.3 1/f Noise | p. 54 |

3.8 Base Shot Noise Discussion | p. 55 |

3.9 Noise Sources in the Transistor Model | p. 55 |

3.10 Bipolar Transistor Design Considerations | p. 56 |

3.11 CMOS Transistors | p. 57 |

3.11.1 NMOS | p. 58 |

3.11.2 PMOS | p. 58 |

3.11.3 CMOS Small-Signal Model Including Noise | p. 58 |

3.11.4 CMOS Square Law Equations | p. 60 |

References | p. 61 |

4 Impedance Matching | p. 63 |

4.1 Introduction | p. 63 |

4.2 Review of the Smith Chart | p. 66 |

4.3 Impedance Matching | p. 69 |

4.4 Conversions Between Series and Parallel Resistor-Inductor and Resistor-Capacitor Circuits | p. 74 |

4.5 Tapped Capacitors and Inductors | p. 76 |

4.6 The Concept of Mutual Inductance | p. 78 |

4.7 Matching Using Transformers | p. 81 |

4.8 Tuning a Transformer | p. 82 |

4.9 The Bandwidth of an Impedance Transformation Network | p. 83 |

4.10 Quality Factor of an LC Resonator | p. 85 |

4.11 Transmission Lines | p. 88 |

4.12 S, Y, and Z Parameters | p. 89 |

References | p. 93 |

5 The Use and Design of Passive Circuit Elements in IC Technologies | p. 95 |

5.1 Introduction | p. 95 |

5.2 The Technology Back End and Metallization in IC Technologies | p. 95 |

5.3 Sheet Resistance and the Skin Effect | p. 97 |

5.4 Parasitic Capacitance | p. 100 |

5.5 Parasitic Inductance | p. 101 |

5.6 Current Handling in Metal Lines | p. 102 |

5.7 Poly Resistors and Diffusion Resistors | p. 103 |

5.8 Metal-Insulator-Metal Capacitors and Poly Capacitors | p. 103 |

5.9 Applications of On-Chip Spiral Inductors and Transformers | p. 104 |

5.10 Design of Inductors and Transformers | p. 106 |

5.11 Some Basic Lumped Models for Inductors | p. 108 |

5.12 Calculating the Inductance of Spirals | p. 110 |

5.13 Self-Resonance of Inductors | p. 110 |

5.14 The Quality Factor of an Inductor | p. 111 |

5.15 Characterization of an Inductor | p. 115 |

5.16 Some Notes About the Proper Use of Inductors | p. 117 |

5.17 Layout of Spiral Inductors | p. 119 |

5.18 Isolating the Inductor | p. 121 |

5.19 The Use of Slotted Ground Shields and Inductors | p. 122 |

5.20 Basic Transformer Layouts in IC Technologies | p. 122 |

5.21 Multilevel Inductors | p. 124 |

5.22 Characterizing Transformers for Use in ICs | p. 127 |

5.23 On-Chip Transmission Lines | p. 129 |

5.23.1 Effect of Transmission Line | p. 130 |

5.23.2 Transmission Line Examples | p. 131 |

5.24 High-Frequency Measurement of On-Chip Passives and Some Common De-Embedding Techniques | p. 134 |

5.25 Packaging | p. 135 |

5.25.1 Other Packaging Techniques | p. 138 |

References | p. 139 |

6 LNA Design | p. 141 |

6.1 Introduction and Basic Amplifiers | p. 141 |

6.1.1 Common-Emitter Amplifier (Driver) | p. 141 |

6.1.2 Simplified Expressions for Widely Separated Poles | p. 146 |

6.1.3 The Common-Base Amplifier (Cascode) | p. 146 |

6.1.4 The Common-Collector Amplifier (Emitter Follower) | p. 148 |

6.2 Amplifiers with Feedback | p. 152 |

6.2.1 Common-Emitter with Series Feedback (Emitter Degeneration) | p. 152 |

6.2.2 The Common-Emitter with Shunt Feedback | p. 154 |

6.3 Noise in Amplifiers | p. 158 |

6.3.1 Input-Referred Noise Model of the Bipolar Transistor | p. 159 |

6.3.2 Noise Figure of the Common-Emitter Amplifier | p. 161 |

6.3.3 Input Matching of LNAs for Low Noise | p. 163 |

6.3.4 Relationship Between Noise Figure and Bias Current | p. 169 |

6.3.5 Effect of the Cascode on Noise Figure | p. 170 |

6.3.6 Noise in the Common-Collector Amplifier | p. 171 |

6.4 Linearity in Amplifiers | p. 172 |

6.4.1 Exponential Nonlinearity in the Bipolar Transistor | p. 172 |

6.4.2 Nonlinearity in the Output Impedance of the Bipolar Transistor | p. 180 |

6.4.3 High-Frequency Nonlinearity in the Bipolar Transistor | p. 182 |

6.4.4 Linearity in Common-Collector Configuration | p. 182 |

6.5 Differential Pair (Emitter-Coupled Pair) and Other Differential Amplifiers | p. 183 |

6.6 Low-Voltage Topologies for LNAs and the Use of On-Chip Transformers | p. 184 |

6.7 DC Bias Networks | p. 187 |

6.7.1 Temperature Effects | p. 189 |

6.8 Broadband LNA Design Example | p. 189 |

References | p. 194 |

Selected Bibliography | p. 195 |

7 Mixers | p. 197 |

7.1 Introduction | p. 197 |

7.2 Mixing with Nonlinearity | p. 197 |

7.3 Basic Mixer Operation | p. 198 |

7.4 Controlled Transconductance Mixer | p. 198 |

7.5 Double-Balanced Mixer | p. 200 |

7.6 Mixer with Switching of Upper Quad | p. 202 |

7.6.1 Why LO Switching? | p. 203 |

7.6.2 Picking the LO Level | p. 204 |

7.6.3 Analysis of Switching Modulator | p. 205 |

7.7 Mixer Noise | p. 206 |

7.8 Linearity | p. 215 |

7.8.1 Desired Nonlinearity | p. 215 |

7.8.2 Undesired Nonlinearity | p. 215 |

7.9 Improving Isolation | p. 217 |

7.10 Image Reject and Single-Sideband Mixer | p. 217 |

7.10.1 Alternative Single-Sideband Mixers | p. 219 |

7.10.2 Generating 90[degree] Phase Shift | p. 220 |

7.10.3 Image Rejection with Amplitude and Phase Mismatch | p. 224 |

7.11 Alternative Mixer Designs | p. 227 |

7.11.1 The Moore Mixer | p. 228 |

7.11.2 Mixers with Transformer Input | p. 228 |

7.11.3 Mixer with Simultaneous Noise and Power Match | p. 229 |

7.11.4 Mixers with Coupling Capacitors | p. 230 |

7.12 General Design Comments | p. 231 |

7.12.1 Sizing Transistors | p. 232 |

7.12.2 Increasing Gain | p. 232 |

7.12.3 Increasing IP3 | p. 232 |

7.12.4 Improving Noise Figure | p. 233 |

7.12.5 Effect of Bond Pads and the Package | p. 233 |

7.12.6 Matching, Bias Resistors, and Gain | p. 234 |

7.13 CMOS Mixers | p. 242 |

References | p. 244 |

Selected Bibliography | p. 244 |

8 Voltage-Controlled Oscillators | p. 245 |

8.1 Introduction | p. 245 |

8.2 Specification of Oscillator Properties | p. 245 |

8.3 The LC Resonator | p. 247 |

8.4 Adding Negative Resistance Through Feedback to the Resonator | p. 248 |

8.5 Popular Implementations of Feedback to the Resonator | p. 250 |

8.6 Configuration of the Amplifier (Colpitts or -G[subscript m]) | p. 251 |

8.7 Analysis of an Oscillator as a Feedback System | p. 252 |

8.7.1 Oscillator Closed-Loop Analysis | p. 252 |

8.7.2 Capacitor Ratios with Colpitts Oscillators | p. 255 |

8.7.3 Oscillator Open-Loop Analysis | p. 258 |

8.7.4 Simplified Loop Gain Estimates | p. 260 |

8.8 Negative Resistance Generated by the Amplifier | p. 262 |

8.8.1 Negative Resistance of Colpitts Oscillator | p. 262 |

8.8.2 Negative Resistance for Series and Parallel Circuits | p. 263 |

8.8.3 Negative Resistance Analysis of -G[subscript m] Oscillator | p. 265 |

8.9 Comments on Oscillator Analysis | p. 268 |

8.10 Basic Differential Oscillator Topologies | p. 270 |

8.11 A Modified Common-Collector Colpitts Oscillator with Buffering | p. 270 |

8.12 Several Refinements to the -G[subscript m] Topology | p. 270 |

8.13 The Effect of Parasitics on the Frequency of Oscillation | p. 274 |

8.14 Large-Signal Nonlinearity in the Transistor | p. 275 |

8.15 Bias Shifting During Startup | p. 277 |

8.16 Oscillator Amplitude | p. 277 |

8.17 Phase Noise | p. 283 |

8.17.1 Linear or Additive Phase Noise and Leeson's Formula | p. 283 |

8.17.2 Some Additional Notes About Low-Frequency Noise | p. 291 |

8.17.3 Nonlinear Noise | p. 292 |

8.18 Making the Oscillator Tunable | p. 295 |

8.19 VCO Automatic-Amplitude Control Circuits | p. 302 |

8.20 Other Oscillators | p. 313 |

Reference | p. 316 |

Selected Bibliography | p. 317 |

9 High-Frequency Filter Circuits | p. 319 |

9.1 Introduction | p. 319 |

9.2 Second-Order Filters | p. 320 |

9.3 Integrated RF Filters | p. 321 |

9.3.1 A Simple Bandpass LC Filter | p. 321 |

9.3.2 A Simple Bandstop Filter | p. 322 |

9.3.3 An Alternative Bandstop Filter | p. 323 |

9.4 Achieving Filters with Higher Q | p. 327 |

9.4.1 Differential Bandpass LNA with Q-Tuned Load Resonator | p. 327 |

9.4.2 A Bandstop Filter with Colpitts-Style Negative Resistance | p. 329 |

9.4.3 Bandstop Filter with Transformer-Coupled -G[subscript m] Negative Resistance | p. 331 |

9.5 Some Simple Image Rejection Formulas | p. 333 |

9.6 Linearity of the Negative Resistance Circuits | p. 336 |

9.7 Noise Added Due to the Filter Circuitry | p. 337 |

9.8 Automatic Q Tuning | p. 339 |

9.9 Frequency Tuning | p. 342 |

9.10 Higher-Order Filters | p. 343 |

References | p. 346 |

Selected Bibliography | p. 347 |

10 Power Amplifiers | p. 349 |

10.1 Introduction | p. 349 |

10.2 Power Capability | p. 350 |

10.3 Efficiency Calculations | p. 350 |

10.4 Matching Considerations | p. 351 |

10.4.1 Matching to S*[subscript 22] Versus Matching to [Gamma subscript opt] | p. 352 |

10.5 Class A, B, and C Amplifiers | p. 353 |

10.5.1 Class A, B, and C Analysis | p. 356 |

10.5.2 Class B Push-Pull Arrangements | p. 362 |

10.5.3 Models for Transconductance | p. 363 |

10.6 Class D Amplifiers | p. 367 |

10.7 Class E Amplifiers | p. 368 |

10.7.1 Analysis of Class E Amplifier | p. 370 |

10.7.2 Class E Equations | p. 371 |

10.7.3 Class E Equations for Finite Output Q | p. 372 |

10.7.4 Saturation Voltage and Resistance | p. 373 |

10.7.5 Transition Time | p. 373 |

10.8 Class F Amplifiers | p. 375 |

10.8.1 Variation on Class F: Second-Harmonic Peaking | p. 379 |

10.8.2 Variation on Class F: Quarter-Wave Transmission Line | p. 379 |

10.9 Class G and H Amplifiers | p. 381 |

10.10 Class S Amplifiers | p. 383 |

10.11 Summary of Amplifier Classes for RF Integrated Circuits | p. 384 |

10.12 AC Load Line | p. 385 |

10.13 Matching to Achieve Desired Power | p. 385 |

10.14 Transistor Saturation | p. 388 |

10.15 Current Limits | p. 388 |

10.16 Current Limits in Integrated Inductors | p. 390 |

10.17 Power Combining | p. 390 |

10.18 Thermal Runaway--Ballasting | p. 392 |

10.19 Breakdown Voltage | p. 393 |

10.20 Packaging | p. 394 |

10.21 Effects and Implications of Nonlinearity | p. 394 |

10.21.1 Cross Modulation | p. 395 |

10.21.2 AM-to-PM Conversion | p. 395 |

10.21.3 Spectral Regrowth | p. 395 |

10.21.4 Linearization Techniques | p. 396 |

10.21.5 Feedforward | p. 396 |

10.21.6 Feedback | p. 397 |

10.22 CMOS Power Amplifier Example | p. 398 |

References | p. 399 |

About the Authors | p. 401 |

Index | p. 403 |