Cover image for Persuasive technology : using computers to change what we think and do
Persuasive technology : using computers to change what we think and do
Fogg, B. J.
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Publication Information:
Amsterdam ; Boston : Morgan Kaufmann Publishers, / [2003]

Physical Description:
xxviii, 283 pages : illustrations ; 23 cm.
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BF637.P4 F55 2003 Adult Non-Fiction Central Closed Stacks

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Can computers change what you think and do? Can they motivate you to stop smoking, persuade you to buy insurance, or convince you to join the Army?

"Yes, they can," says Dr. B.J. Fogg, director of the Persuasive Technology Lab at Stanford University. Fogg has coined the phrase "Captology"(an acronym for computers as persuasive technologies) to capture the domain of research, design, and applications of persuasive computers.In this thought-provoking book, based on nine years of research in captology, Dr. Fogg reveals how Web sites, software applications, and mobile devices can be used to change people's attitudes and behavior. Technology designers, marketers, researchers, consumers--anyone who wants to leverage or simply understand the persuasive power of interactive technology--will appreciate the compelling insights and illuminating examples found inside.

Persuasive technology can be controversial--and it should be. Who will wield this power of digital influence? And to what end? Now is the time to survey the issues and explore the principles of persuasive technology, and B.J. Fogg has written this book to be your guide.

Author Notes

B.J. Fogg directs research and design at Stanford University's Persuasive Technology Lab. An experimental psychologist, Dr. Fogg also teaches in Stanford's Department of Computer Science and School of Education. He holds several patents, and his work has been featured in The New York Times, The Washington Post, and The Wall Street Journal

Table of Contents

Philip G. Zimbardo, Ph.D.
Forewordp. ix
Prefacep. xxiii
Introduction: Persuasion in the Digital Agep. 1
Persuasion on the Webp. 2
Beyond the Webp. 2
The Emergence of "Captology"p. 5
Potential and Pitfallsp. 5
Advantage over Traditional Media: Interactivityp. 6
Advantages over Human Persuadersp. 7
1. Computers Are Persistentp. 7
2. Computers Allow Anonymityp. 8
3. Computers Can Store, Access, and Manipulate Huge Volumes of Datap. 8
4. Computers Can Use Many Modalitiesp. 9
5. Computer Software Can Scalep. 10
6. Computers Can Be Ubiquitousp. 10
How to Read This Bookp. 11
Notes and Referencesp. 12
Chapter 1 Overview of Captologyp. 15
Defining Persuasionp. 15
Focus on the Human-Computer Relationshipp. 16
Persuasion Is Based on Intentions, Not Outcomesp. 16
Levels of Persuasion: Macro and Microp. 17
Microsuasion on the Webp. 19
Microsuasion in Video Gamesp. 19
Captology: Summary of Key Terms and Conceptsp. 20
Notes and Referencesp. 20
Chapter 2 The Functional Triad: Computers in Persuasive Rolesp. 23
The Functional Triad: Roles Computers Playp. 23
Computers as Toolsp. 24
Computers as Mediap. 25
Computers as Social Actorsp. 26
Applying the Functional Triad to Captologyp. 27
Research and Design Applicationsp. 27
Notes and Referencesp. 29
Chapter 3 Computers as Persuasive Toolsp. 31
Seven Types of Persuasive Technology Toolsp. 32
Reduction Technology: Persuading through Simplifyingp. 33
Simplifying Political Inputp. 34
Tunneling Technology: Guided Persuasionp. 34
Ethical Concernsp. 37
Tailoring Technology: Persuasion through Customizationp. 37
Ethical Concernsp. 40
Tailoring Information for Contextp. 40
Suggestion Technology: Intervening at the Right Timep. 41
Timing Is Criticalp. 43
Self-Monitoring Technology: Taking the Tedium Out of Trackingp. 44
Eliminating a Language Quirkp. 45
Surveillance Technology: Persuasion through Observationp. 46
Surveillance Must Be Overtp. 47
Rewarding through Surveillancep. 48
Public Compliance without Private Acceptancep. 49
Conditioning Technology: Reinforcing Target Behaviorsp. 49
Technology Applications of Operant Conditioningp. 50
Operant Conditioning in Computer Gamesp. 51
Applying Periodic Reinforcementp. 51
Shaping Complex Behaviorsp. 53
The Right Persuasive Tool(s) for the Jobp. 53
Notes and Referencesp. 54
Chapter 4 Computers as Persuasive Media: Simulationp. 61
Persuading through Computer Simulationp. 62
Cause-and-Effect Simulations: Offering Exploration and Insightp. 63
HIV Roulette: A Cause-and-Effect Simulatorp. 64
Rockett's New School: Learning Social Skillsp. 66
Implications of Designer Biasp. 67
Environment Simulations: Creating Spaces for Persuasive Experiencesp. 69
LifeFitness VR Rowing Machine: Competing in a Virtual Environmentp. 70
The Tectrix VR Bike: Pedaling to Explore a Virtual Environmentp. 70
Managing Asthma in a Simulated Environmentp. 72
Using Simulation to Overcome Phobiasp. 74
In My Steps: Helping Doctors to Empathize with Cancer Patientsp. 76
Object Simulations: Providing Experiences in Everyday Contextsp. 77
Baby Think It Over: An Infant Simulatorp. 78
Drunk Driving Simulatorp. 79
Notes and Referencesp. 82
Chapter 5 Computers as Persuasive Social Actorsp. 89
Five Types of Social Cuesp. 90
Persuasion through Physical Cuesp. 91
The Impact of Physical Attractivenessp. 92
Using Psychological Cues to Persuadep. 94
The Stanford Similarity Studiesp. 95
The Personality Studyp. 95
The Affiliation Studyp. 98
Ethical and Practical Considerationsp. 100
The Oscilloscope Studyp. 100
Influencing through Languagep. 101
Persuading through Praisep. 103
Social Dynamicsp. 105
The Reciprocity Studyp. 108
Persuading by Adopting Social Rolesp. 111
Computers in Roles of Authorityp. 111
Social Cues: Handle with Carep. 114
Notes and Referencesp. 115
Chapter 6 Credibility and Computersp. 121
What Is "Credibility"?p. 122
A Simple Definitionp. 122
Trustworthinessp. 123
Expertisep. 124
Combinations of Trustworthiness and Expertisep. 124
When Credibility Matters in Human-Computer Interactionp. 125
Instructing or Advisingp. 126
Reporting Measurementsp. 127
Providing Information and Analysisp. 128
Reporting on Work Performedp. 128
Reporting on Their Own Statep. 129
Running Simulationsp. 130
Rendering Virtual Environmentsp. 130
Four Types of Credibilityp. 131
Presumed Credibilityp. 132
Surface Credibilityp. 132
Reputed Credibilityp. 135
Earned Credibilityp. 136
Dynamics of Computer Credibilityp. 137
Errors in Credibility Evaluationsp. 139
Appropriate Credibility Perceptionsp. 140
The Future of Computer Credibilityp. 141
Notes and Referencesp. 141
Chapter 7 Credibility and the World Wide Webp. 147
The Importance of Web Credibilityp. 148
Variability of Web Credibilityp. 148
Two Sides of Web Credibilityp. 149
The Stanford Web Credibility Studiesp. 150
A Few Words about Our Findingsp. 152
Interpreting the Datap. 155
Trustworthiness and Expertise on the Webp. 156
Trustworthiness and Web Credibilityp. 156
Elements that Increase Credibility: Significant Changes in 2002 Resultsp. 157
Elements that Decrease Credibility: Significant Changes in 2002 Resultsp. 159
Expertise and Web Site Credibilityp. 160
Elements that Increase Credibility: Significant Changes in 2002 Resultsp. 161
Elements that Decrease Credibility: No Significant Changes in 2002p. 162
The Four Types of Web Credibilityp. 163
Presumed Credibility on the Webp. 163
Reputed Credibility on the Webp. 165
Awardsp. 165
Seals of Approvalp. 165
Links from Credible Sourcesp. 166
Word-of-Mouth Referralsp. 167
Surface Credibility on the Webp. 167
Design Mattersp. 167
Enhancing Surface Credibilityp. 169
Earned Credibility on the Webp. 170
The Interaction Is Easyp. 171
The Information Is Personalizedp. 172
The Service Is Responsive to Customer Issuesp. 172
The Web Credibility Frameworkp. 173
The Web Credibility Gridp. 175
The Future of Web Credibility Research and Designp. 176
Notes and Referencesp. 177
Chapter 8 Increasing Persuasion through Mobility and Connectivityp. 183
Intervening at the Right Time and Placep. 183
The Study Buddyp. 183
HydroTechp. 184
An Emerging Frontier for Persuasive Technologyp. 185
Persuasion through Mobile Technologyp. 185
Examining Mobile Health Applicationsp. 186
The Kairos Factorp. 187
The Convenience Factorp. 188
Simplifying Mobile Devices to Increase Persuasion Powerp. 190
Wedded to Mobile Technologyp. 192
Motivating Users to Achieve Their Own Goalsp. 193
The Importance of Experience Designp. 194
Persuasion through Connected Technologyp. 195
Leveraging Current, Contingent, and Coordinated Informationp. 195
Connected Products: Leveraging Social Influencep. 197
Persuading through Social Facilitationp. 197
The Power of Social Comparisonp. 198
Leveraging Conformity--and Resistancep. 199
Applying Social Learning Theoryp. 201
Modeling Behavior at QuitNet.comp. 201
Modeling at epinions.comp. 204
Persuading through Intrinsic Motivationp. 204
AlternaTV: Leveraging Group-Level Intrinsic Motivatorsp. 205
The Future of Mobile and Connected Persuasive Technologyp. 207
Notes and Referencesp. 208
Chapter 9 The Ethics of Persuasive Technologyp. 211
Is Persuasion Unethical?p. 212
Unique Ethical Concerns Related to Persuasive Technologyp. 213
1. The Novelty of the Technology Can Mask Its Persuasive Intentp. 213
2. Persuasive Technology Can Exploit the Positive Reputation of Computersp. 215
3. Computers Can Be Proactively Persistentp. 216
4. Computers Control the Interactive Possibilitiesp. 216
5. Computers Can Affect Emotions But Can't Be Affected by Themp. 217
6. Computers Cannot Shoulder Responsibilityp. 218
Intentions, Methods, and Outcomes: Three Areas Worthy of Inquiryp. 220
Intentions: Why Was the Product Created?p. 220
Methods of Persuasionp. 221
Using Emotions to Persuadep. 222
Methods That Always Are Unethicalp. 223
Methods That Raise Red Flagsp. 224
Operant Conditioningp. 224
Surveillancep. 226
Outcomes: Intended and Unintendedp. 227
Responsibility for Unintended Outcomesp. 229
When Persuasion Targets Vulnerable Groupsp. 230
Stakeholder Analysis: A Methodology for Analyzing Ethicsp. 233
Step 1 List All of the Stakeholdersp. 233
Step 2 List What Each Stakeholder Has to Gainp. 233
Step 3 List What Each Stakeholder Has to Losep. 234
Step 4 Evaluate Which Stakeholder Has the Most to Gainp. 234
Step 5 Evaluate Which Stakeholder Has the Most to Losep. 234
Step 6 Determine Ethics by Examining Gains and Losses in Terms of Valuesp. 234
Step 7 Acknowledge the Values and Assumptions You Bring to Your Analysisp. 234
Education Is Keyp. 235
Notes and Referencesp. 235
Chapter 10 Captology: Looking Forwardp. 241
Five Future Trends in Captologyp. 243
Trend 1 Pervasive Persuasive Technologiesp. 243
Trend 2 Growth Beyond Buying and Brandingp. 244
Healthcarep. 245
Educationp. 246
Trend 3 Increase in Specialized Persuasive Devicesp. 246
Trend 4 Increased Focus on Influence Strategiesp. 247
Trend 5 A New Focus on Influence Tacticsp. 249
Looking Forward Responsiblyp. 250
Notes and Referencesp. 251
Appendix Summary of Principlesp. 255
Figure Creditsp. 263
Indexp. 267
About the Authorp. 283