Cover image for Ecosystem management : adaptive, community-based conservation
Ecosystem management : adaptive, community-based conservation
Meffe, Gary K.
Publication Information:
Washington, D.C. : Island Press, [2002]

Physical Description:
xv, 313 pages : illustrations ; 27 cm
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Added Author:
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QH75 .E294 2002 Adult Non-Fiction Non-Fiction Area

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Today's natural resource managers must be able to navigate among the complicated interactions and conflicting interests of diverse stakeholders and decisionmakers. Technical and scientific knowledge, though necessary, are not sufficient. Science is merely one component in a multifaceted world of decision making. And while the demands of resource management have changed greatly, natural resource education and textbooks have not. Until now.

Ecosystem Management represents a different kind of textbook for a different kind of course. It offers a new and exciting approach that engages students in active problem solving by using detailed landscape scenarios that reflect the complex issues and conflicting interests that face today's resource managers and scientists. Focusing on the application of the sciences of ecology and conservation biology to real-world concerns, it emphasizes the intricate ecological, socioeconomic, and institutional matrix in which natural resource management functions, and illustrates how to be more effective in that challenging arena.

Each chapter is rich with exercises to help facilitate problem-based learning. The main text is supplemented by boxes and figures that provide examples, perspectives, definitions, summaries, and learning tools, along with a variety of essays written by practitioners with on-the-ground experience in applying the principles of ecosystem management.

Accompanying the textbook is an instructor's manual that provides a detailed overview of the book and specific guidance on designing a course around it. Download the manual here .

Ecosystem Management grew out of a training course developed and presented by the authors for the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service at its National Training Center in Shepherdstown, West Virginia. In 20 offerings to more than 600 natural resource professionals, the authors learned a great deal about what is needed to function successfully as a professional resource manager. The book offers important insights and a unique perspective dervied from that invaluable experience.

Author Notes

Garry K. Meffe is Adjunct Professor in the Department of Wildlife Ecology and Conservation at the University of Florida and Editor of the international journal Conservation Biology . Larry A. Nielsen is a fisheries biologist and Dean of the College of Natural Resources at North Carolina State University. Richard L. Knight is Professor of Wildlife Conservation at Colorado State University, and Co-editor of Stewardship Across Boundaries (Island Press, 1998) and A New Century for Natural Resources Management (Island Press, 1995). Dennis A. Schenborn is Chief of Planning and Budget for the Bureau of Fisheries Management and Habitat Protection of the Wisconsin State Department of Natural Resources.

Reviews 1

Choice Review

It has become increasingly difficult for today's natural resource managers to navigate among the complex ecological, socioeconomic, institutional, and political matrixes in which management decisions are made. This exceptional book is written for students about to enter professional positions where these important natural resource choices are determined. Its main focus is on the application of ecological and conservation biology principles to real-world situations by engaging students in active problem solving using detailed landscape scenarios. Three main sections provide a conceptual toolbox with three basic landscape models, several chapters on fundamental biological and ecological principles, and a process for implementing this scientific background into contemporary community-based ecosystem management. Each chapter has exercises keyed to technical material and integrated into the landscape scenarios where students are asked to think, talk about, and collaborate on specific real-life situations. Throughout, boxes provide examples, perspectives, definitions, and learning tools along with essays written by practitioners with experience in ecosystem management. An excellent resource for a capstone course in a professional resource management curriculum. ^BSumming Up: Highly recommended. All readership audiences, especially educators and professionals in natural resource disciplines. M. J. Zwolinski University of Arizona

Table of Contents

Steven L. YaffeeRiki Ott and Kristin SmithRoger L. BanksMichael O'ConnellWilliam McDonaldMark W. BrunsonHeather A. L. KnightGeorge N. Wallace
Prefacep. xi
About the Authorsp. xiii
Essay Contributorsp. xv
Introduction: New Approaches for a New Millenniump. 1
The Appearance of Ecosystem Managementp. 3
How to Use This Bookp. 5
An Overview and the Flow of the Textp. 6
Part I The Conceptual Toolbox
1. The Landscape Scenariosp. 11
The ROLE Modelp. 12
The ROLE Model Agreementp. 12
The Round Lake Ecosystemp. 14
The Social and Economic Settingp. 16
Special Resourcesp. 17
Special Interests and Issuesp. 23
SnowPACTp. 25
The Snow River Ecosystemp. 27
The Social and Economic Settingp. 29
People, Places, and Interestsp. 31
Special Resourcesp. 38
PDQ Revivalp. 42
The PDQ Ecosystemp. 43
The PDQ Regionp. 45
PDQ Lands and Land Usesp. 47
Natural Resources and Issuesp. 50
2. Getting a Grip on Ecosystem Managementp. 57
The Evolution of Natural Resource Management Toward Ecosystem Managementp. 57
A Comparison of Traditional Management and Ecosystem Managementp. 59
From Command and Control to Adaptive Ecosystem Managementp. 60
The Pathology of Natural Resource Managementp. 63
The Need for Resiliencep. 65
A Model of Ecosystem Managementp. 66
A Closer Look at Ecosystem Managementp. 69
Common Misconceptions About Ecosystem Managementp. 73
Information, Organizational Behavior, and Command and Controlp. 74
References and Suggested Readingsp. 76
3. Incorporating Uncertainty and Complexity into Managementp. 79
Sources of Complexity and Uncertainty in Natural Resource Managementp. 80
Category 1 Environmental Variationp. 80
Category 2 Biological Variation in Small Populationsp. 82
Category 3 Nonindependence of Events and Interactionsp. 83
Category 4 Uncertainties in the Human Realmp. 84
Dealing with Complexity and Uncertaintyp. 85
References and Suggested Readingsp. 88
Ecosystem Management in Policy and Practicep. 89
4. Adaptive Managementp. 95
Adaptive Management: Another Way to Learnp. 96
Active Adaptive Managementp. 97
The Glen Canyon Damp. 100
Idaho Elk Managementp. 101
Passive Adaptive Managementp. 103
The Northwest Forest Management Planp. 103
The North American Waterfowl Planp. 104
Adaptive Management as Documented Trial and Errorp. 106
Conditions Necessary for Successful Adaptive Managementp. 107
Ecological Conditionsp. 108
Socioeconomic Conditionsp. 108
Institutional Conditionsp. 109
References and Suggested Readingsp. 110
Part II The Biological and Ecological Background
5. Genetic Diversity in Ecosystem Managementp. 115
What Is Genetic Diversity?p. 116
A Look at Heterozygosityp. 116
How Is Genetic Diversity Lost?p. 120
The Loss of Genetic Diversity in Small Populationsp. 120
Changes in Patterns of Genetic Diversity Among Populationsp. 124
The Loss of Allelic Richnessp. 126
The Role of Genetics in Conservation and Ecosystem Managementp. 128
References and Suggested Readingsp. 129
6. Issues Regarding Populations and Speciesp. 131
The Speciesp. 131
The Roles of Species in Science and Policyp. 134
Viewpoints on Speciesp. 134
Connecting Populations and Species to Landscapesp. 137
References and Suggested Readingsp. 139
The Copper River Watershed Projectp. 140
7. Populations and Communities at the Landscape Levelp. 145
Single-Species Managementp. 145
Extinctions from Deterministic and Stochastic Forcesp. 146
PVA and MVPp. 147
Approaches to MVP Estimationp. 148
Some Thoughts on PVA and MVP Estimationp. 151
Metapopulationsp. 151
Spatially Explicit Modelsp. 153
Information Needs for MVP, Metapopulation, and Spatially Explicit Modelsp. 154
Managing for Species Communitiesp. 156
The Species Approachp. 157
The Ecological Process Approachp. 158
The Landscape Approachp. 158
The Role of Monitoring in Each Approachp. 159
References and Suggested Readingsp. 162
The Winyah Bay Focus Areap. 163
8. Landscape-Level Conservationp. 169
Habitat Fragmentationp. 170
The Loss of Areap. 172
An Increase in Edgep. 174
Increased Isolationp. 181
Mosaic and Matrixp. 183
The Landscape Mosaicp. 183
The Landscape Matrixp. 184
Fragmentation and the Landscape Matrixp. 184
References and Suggested Readingsp. 185
Southern California Natural Community Conservation Planningp. 187
9. Managing Biodiversity Across Landscapes: A Manager's Dilemmap. 193
Ecosystems or Species? Coarse-Filter and Fine-Filter Approachesp. 194
The Coarse-Filter Approachp. 195
The Fine-Filter Approachp. 196
Blending Coarse-Filter and Fine-Filter Approachesp. 196
Landscape-Level Considerations That Protect Biodiversity and Ecosystemsp. 196
Area, Shape, and Isolationp. 197
Movement Corridorsp. 198
Working Across Administrative Boundariesp. 203
HCPs: Protecting Biodiversity While Promoting Cooperationp. 206
References and Suggested Readingsp. 209
The Malpai Borderlands Group: Building the "Radical Center"p. 211
Part III The Human Dimensions
10. Working in Human Communitiesp. 219
The Success Trianglep. 220
Stakeholder Identification and Assessmentp. 222
Who Is a Stakeholder?p. 222
Principles of Stakeholder Involvementp. 223
Stakeholder Analysisp. 225
Levels of Involvementp. 227
Techniques for Stakeholder Involvementp. 230
Keys to Successful Collaborationp. 233
Three Little Wordsp. 238
References and Suggested Readingsp. 238
Collaborative Stewardship: Views from Both Sides Nowp. 240
11. Strategic Approaches to Ecosystem Managementp. 245
Characteristics of Strategic Managementp. 247
A Simple Strategic Management Modelp. 249
The Inventoryp. 249
Strategic Thinkingp. 251
Implementationp. 251
Evaluationp. 251
The Strategic-Thinking Stepp. 252
Mission and Mandatep. 252
Strategyp. 254
Goalsp. 254
Objectivesp. 256
Problems and Tacticsp. 258
Projectsp. 259
References and Suggested Readingsp. 262
If All It Took Was Money, Community-Based Conservation Would Be Easyp. 263
12. Evaluationp. 271
The Context for Evaluationp. 271
Formative Evaluationp. 274
Characteristics of Formative Evaluationp. 275
Process Evaluationp. 277
Assessing Progressp. 277
Making Adjustmentsp. 278
Characteristics of Process Evaluationp. 280
Summative Evaluationp. 280
Characteristics of Summative Evaluationp. 282
References and Suggested Readingsp. 285
Participation in Local Government Land-Use Decisionsp. 286
A Final Wordp. 295
Glossaryp. 297
Indexp. 303