Cover image for Astronomy : the evolving universe
Title:
Astronomy : the evolving universe
Author:
Zeilik, Michael.
Personal Author:
Edition:
Ninth edition.
Publication Information:
Cambridge, UK ; New York, NY : Cambridge University Press, [2002]

©2002
Physical Description:
xx, 552 pages : illustrations (some color) ; 28 cm
General Note:
Includes index.
Language:
English
Contents:
Changing conceptions of the cosmos -- From chaos to cosmos -- birth of cosmological models -- new cosmic order -- clockwork universe -- birth of astrophysics -- Telescopes and our insight into the cosmos -- Einstein's vision -- planets : past and present -- Earth : an evolving planet -- Moon and Mercury, Mars and Venus : terrestrial planets -- Jovian planets : primitive worlds -- origin and evolution of the solar system -- universe of stars -- Our sun : local star -- stars as suns -- Starbirth and interstellar matter -- Star lives -- Stardeath -- Galaxies and cosmic evolution -- evolution of the galaxy -- universe of galaxies -- Cosmic violence -- Cosmic history.
Subject Term:
ISBN:
9780521800907
Format :
Book

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Summary

Summary

Thoroughly updated and re-conceived, Astronomy, Ninth Edition, equips the introductory astronomy student with the essential tools for understanding the cosmos. Michael Zeilik has revised the pedagogy of his successful textbook based on recent research in astronomy education. Significantly shorter than the previous edition, the ninth edition is organized into four concept clusters: Cosmic Distances, Heavenly Motions, Celestial Light and Spectra, and Scientific Models. Material has been streamlined throughout to make the descriptions, concepts, and explanations clearer. Each chapter ends with a concise summary of the concepts in each cluster. Each chapter contains at least one Celestial Navigator, a concept map that provides a visual guide of major concepts in the chapter and explicity shows their connections. Throughout, illustrations have been updated to be clearer and more understandable to the novice student. Michael Zeilik, Professor of Physics and Astronomy and former Presidential Lecturer at the University of New Mexico, specializes in innovative, introductory courses for the novice, non-science major student. In 1998, he was appointed a Research Fellow at the National Institute of Science Education. Zeilik's work has been supported by grants from the National Science Foundation, NASA, the Exxon Educational Foundation, and the Slipher Fund of the National Academy of Sciences. In 1997, the 8th edition of Astronomy: The Evolving Universe won a Texty Award from the Text and Academic Authors Association. In 2002 he was awarded the Astronomy Education Prize by the American Astronomical Society.


Table of Contents

Prefacep. xi
Concept Clustersp. xv
How to Study Astronomyp. xvii
Part 1 Changing Conceptions of the Cosmosp. 1
Chapter 1 From Chaos to Cosmosp. 2
1.1 The Visible Skyp. 4
Constellationsp. 4
Angular Measurementp. 4
Motions of the Starsp. 4
1.2 The Motions of the Sunp. 7
Motions Relative to the Horizonp. 8
Motions Relative to the Starsp. 9
View from the Southern Hemispherep. 12
1.3 The Motions of the Moonp. 12
Motions Relative to the Starsp. 12
Phasesp. 13
1.4 The Motions of the Planetsp. 14
Retrograde Motionp. 14
Elongations, Conjunctions, and Oppositionsp. 15
Angular Speed and Relative Distancesp. 16
1.5 Eclipses of the Sun and Moonp. 16
Enrichment Focus 1.1 Precession of the Equinoxesp. 11
Enrichment Focus 1.2 Angular Size and Speedp. 18
Chapter 2 The Birth of Cosmological Modelsp. 22
2.1 Scientific Modelsp. 24
Building Modelsp. 24
Evaluation of Modelsp. 24
2.2 Greek Models of the Cosmosp. 25
Harmony and Geometryp. 25
A Physical Geocentric Modelp. 26
A Contrary View: A Sun-Centered Modelp. 27
Stellar Parallax in a Finite Cosmosp. 27
Expanding the Geocentric Modelp. 29
2.3 Claudius Ptolemy: A Total Geocentric Modelp. 31
A Geocentric Model Refinedp. 31
Nonuniform Motionp. 32
Ptolemy's Complete Modelp. 34
The Size of the Cosmosp. 34
Model Evaluationp. 35
2.4 Describing Basic Observations with a Geocentric Modelp. 35
Enrichment Focus 2.1 Surveying the Earthp. 28
Chapter 3 The New Cosmic Orderp. 40
3.1 Copernicus the Conservativep. 42
The Heliocentric Conceptp. 43
The Plan of De Revolutionibusp. 43
3.2 The Heliocentric Model of Copernicusp. 44
Details of the Modelp. 44
Retrograde Motion Explained Naturallyp. 45
Planetary Distancesp. 46
Relative Distances of the Planetsp. 46
Problems with the Heliocentric Modelp. 48
The Impact of the Heliocentric Modelp. 49
3.3 Tycho Brahe: First Master of Astronomical Measurementp. 50
The New Star of 1572p. 50
Tycho's Hybrid Modelp. 50
3.4 Johannes Kepler and the Cosmic Harmoniesp. 52
The Harmonies of the Spheresp. 51
3.5 Kepler's New Astronomyp. 53
The Battle with Marsp. 53
Properties of Ellipsesp. 54
Kepler's Laws of Planetary Motionp. 55
The New Astronomyp. 57
Enrichment Focus 3.1 Sidereal and Synodic Periods in a Heliocentric Modelp. 47
Enrichment Focus 3.2 Geometry of Ellipsesp. 54
Chapter 4 The Clockwork Universep. 62
4.1 Galileo: Advocate of the Heliocentric Modelp. 64
The Magical Telescopep. 64
The Starry Messengerp. 66
Galileo's Discoveries and the Copernican Modelp. 66
The Crime of Galileop. 66
4.2 Galileo and a New Physics of Motionp. 68
Acceleration, Velocity, and Speedp. 68
Natural Motion Revisitedp. 69
Forced Motion: Gravityp. 70
Planets and Pendulumsp. 70
Galileo's Cosmologyp. 71
4.3 Newton: A Physical Model of the Cosmosp. 72
The Prodigious Young Newtonp. 72
The Magnificent Principiap. 73
Forces and Motionsp. 73
Newton's Laws of Motionp. 74
4.4 Newton and Gravitationp. 76
Centripetal Accelerationp. 76
Newton's Law of Gravitationp. 78
4.5 Cosmic Consequences of Universal Lawsp. 81
The Earth's Rotationp. 81
Precession of the Earth's Axisp. 81
The Earth's Revolution and the Sun's Massp. 82
Gravity and Orbitsp. 82
Orbits and Escape Speedp. 84
Newton's Cosmologyp. 85
Enrichment Focus 4.1 Speed, Velocity, and Accelerationp. 69
Enrichment Focus 4.2 Newton, the Apple, and the Moonp. 80
Enrichment Focus 4.3 The Mass of the Sunp. 81
Enrichment Focus 4.4 Escape Speedp. 86
Chapter 5 The Birth of Astrophysicsp. 90
5.1 Sunlight and Spectroscopyp. 92
Atoms and Matterp. 92
A Model of the Atomp. 92
Simple Spectroscopyp. 93
5.2 Analyzing Sunlightp. 94
Kirchhoff's Rulesp. 96
The Conservation of Energyp. 97
Kinetic Energyp. 98
Potential Energyp. 99
5.3 Spectra and Atomsp. 99
Light and Electromagnetic Radiationp. 99
Wavesp. 99
The Electromagnetic Spectrump. 100
Atoms, Light, and Radiationp. 101
Solving the Puzzle of Atomic Spectrap. 102
Energy Levelsp. 103
Other Atomsp. 105
5.4 Spectra from Atomsp. 105
Absorption-Line Spectrap. 106
Enrichment Focus 5.1 Kinetic Energyp. 98
Enrichment Focus 5.2 Energy and Lightp. 102
Chapter 6 Telescopes and Our Insight into the Cosmosp. 110
6.1 Observations and Modelsp. 112
6.2 Visible Astronomy: Optical Telescopesp. 113
The Basis of Opticsp. 113
Optics and Imagesp. 114
Telescopesp. 115
Functions of a Telescopep. 116
Next Generation of Telescopesp. 118
New Optical Techniquesp. 119
6.3 Invisible Astronomyp. 120
Ground-Based Radiop. 121
Resolving Power and Radio Interferometersp. 122
Ground-Based Infraredp. 123
Space Astronomyp. 124
6.4 Image Collection and Processingp. 125
Understanding Intensity Mapsp. 125
Photographyp. 126
Charge-Coupled Devices (CCDs)p. 126
Enrichment Focus 6.1 Properties of Telescopesp. 117
Chapter 7 Einstein's Visionp. 130
7.1 Natural Motion Reexaminedp. 133
Newton's Assumptionsp. 133
Motion and Geometryp. 133
7.2 The Rise of Relativityp. 134
Mass and Energy, Space and Timep. 134
The General Theory of Relativityp. 135
The Principle of Equivalencep. 135
Weightlessness and Natural Motionp. 136
7.3 The Geometry of Spacetimep. 137
Euclidean Geometryp. 137
Non-Euclidean Geometryp. 138
Local Geometry and Gravityp. 138
The Curvature of Spacetimep. 139
Spacetime Curvature in the Solar Systemp. 139
Experimental Tests of General Relativityp. 141
7.4 Geometry and the Universep. 142
Cosmic Geometryp. 142
7.5 Relativity and the Cosmosp. 143
Escape Speed and the Critical Densityp. 143
The Future of the Universep. 143
Part 2 The Planets: Past and Presentp. 147
Chapter 8 The Earth: An Evolving Planetp. 148
8.1 The Mass and Density of the Solid Earthp. 150
8.2 The Earth's Interior and Agep. 150
8.3 The Earth's Magnetic Fieldp. 153
Originp. 155
Magnetospherep. 155
8.4 The Blanket of the Atmospherep. 155
The Greenhouse Effectp. 156
Atmospheric Circulationp. 157
8.5 The Evolution of the Crustp. 157
Planetary Evolution and Energyp. 158
Volcanism and Plate Tectonicsp. 158
8.6 Evolution of the Atmosphere and Oceansp. 159
Origin and Development of the Oceansp. 160
Evolution of the Atmospherep. 161
Evolution of the Earth's Surface Temperaturep. 161
8.7 The Earth's Evolution: The Big Picturep. 161
8.8 Models of Planetsp. 163
Enrichment Focus 8.1 Radioactivity and the Dating of Rocksp. 154
Chapter 9 Moon and Mercury, Mars and Venus: Terrestrial Planetsp. 166
9.1 General Orbital and Physical Characteristicsp. 168
Moonp. 168
Mercuryp. 170
Marsp. 172
Venusp. 172
9.2 Surface Environmentsp. 174
Moonp. 174
Mercuryp. 179
Marsp. 180
Venusp. 183
The Active Surface of Venusp. 184
9.3 Magnetic Fieldsp. 186
Moonp. 186
Mercuryp. 187
Marsp. 188
Venusp. 188
9.4 History and Evolutionp. 189
Moonp. 189
Mercuryp. 189
Marsp. 191
Venusp. 192
Enrichment Focus 9.1 Tides and Tidal Frictionp. 169
Enrichment Focus 9.2 Distances in the Solar Systemp. 171
Enrichment Focus 9.3 Impact Crateringp. 177
Chapter 10 The Jovian Planets: Primitive Worldsp. 196
10.1 Jupiter: Lord of the Heavensp. 198
Physical Characteristicsp. 200
Atmospheric Features and Compositionp. 200
A Model of the Interiorp. 202
Magnetic Fieldp. 203
10.2 The Many Moons and Rings of Jupiterp. 203
Iop. 204
Europap. 205
Ganymedep. 205
Callistop. 206
The Rings of Jupiterp. 207
10.3 Saturn: Jewel of the Solar Systemp. 207
Atmosphere and Interiorp. 207
Similarities to Jupiterp. 208
10.4 The Moons and Rings of Saturnp. 209
Titanp. 211
Other Moonsp. 211
Ring Systemp. 213
10.5 Uranus: The First New Worldp. 214
Atmospheric and Physical Featuresp. 214
Moons and Ringsp. 215
Magnetic Fieldp. 216
10.6 Neptune: Guardian of the Deepp. 217
Physical Propertiesp. 217
Moons and Ringsp. 217
Atmospheric Featuresp. 220
Magnetic Fieldp. 220
10.7 Pluto and Charon: Guardians of the Darkp. 221
Orbital and Physical Propertiesp. 221
Charon: Pluto's Companion Planetp. 222
Enrichment Focus 10.1 The Doppler Shiftp. 201
Chapter 11 The Origin and Evolution of the Solar Systemp. 226
11.1 Debris between the Planets: Asteroidsp. 228
Asteroids: Minor Planetsp. 228
Compositionp. 229
11.2 Comets: Snowballs in Spacep. 229
Compositionp. 232
Orbitsp. 233
The Comet Cloudp. 233
Interactions with the Solar Windp. 233
Halley's Cometp. 234
Comet Shoemaker-Levy 9 and the Great Comet Crash on Jupiterp. 237
11.3 Meteors and Meteoritesp. 237
Types of Meteoritesp. 238
Origin of Meteoritesp. 238
11.4 Pieces and Puzzles of the Solar Systemp. 240
Chemistryp. 240
Dynamicsp. 240
Models of Originp. 241
11.5 Basics of Nebular Modelsp. 241
Angular Momentump. 241
Heating of the Nebulap. 244
11.6 The Formation of the Planetsp. 244
Making Planetsp. 244
Chemistry and Originp. 245
Jupiter and Saturn: A Different Story?p. 247
Our Moon: A Different Story!p. 248
Evaluation of the Nebular Modelp. 248
Enrichment Focus 11.1 Momentum and Angular Momentump. 242
Part 3 The Universe of Starsp. 251
Chapter 12 Our Sun: Local Starp. 252
12.1 A Solar Physical Checkupp. 254
How Far?p. 254
How Big?p. 254
How Massive?p. 254
How Dense?p. 254
12.2 Ordinary Gasesp. 255
Temperaturep. 255
Pressurep. 256
12.3 The Sun's Continuous Spectrump. 256
Luminosityp. 256
Surface Temperature and Blackbody Radiatorsp. 257
Opacityp. 260
12.4 The Solar Absorption-Line Spectrump. 260
The Origin of Absorption Linesp. 260
The Chemical Composition of the Photospherep. 261
12.5 Energy Flow in the Sunp. 262
Conduction, Convection, Radiationp. 262
Photospherep. 262
Chromospherep. 263
Coronap. 263
Solar Windp. 265
12.6 The Solar Interiorp. 265
Energy Sourcesp. 265
Nuclear Transformationsp. 265
Fusion Reactionsp. 266
Solar Neutrino Problemp. 268
Solar Vibrations and Interiorp. 268
12.7 The Active Sunp. 269
Sunspotsp. 269
Sunspot Cyclep. 269
Physical Nature of Sunspotsp. 271
Flaresp. 271
Coronal Loops and Holesp. 272
Enrichment Focus 12.1 The Sun's Luminosityp. 257
Enrichment Focus 12.2 Emission from Blackbodiesp. 259
Chapter 13 The Stars as Sunsp. 278
13.1 Some Messages of Starlightp. 280
Brightness and Fluxp. 281
Flux and Luminosityp. 281
The Inverse-Square Law for Lightp. 283
13.2 Stellar Distances: Parallaxesp. 284
13.3 Stellar Colors, Temperatures, and Sizesp. 287
Color and Temperaturep. 287
Temperature and Radiusp. 287
Direct Measurement of Diametersp. 289
13.4 Spectral Classification of Starsp. 289
Temperature and the Balmer Linesp. 289
Spectral Classificationp. 290
13.5 The Hertzsprung-Russell Diagramp. 292
Temperature versus Luminosityp. 293
Spectroscopic Distancesp. 295
13.6 Weighing and Sizing Stars: Binary Systemsp. 296
Binary Starsp. 296
Spectroscopic Binary Systemsp. 298
The Mass-Luminosity Relation for Main-Sequence Starsp. 298
Stellar Densitiesp. 299
Stellar Lifetimesp. 300
Enrichment Focus 13.1 Flux and Magnitudep. 282
Enrichment Focus 13.2 Heliocentric (Trigonometric) Stellar Parallaxp. 286
Chapter 14 Starbirth and Interstellar Matterp. 304
14.1 The Interstellar Medium: Gasp. 306
Bright Nebulasp. 306
Interstellar Atomsp. 306
21-cm Emission from Atomic Hydrogenp. 307
Clouds and Intercloud Gasp. 310
Interstellar Moleculesp. 310
Molecular Cloudsp. 311
14.2 The Interstellar Medium: Dustp. 312
Cosmic Dustp. 312
Dust and Infrared Observationsp. 315
The Nature of Interstellar Dustp. 315
Dust and the Formation of Moleculesp. 316
Formation of Cosmic Dustp. 317
14.3 Starbirth: Theoretical Ideasp. 317
Collapse Modelsp. 317
Protostar Formationp. 317
Collapse with Rotationp. 318
14.4 Starbirth: Observational Cluesp. 319
Signposts for the Birth of Massive Starsp. 320
The Birth of Massive Starsp. 320
The Birth of Solar-Mass Starsp. 320
Molecular Outflows and Starbirthp. 322
Planetary Systems?p. 323
Brown Dwarfs: Failed Starsp. 325
14.5 Neighboring Planetary Systems: Found!p. 326
Center-of-Mass Motionsp. 326
Doppler Shift Detectionsp. 327
Enrichment Focus 14.1 Emission Nebulas: Forbidden Linesp. 310
Chapter 15 Star Livesp. 332
15.1 Stellar Evolution and the Hertzsprung-Russell Diagramp. 334
Classifying Objectsp. 334
Time and the H-R Diagramp. 335
15.2 Stellar Anatomyp. 336
Pressure and Energy Balancep. 336
Energy Transportp. 336
15.3 Star Modelsp. 337
Goals of Modelsp. 338
General Resultsp. 338
15.4 Energy Generation and the Chemical Compositions of Starsp. 338
Hydrogen Burningp. 338
Helium and Carbon Burningp. 339
15.5 Theoretical Evolution of a 1-Solar-Mass Starp. 340
Evolution to the Main Sequencep. 340
Evolution on the Main Sequencep. 341
Evolution off the Main Sequencep. 342
Evolution to the Endp. 343
The Fate of the Earthp. 344
Lower-Mass Starsp. 344
Chemical Composition and Evolutionp. 344
15.6 Theoretical Evolution of Massive Starsp. 344
Evolution of a 5-Solar-Mass Starp. 345
More Massive Starsp. 345
15.7 Observational Evidence for Stellar Evolutionp. 346
Stars in Groupsp. 346
Globular Clustersp. 347
Stellar Populationsp. 349
Comparison with the H-R Diagram of Clustersp. 350
Variable Starsp. 351
Central Stars of Planetary Nebulasp. 352
15.8 The Synthesis of Elements in Starsp. 353
Nucleosynthesis in Red Giant Starsp. 353
Enrichment Focus 15.1 Degenerate Gasesp. 342
Chapter 16 Stardeathp. 358
16.1 White Dwarf Stars: Common Corpsesp. 360
Physics of Dense Gasesp. 360
White Dwarfs in Theoryp. 360
Observations of White Dwarfsp. 361
16.2 Neutron Stars: Compact Corpsesp. 361
Degenerate Neutron Gasesp. 361
Physical Propertiesp. 362
16.3 Novas: Mild Stellar Explosionsp. 362
Ordinary Novasp. 363
A Nova Modelp. 363
16.4 Supernovas: Cataclysmic Explosionsp. 364
Classifying Supernovasp. 365
The Origin of Supernovasp. 366
Supernova 1987Ap. 367
Supernova Remnantsp. 368
The Crab Nebula: A Supernova Remnantp. 371
16.5 The Manufacture of Heavy Elementsp. 373
Nucleosythesis in Starsp. 373
Nucleosynthesis in a Supernovap. 373
Other Sites of Nucleosynthesisp. 374
16.6 Pulsars: Neutron Stars in Rotationp. 374
Observed Characteristicsp. 375
Clock Mechanismp. 375
Pulsars and Supernovasp. 375
A Lighthouse Model for Pulsarsp. 376
Binary Radio Pulsarsp. 377
Very Fast Pulsarsp. 377
Pulsars with Planetsp. 378
16.7 Black Holes: The Ultimate Corpsesp. 378
The Schwarzschild Radiusp. 379
The Singularityp. 380
Perilous Journey into a Black Holep. 380
16.8 Observing Black Holesp. 381
Binary X-Ray Sourcesp. 381
Observing Black Holesp. 382
16.9 High-Energy Bursters Everywhere!p. 383
X-Ray Burstersp. 383
Gamma-Ray Bursters: Mystery Solved?p. 383
Enrichment Focus 16.1 Thermal and Nonthermal (Synchrotron) Emissionp. 370
Part 4 Galaxies and Cosmic Evolutionp. 387
Chapter 17 The Evolution of the Galaxyp. 388
17.1 The Galaxy's Overall Structurep. 390
17.2 Galactic Rotation: Matter in Motionp. 392
The Sun's Speed around the Galaxyp. 392
The Sun's Distance from the Centerp. 392
Rotation Curve and the Galaxy's Massp. 393
17.3 Galactic Structure from Optical Observationsp. 395
Spiral Tracers and Spiral Structurep. 395
Optical Maps of Spiral Structurep. 396
17.4 Exploring Galactic Structure by Radio Astronomyp. 397
Radial Velocities and Rotationp. 397
Radio Maps of Spiral Structurep. 397
17.5 The Evolution of Spiral Structurep. 398
The Windup Problemp. 398
The Density-Wave Modelp. 399
Status of the Density-Wave Modelp. 400
17.6 The Heart of the Galaxyp. 401
Radio Observationsp. 401
Infrared Observationsp. 402
X-Raysp. 402
The Inner 30 Light Yearsp. 403
Does a Black Hole Lurk in the Core?p. 403
17.7 The Halo of the Galaxyp. 404
Globular Clustersp. 404
Other Material in the Halop. 405
17.8 A History of Our Galaxyp. 405
Populations and Positionsp. 405
The Birth of the Galaxyp. 406
Enrichment Focus 17.1 The Mass of the Galaxyp. 394
Chapter 18 The Universe of Galaxiesp. 410
18.1 The Extragalactic Debatep. 412
Basic Argumentsp. 412
The Debate's Resolutionp. 413
18.2 Normal Galaxies: A Galaxian Zoop. 414
Ellipticalsp. 415
Disks (Spirals)p. 415
Irregularsp. 416
Luminosity Classesp. 416
18.3 Surveying the Universe of Galaxiesp. 418
Judging Distancesp. 418
Distance Indicatorsp. 418
18.4 Hubble's Law and Distancesp. 419
Redshifts and Distancesp. 419
"Age" of the Cosmosp. 422
An Accelerating Expansion?p. 423
18.5 General Characteristics of Galaxiesp. 423
Sizep. 423
Massp. 424
Luminositiesp. 425
Mass-Luminosity Ratiosp. 425
Colorsp. 426
Spinp. 427
18.6 Clusters of Galaxiesp. 427
The Local Groupp. 427
Other Clusters of Galaxiesp. 429
Clusters and the Luminosity of Galaxiesp. 429
Interacting Galaxiesp. 430
18.7 Superclusters and Voidsp. 433
The Cosmic Tapestryp. 434
18.8 Intergalactic Medium and Dark Matterp. 434
Enrichment Focus 18.1 Hubble's Constant and the Age of the Universep. 422
Chapter 19 Cosmic Violencep. 438
19.1 Violent Activity in Galaxiesp. 440
Evidence of Violence in Our Galaxyp. 440
Synchrotron Emission Revisitedp. 441
Active Galaxiesp. 441
19.2 Radio Galaxiesp. 442
Two High-Profile Active Galaxiesp. 443
Structures of Radio Emissionp. 445
19.3 Seyfert Galaxies and BL Lacertae Objectsp. 446
Seyfert Galaxiesp. 446
BL Lacertae Objectsp. 448
19.4 Quasars: Unraveling the Mysteryp. 449
Quasar Redshiftsp. 450
General Observed Propertiesp. 450
The Light from Quasarsp. 451
Line Spectrap. 451
Variability in Luminosityp. 452
19.5 Grand Illusions: Gravitational Lensesp. 452
19.6 Troubles with Quasarsp. 453
Energy Sources in Quasarsp. 455
A Generic Quasar and AGN Modelp. 457
A Model for Quasars and AGNsp. 457
The Host Galaxies for Quasarsp. 459
Enrichment Focus 19.1 Faster Than Light?p. 456
Chapter 20 Cosmic Historyp. 462
20.1 Cosmological Assumptions and Observationsp. 464
Assumptionsp. 464
Observationsp. 466
A Brief Review of Cosmologyp. 466
20.2 The Basic Big Bang Modelp. 466
20.3 The Cosmic Background Radiationp. 467
Discovery!p. 467
Confirmation!p. 468
Propertiesp. 470
20.4 The Primeval Fireballp. 470
The Hot Startp. 470
Creation of Matter from Photonsp. 471
Temperature Greater than 10[superscript 12] Kp. 472
Temperature about 10[superscript 12] Kp. 472
Temperature about 10[superscript 9] Kp. 472
Temperature about 3000 Kp. 473
Evidence for the Big Bangp. 473
20.5 The End of Time?p. 474
20.6 From Big Bang to Galaxiesp. 475
20.7 Elementary Particles and the Cosmosp. 476
The Forces of Naturep. 476
GUTs and the Cosmosp. 477
GUTs and Galaxy Formationp. 478
20.8 The Inflationary Universep. 479
The Flatness Problemp. 479
The Horizon Problemp. 480
Appendix A Unitsp. 485
Appendix B Planetary Datap. 489
Appendix C Physical Constants and Astronomical Datap. 494
Appendix D Nearby Stars in the Hipparcos Cataloguep. 495
Appendix E The Most Luminous Stars in the Hipparcos Cataloguep. 496
Appendix F Periodic Table of the Elementsp. 497
Expanded Glossaryp. 499
Indexp. 533