Cover image for Soils : an introduction
Title:
Soils : an introduction
Author:
Singer, Michael J. (Michael John), 1945-
Edition:
Fifth edition.
Publication Information:
Upper Saddle River, N.J. : Prentice Hall, [2002]

©2002
Physical Description:
xv, 429 pages : illustrations (some color), maps ; 27 cm
Language:
English
ISBN:
9780130278258
Format :
Book

Available:*

Library
Call Number
Material Type
Home Location
Status
Central Library S591 .S555 2002 Adult Non-Fiction Central Closed Stacks
Searching...

On Order

Summary

Summary

Now in its fifth edition, Soils: An Introduction provides readers with a fresh approach to the study of soils. Covering all major topics, the text utilizes a unique building the pedon model to provide readers with a single soil concept upon which to build and learn. The goal is to help readers understand the parts that contribute to the whole soil individual and then appreciate how those parts function together. Some of the features of this new edition include: *Enhanced discussion of environmental issues. - Puts learning about soils into an environmental context. *An emphasis on the correct use of scale in all figures. - Helps readers become aware of the vast range involved, from organisms as small as viruses, to the expanse of landscapes. *Focuses on soils as ecosystems, as parts of ecosystems, and as parts of environmental management. - Helps readers to understand how each soil part relates to each other. Singer and Munns Soils: An Introduction, fifth edition is a must-have for anyone interested in learning about soils.


Table of Contents

Prefacep. XVII
1 Introductionp. 1
1.1 Soilp. 2
1.1.1 Soil and Sustainabilityp. 2
1.1.2 What Is Soil?p. 3
1.1.3 How Do Soils Form?p. 4
1.2 Minerals and Organic Matterp. 4
1.3 Size and Organization of Particlesp. 5
1.4 Soil Poresp. 6
1.5 Surface Reactions and Transfer Processesp. 6
1.6 Soil as an Ecosystemp. 6
1.7 Soil Morphologyp. 8
1.8 Soil Formationp. 9
1.9 Soil Classificationp. 11
1.9.1 Soil Taxonomyp. 11
1.9.2 Soil Seriesp. 12
1.10 Soil Managementp. 12
Summaryp. 14
Questionsp. 14
2 Solids and Poresp. 15
2.1 Particle Sizesp. 16
2.1.1 The Coarse Fractionp. 16
2.1.2 The Fine-Earth Fractionp. 18
2.1.3 Soil Texturep. 18
2.1.4 Particle Size Analysisp. 18
2.2 Particle Arrangementp. 20
2.2.1 Aggregate Shapep. 22
The Revelance of Soil Texture, Structure and Depthp. 23
2.2.2 Aggregate Sizep. 23
2.2.3 Aggregate Gradep. 23
2.2.4 Mode of Formationp. 23
2.3 Soil Mineralsp. 24
2.3.1 General Propertiesp. 24
2.3.2 Silicate Minerals of Sand and Siltp. 28
2.3.3 Minerals of the Clay Fractionp. 28
2.3.4 Common Use of Clay Mineralsp. 35
2.4 Soil Organic Matter and Humusp. 38
2.4.1 Coarse Organic Materialsp. 38
2.4.2 Colloidal Fractionp. 38
2.5 Soil Color and Consistencep. 39
2.6 Poresp. 41
Summaryp. 44
Questionsp. 44
Further Readingp. 44
Web Resourcesp. 44
Supplement 2-1 Additional Particle Size Classifications and Methods to Display Datap. 45
Supplement 2-2 Stokes' Lawp. 45
Supplement 2-3 Mineral Formulas and Structuresp. 46
Supplement 2-4 Charge in lonsp. 49
3 Liquids and Gasesp. 50
3.1 Soil Airp. 51
3.1.1 Compositionp. 51
3.1.2 Air Movementp. 52
3.2 Air-Water Relationshipsp. 53
3.2.1 Porosityp. 53
3.2.2 Bulk Density and Void Ratiop. 54
3.3 Soil Waterp. 55
3.3.1 Characteristics of Waterp. 55
Soil Densityp. 56
3.3.2 Pore Water Compositionp. 56
3.3.3 Soil Water Amountsp. 58
3.4 Solid-Liquid Interactionsp. 59
3.4.1 Ion Exchangep. 60
3.4.2 Specific Adsorption Reactionsp. 62
3.4.3 Weak Sorption Reactionsp. 64
3.5 Organic Chemicals and Their Adsorptionp. 64
3.5.1 Nonpolar Substancesp. 65
3.5.2 Polar Nonionic Substancesp. 65
3.6 Adsorption Isothermsp. 66
3.7 Pore Retentionp. 66
Summaryp. 67
Questionsp. 67
Further Readingp. 67
Supplement 3-1 Measuring CECp. 67
Supplement 3-2 Example CEC Calculationsp. 68
Supplement 3-3 pHp. 68
Supplement 3-4 Partial Pressure and Gas Solubilityp. 69
Supplement 3-5 Measuring Bulk Densityp. 69
Supplement 3-6 Organic Electrolytesp. 69
4 Soil Climatep. 71
4.1 Sunshine: Irradiation and Heatingp. 72
4.1.1 Radiant Energyp. 72
4.1.2 Radiant Heating and Heat Dissipationp. 73
4.2 Movement of Heat through Soil and Other Mediap. 76
4.2.1 Conduction (Diffusive Transfer)p. 76
Consequences of Exchanges Between the Air and Ground Surfacep. 77
4.2.2 Heat Capacity, Conductivity, and Temperature Gradientsp. 78
4.2.3 Turbulence and Heat Flow in Air and Waterp. 79
4.3 Principles in Action: Controlling Soil Climatesp. 80
4.3.1 Summary of Principlesp. 80
4.3.2 Seasonal and Geographic Variations in Soil Climatep. 80
4.3.3 Management of Soil Temperaturep. 81
Summaryp. 84
Questionsp. 84
Further Readingp. 84
Supplement 4-1 Forms of Radiationp. 85
Supplement 4-2 Movement of Heat, Water, Gases, and Solutesp. 85
5 Water in the Soil-Plant Systemp. 87
5.1 Water Storage in Soilp. 88
5.1.1 Water Retention and Capacityp. 88
5.1.2 Water Content and Water Potentialp. 89
5.2 Modes of Water Movementp. 92
5.2.1 Vapor Flow and Liquid Flowp. 92
5.2.2 Saturated and Unsaturated Liquid Flow in Soilp. 92
5.2.3 Water Flow in Stratified Soilsp. 93
5.2.4 Preferential Flowp. 94
5.2.5 Principles of Water Movementp. 95
5.3 Forces That Move Waterp. 95
5.3.1 Water Potential and Water Movementp. 95
Pollutant Transport in Soilsp. 97
5.3.2 Factors Affecting Water Potentialsp. 99
5.3.3 Potential Differences and Gradientsp. 100
5.4 Constraints to Water Movementp. 101
5.4.1 Conductivity in Soilp. 101
5.4.2 Conductivity in Soil-Plant Systemsp. 104
5.5 Water Stress in Plantsp. 104
5.6 Evapotranspirationp. 106
5.6.1 Factors Controlling Evaporation and Transpirationp. 106
5.6.2 Measurement of Water Usep. 106
Water Movement and Environmentp. 107
Summaryp. 108
Questionsp. 108
Further Readingp. 109
Supplement 5-1 Capillarityp. 110
6 Managing Soil Waterp. 111
6.1 Water Management Conceptsp. 112
6.1.1 Nonirrigated Landp. 113
6.1.2 Irrigated Agriculturep. 113
6.2 Water Extraction and Infiltration Patternsp. 114
6.2.1 Extraction by Plantsp. 114
6.2.2 Infiltrationp. 115
6.3 Irrigation Methodsp. 117
6.3.1 Flood and Furrow Irrigationp. 118
6.3.2 Sprinkler and Drip Irrigationp. 125
6.4 Drainagep. 126
6.5 Water Use Efficiencyp. 131
6.5.1 Biomass-Transpiration Ratiop. 131
6.5.2 Biomass-Evapotranspiration Ratiop. 131
6.5.3 Growth per Unit of Water Applied (or Available)p. 131
Land and Water Managementp. 132
6.5.4 Yield Efficiency and Economic Efficiencyp. 133
Summaryp. 133
Questionsp. 133
Further Readingp. 134
7 Soil Organismsp. 135
7.1 Soil Communitiesp. 136
7.1.1 Kinds of Organisms in Soilp. 136
7.1.2 Proliferation, Spread, and Survivalp. 137
7.1.3 Requirements and Adaptations of Microbesp. 138
7.2 Large Organismsp. 140
7.2.1 Plants and Their Rootsp. 140
7.2.2 Soil Animalsp. 142
7.3 Soil Microorganismsp. 144
7.3.1 Protozoa and Algaep. 144
7.3.2 Nematodesp. 144
7.3.3 Fungip. 145
7.3.4 Bacteria (Monera)p. 145
7.3.5 Virusesp. 146
7.4 Constraints and Adaptationsp. 147
7.4.1 Physical Constraintsp. 147
7.4.2 Acidity, Salinity, and Other Chemical Inhibitorsp. 148
7.4.3 Nutritional Constraints: Nitrogenp. 148
7.4.4 Nutritional Constraints: Energy and Carbonp. 149
7.5 Associations of Microorganisms with Plantsp. 149
7.5.1 Rhizosphere Organismsp. 149
7.5.2 Root Pathogens and Parasitesp. 150
7.5.3 Symbioses between Plants and Soil Microorganismsp. 150
Summaryp. 154
Questionsp. 154
Environmental Bugsp. 155
Further Readingp. 155
Web Resourcesp. 155
Supplement 7-1 Rhizobium-Legume Symbiosesp. 156
Supplement 7-2 Mycorrhizaep. 156
Supplement 7-3 Nutritional Adaptationsp. 156
8 Miorobial Processesp. 158
8.1 Decomposition of Organic Matterp. 159
8.1.1 General Process of Organic-Matter Decayp. 159
8.1.2 Carbon Dioxide Production and Oxygen Consumptionp. 163
8.1.3 Humus Formationp. 164
8.1.4 Release and Immobilization of N and Other Nutrientsp. 166
8.1.5 Decay Rates and Controlling Factorsp. 166
8.1.6 Managing Soil Organic Matterp. 168
Carbon Sequestrationp. 169
8.2 Oxidation of Ammonium, Sulfur, Iron, and Manganesep. 170
8.2.1 Processesp. 170
8.2.2 Requirements and Consequencesp. 170
8.3 Anoxic Processesp. 171
8.3.1 Depletion of Oxygen: Reducing Conditionsp. 171
8.3.2 Flooded Soilsp. 172
8.4 Carbon and Nitrogen Cyclesp. 174
8.4.1 Carbon Cycling in the Soil-Plant Systemp. 174
8.4.2 Nitrogen Cycling in the Soil-Plant Systemp. 175
8.4.3 Nitrogen Cycling and Soil Fertilityp. 179
The Work of Microbesp. 180
8.5 Biodegradation of Chemicals in Soilp. 181
8.5.1 Biodegradation, Sorption, and Diffusionp. 181
8.5.2 Bioremediationp. 182
Summaryp. 183
Questionsp. 184
Further Readingp. 184
Supplement 8-1 Biological Compoundsp. 185
Supplement 8-2 Oxidation and Reductionp. 188
9 Mineral Nutrients in Soils and Plantsp. 190
9.1 Nutrient Elements in Plantsp. 191
9.1.1 Elemental Composition of Plantsp. 191
9.1.2 Forms and Functions of Nutrients in Plantsp. 192
9.1.3 Uptake and Movement of Nutrients within Plantsp. 193
9.2 Retention and Release of Nutrients in Soilp. 196
9.2.1 Soil Solution and Solid Nutrient Reservesp. 196
9.2.2 Release Processesp. 197
9.3 Movement of Ions to Rootsp. 199
9.3.1 Significance and Processesp. 199
9.3.2 Nutrient Transport Ratesp. 199
9.3.3 Nutrient Mobility in Soilp. 200
9.4 Root Growth and Developmentp. 201
9.4.1 Characteristics and Functions of Root Systemsp. 201
9.4.2 Factors Affecting Root Developmentp. 202
9.5 Nutrient Availability and Deficiencyp. 204
Nutrients, Fertilizers, and Sustainable Land Usep. 206
Summaryp. 206
Questionsp. 207
Further Readingp. 207
Supplement 9-1 Nutrient Elements in Plantsp. 207
Supplement 9-2 Nutrient Reserves and Release in Soilp. 208
Supplement 9-3 Nutrient Availability and Soil pHp. 210
10 Managing Plant Nutrientsp. 212
10.1 Fertilizersp. 213
10.1.1 Common Fertilizer Materialsp. 213
10.1.2 Comparisons and Choicesp. 217
10.2 Determining Fertilizer Needs: Deficiency Diagnosisp. 220
10.2.1 Kinds of Diagnosesp. 220
10.2.2 Nutrient Response Summaryp. 236
Questionsp. 236
Experiments with Plantsp. 220
10.2.3 Supplemental Diagnostic Proceduresp. 224
10.3 Fertilizer Efficiency and Nutrient Conservationp. 227
10.3.1 Methods and Timing of Fertilizer Applicationp. 227
10.3.2 Nutrient Cycling and the Control of Lossesp. 227
Farming by Soilp. 232
10.3.3 Improving Nutrient Efficiency of Plantsp. 235
Nutrients Efficiency, Energy Conservation and Soil Conservationp. 236
Summaryp. 236
Questionsp. 236
Further Readingp. 237
Web Resourcesp. 237
Supplement 10-1 Fertilizers: Specifications and Calculationsp. 237
11 Acidity and Salinityp. 240
11.1 Acidity and Related Problemsp. 241
11.1.1 Nature and Causesp. 241
11.1.2 Effects of Acidity, Al, and Mnp. 242
11.1.3 Management of Soil Acidityp. 245
11.2 Salinity and Related Problemsp. 249
11.2.1 Nature and Causesp. 249
11.2.2 Effects of Salinity, Sodicity, and Alkalinityp. 250
11.2.3 Management of Saline and Sodic Soilsp. 252
Acid Precipitationp. 257
Summaryp. 257
Questionsp. 258
Further Readingp. 258
Supplement 11-1 Acids, Bases, and Exchangeable Basesp. 259
Supplement 11-2 Aluminum and Manganese Reactionsp. 260
Supplement 11-3 Acidifying and Alkalinizing Reactionsp. 260
Supplement 11-4 pH Buffering and Lime Requirementsp. 261
Supplement 11-5 Diagnostic Testsp. 263
Supplement 11-6 Salt, Cations, and Colloid Dispersionp. 264
Supplement 11-7 Acid Precipitation in Cool, Humid Forestsp. 264
12 Soil Genesisp. 267
12.1 Factors of Soil Formationp. 268
12.1.1 Parent Materialp. 270
Soil Stability, Nuclear Plants, and Sustainable Agriculturep. 272
12.1.2 Climatep. 277
Dustp. 273
12.1.3 Topographyp. 278
12.1.4 Biotap. 279
12.1.5 Timep. 280
12.1.6 People as Soil Formersp. 280
12.1.7 A Soil Formation Equationp. 281
12.1.8 Soil-Forming Factors: Some Interactionsp. 281
Wetlandsp. 282
12.2 Processes of Soil Formationp. 285
12.2.1 Physical Weatheringp. 285
12.2.2 Chemical Weatheringp. 286
12.2.3 Translocationp. 288
12.2.4 Clay Formationp. 288
12.3 Productsp. 289
12.3.1 Mineral Soilsp. 289
12.3.2 Organic Soilsp. 295
12.3.3 Hydric Soilsp. 298
Summaryp. 298
Questionsp. 298
Further Readingp. 299
Supplement 12-1 Acidificationp. 299
Supplement 12-2 Solutionp. 299
Supplement 12-3 Clay Formationp. 299
13 Soil Informationp. 301
13.1 Kinds of Soil Informationp. 302
13.1.1 Geographic Datap. 302
13.1.2 Point Datap. 306
13.1.3 Soil Variabilityp. 307
13.2 Collecting and Displaying Informationp. 309
13.2.1 Making a Soil Mapp. 309
13.2.2 Remote Sensingp. 310
13.2.3 Geographic Data Handlingp. 315
Summaryp. 318
Questionsp. 318
Soil Survey as Resource Basep. 319
Further Readingp. 319
Web Resourcesp. 319
Supplement 13-1 Section-Range Systemp. 319
Supplement 13-2 Orders of the Soil Surveyp. 320
14 Organizing Soils Informationp. 321
14.1 Natural Systemsp. 322
14.1.1 Why Organize Information?p. 322
14.1.2 Kinds of Organizationp. 322
14.1.3 Soil Taxonomyp. 322
Sustainable Agriculturep. 338
14.1.4 Other Systemsp. 338
14.2 Interpretive Systemsp. 338
14.2.1 USDA Land Capability Classificationp. 338
Appropriate Land Usep. 340
14.2.2 Timber and Range Site Indicesp. 341
14.2.3 Special-Purpose Groupingsp. 342
Summaryp. 346
Questionsp. 346
Further Readingp. 347
Web Resourcesp. 347
Supplement 14-1 Suborders: An Examplep. 347
Supplement 14-2 The Canadian and WRB Soil Classification Systemsp. 348
Supplement 14-3 The Storie Index Systemp. 349
15 Soil Degradationp. 353
15.1 Soil Erosionp. 354
15.1.1 Water Erosionp. 354
Air and Water Qualityp. 356
15.1.2 Wind Erosionp. 361
15.1.3 Gravity Erosion (Mass Wasting)p. 363
15.2 Physical Degradationp. 365
15.2.1 Surface Crusts and Sealsp. 365
15.2.2 Compactionp. 366
15.3 Chemical Degradationp. 367
15.3.1 Nature of the Problemp. 367
15.3.2 Contaminant Interactions with Soilp. 367
15.3.3 Treating Contaminated Soilsp. 370
The MTBE Storyp. 371
15.4 Degradation Controlp. 372
15.4.1 Erosion Controlp. 372
15.4.2 Control of Physical Degradationp. 379
15.5 Special Problemsp. 381
15.5.1 Desertificationp. 381
15.5.2 Organic Soil Degradationp. 382
Summaryp. 382
Questionsp. 383
Further Readingp. 383
Web Resourcesp. 384
16 Nonagricultural Uses of Silsp. 385
16.1 Waste Disposal on Soilsp. 386
16.1.1 On-Site Disposalp. 386
16.1.2 Off-Site Disposalp. 389
Waste Disposalp. 393
16.2 Engineering Propertiesp. 394
16.2.1 Soil Strengthp. 394
16.2.2 Atterberg Limitsp. 394
16.2.3 Shrink-Swellp. 396
16.3 Recreation and Constructionp. 398
16.3.1 Recreational Facilitiesp. 398
16.3.2 Constructionp. 398
16.4 Reclaimed and Artificial Soilsp. 398
16.4.1 Poldersp. 398
16.4.2 Mine Soilsp. 400
16.4.3 Turf and Golf Greensp. 402
16.4.4 Horticultural Mixesp. 402
16.4.5 Urban Soilsp. 403
Summaryp. 404
Questionsp. 404
Further Readingp. 405
Web Resourcesp. 405
Supplement 16-1 Perc Testp. 405
Supplement 16-2 Suitability Criteria for Recreationp. 405

Google Preview