Cover image for Set lighting technician's handbook : film lighting equipment, practice, and electrical distribution
Title:
Set lighting technician's handbook : film lighting equipment, practice, and electrical distribution
Author:
Box, Harry C.
Personal Author:
Edition:
Third edition.
Publication Information:
Amsterdam ; Boston : Focal Press, [2003]

©2003
Physical Description:
xxiii, 558 pages : illustrations ; 24 cm
Language:
English
ISBN:
9780240804958
Format :
Book

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Summary

Summary

Comprehensive. Detailed. Practical. Set Lighting Technician's Handbook, Third Edition is a friendly, hands-on manual covering the day-to-day practices, equipment, and tricks of the trade essential to anyone doing motion picture lighting. This handbook offers a wealth of practical technical information, useful techniques, as well as aesthetic discussions. The Set Lighting Technician's Handbook focuses on what is important when working on-set: trouble-shooting, teamwork, set protocol, and safety. It describes tricks and techniques for operating a vast array of lighting equipment including xenons, camera synchronous strobes, black lights, underwater units, lighting effects units, and many others. Since its first edition, this handy on-set reference continues to be widely adopted as a training and reference manual by union training programs as well as top university film production programs. New in the third edition is an expanded resource section, new illustrations and tables, and coverage of new lighting products and techniques for how to use them.


Author Notes

Harry C. Box is a Hollywood-based gaffer and director of photography


Reviews 1

Choice Review

This how-to book for cinematographers and lighting gaffers was written by a man with extensive experience in the field. The opening chapter explains who does what in lighting a Hollywood film, and those who are interested can learn a great deal in general about how light is produced, how it behaves, and how it can be manipulated. Box concerns himself primarily with types of lights, filters, rigging, power sources, tools, and the like. Want to know how to light an underwater scene? This book will tell you. There are charts and lists galore. In fact, the book's great virtues are its clarity and its comprehensiveness. In future editions, Box could perhaps add a chapter or two on lighting for digital video and other low-budget filmmaking options. That would make it more attractive to film students everywhere. ^BSumming Up: Optional. Two-year technical students and film professionals. W. A. Vincent Michigan State University


Table of Contents

List of Tablesp. xv
List of Appendicesp. xvii
Prefacep. xxi
1 Set Basics: Your First Barbecuep. 1
Job Descriptions of the Lighting Crewp. 1
Director of Photographyp. 1
Gafferp. 2
Best Boy Electricp. 3
Electriciansp. 4
Rigging Crewp. 5
The Fixtures Guyp. 5
Generator Operatorp. 5
Grip Departmentp. 6
The Companyp. 7
Production Staffp. 7
The Director's Teamp. 8
Camera Departmentp. 9
Sound Departmentp. 9
Locationsp. 10
Transportationp. 10
Art Departmentp. 11
Civiliansp. 11
Block, Light, Rehearse, Tweak, Shootp. 12
2 Preproduction Planning: Lighting Package, Expendables, and Personal Toolsp. 15
Preproduction Planningp. 15
Scouting Locationsp. 16
Production Meetingsp. 17
Equipment Packagep. 17
Loading the Production Vanp. 21
Expendable Suppliesp. 22
Gels and Diffusionp. 23
Electrical Expendablesp. 24
Tools and Personal Gearp. 28
Tool Beltp. 28
Metersp. 31
Other Hand Toolsp. 31
Personal Gearp. 32
Grip Equipmentp. 33
Shiny Boardsp. 33
Overhead Setsp. 33
Cartsp. 34
Mounting Hardwarep. 36
Dolliesp. 36
Other Grip Equipmentp. 37
Grip Expendablesp. 37
3 Light Fixtures--The Basic Tungsten Arsenalp. 39
Tungsten Lightp. 39
Tungsten Color Balancep. 39
The Tungsten Bulbp. 40
Fresnelsp. 40
Fresnel Beamp. 42
Creative Uses of Flood and Spotp. 46
The Globe and Its Installationp. 46
Fresnel Accessoriesp. 47
Soft Lightsp. 51
Open-Face Lightsp. 53
Prime Fixturesp. 54
Broads and Nook Lightsp. 54
Light Kitsp. 54
PAR Lightsp. 55
PAR Lampsp. 55
PAR Fixturesp. 57
Ellipsoidal Reflector Spotlights (Lekos)p. 59
Bulb Adjustment and Installationsp. 60
Area Lights and Backing Lightsp. 63
Chicken Coops and Space Lightsp. 63
Scoop Lights and Sky Pansp. 64
Cyc Strips, Ground Rows, and Bordersp. 64
Small Fixturesp. 65
Screw-Base Fixturesp. 65
Stick-up Kitsp. 66
Dedolightsp. 67
4 Light Fixtures--The Basic HMI Arsenalp. 69
HMI Fixturesp. 69
HMI Fresnelsp. 70
HMI PARsp. 71
HMI "Open-Face" Lightsp. 72
HMI Soft Lightsp. 73
Small HMI Fixtures--Sun Guns and Modular Multiuse Fixturesp. 73
HMI Operationp. 76
Setting Upp. 76
Strikingp. 77
Troubleshootingp. 78
HMI "Flicker" and Flicker-Free Ballastsp. 82
Standard Magnetic Ballastsp. 82
Square-Wave Electronic Ballastsp. 82
Power Factor Correction Circuitsp. 85
DMX-Controlled Ballastsp. 87
Troubleshootingp. 87
DCI Lamps and Ballastsp. 90
Three-Head, Three-Phase Solutionp. 90
HMI-Type Lampsp. 91
Relamping HMI Headsp. 93
HMI Lamp Characteristics and Hazardsp. 94
5 Fluorescent Lightsp. 97
History of Fluorescent Lightsp. 97
Kino Flop. 97
Kino Flo 120-V Systemsp. 98
12-V DC Kits: 12-V Single, Mini Flo, and Micro Flop. 103
Using Kino Flo Fixturesp. 105
Troubleshootingp. 106
Building a Film-Friendly Fluorescent System from Commercially Available Partsp. 108
High-Frequency Ballastsp. 108
Color-Correct Fluorescent Tubesp. 108
Some Additional Notes about Fluorescent Lightsp. 108
6 Stands and Riggingp. 111
Standsp. 111
Baby Standsp. 111
Junior Standsp. 113
Offsets, Side Arms, Extensions, and Right Anglesp. 116
Using Standsp. 117
Crank-up and Motorized Standsp. 117
Grip Standsp. 119
Boomsp. 122
Stand Maintenancep. 123
Rigging Hardwarep. 123
Baby and Junior Nail-on Platesp. 123
Set Wall Mountsp. 124
Clampsp. 124
Grids and Green Bedsp. 127
Location Rigging Hardwarep. 128
7 Lighting Objectives and Methodsp. 131
Lighting Objectivesp. 131
Visibility (or Selective Visibility)p. 131
Naturalismp. 132
Compositionp. 132
Time Constraintsp. 134
Light Level, Exposure, Contrast, and Meteringp. 134
Foot-Candlesp. 134
F-Stopsp. 135
Taking Readings with an Incident Light Meterp. 137
Contrast, Latitude, and the Zone Systemp. 138
Spot Metersp. 142
Light Levelp. 144
The Genesis of Lighting Ideasp. 145
The Process of Creating Natural Lightingp. 146
Motivating Light Sourcesp. 147
Establishing the Key Lightp. 148
Backlights, Kickers, and Hair Lightsp. 154
Fillp. 155
Set Lightp. 156
Lighting the Scenep. 156
Living Room Scenep. 156
Exterior Night Scenep. 159
8 Manipulating Light: Tools, Techniques, and the Behavior of Lightp. 163
Colorp. 163
Color Correctionp. 163
Kelvin Color-Temperature Scalep. 164
Using MIRED Units to Calculate Color Shiftsp. 165
Color-Temperature Meterp. 167
Color-Correction Gelsp. 169
Coloring Lightp. 173
Brightnessp. 175
Methods of Controlp. 175
Falloff--Your Friend, the Inverse Square Lawp. 177
Dimmersp. 178
Shape, Pattern, and Formp. 180
Making Cuts and Patternsp. 181
Soft Lightp. 184
Diffusionp. 186
Other Ways of Making Soft Lightp. 188
Movementp. 195
Flicker Effects: Television Screen, Flame, and Firep. 195
Moving Lightsp. 197
9 Electrician's Set Protocol and Aerial Liftsp. 199
Set Protocolp. 199
Staging Areap. 199
Lighting the Setp. 200
Stingers and Cablingp. 207
Small Bulbs, Practicals, Wiring, and Switchesp. 211
Types of Bulbsp. 211
Controlling Practicalsp. 213
Light Cuesp. 213
Wiring Small Fixturesp. 214
Safetyp. 217
Laddersp. 217
Parallelsp. 218
Working Aloftp. 218
Protecting Floorsp. 218
Sprinkler Systemsp. 219
Smoke, Fire, and Other Bad Smellsp. 219
Lamp Repairp. 220
The Wrapp. 220
Coiling Feeder Cablep. 221
Inventoryp. 221
Aerial Lifts and High Platforms for Lightingp. 221
Getting the Right Machine for the Jobp. 223
Straight Mast Boom Lifts (Condors)p. 227
Rigging Lights and Cablep. 238
Condor Dutyp. 242
Shooting in the Rainp. 243
Cabling and Distributionp. 243
Rain Tentsp. 243
Lighting Rainp. 243
Shooting on Moving Vehiclesp. 245
10 Specialty Lightingp. 247
Big Gunsp. 247
Set Lightingp. 248
Carbon Are Lightsp. 251
Moonlight Rigsp. 259
Lighting Balloonsp. 259
Soft Boxp. 262
Fisher Lightsp. 262
Truck-Mounted Tower Lights (Musco)p. 262
Effects Lightsp. 265
Xenon Lightsp. 265
Beam Projectorsp. 267
Automated Lightsp. 268
Black Lightsp. 269
Fiber Opticsp. 270
Neonp. 271
Follow Spotsp. 271
Operating a Follow Spotp. 272
Lightning Effectsp. 273
Lightning Strikes!p. 273
Control Unitsp. 275
Power Requirementsp. 275
Thundervoltz Battery Packsp. 277
Generatorsp. 277
Lighting Matte Photographyp. 277
Pure Screen Color Densityp. 278
Lighting the Foregroundp. 278
Lighting Automobilesp. 281
Underwater Lightingp. 282
Scuba Training and Certificationp. 282
The Old Drop-a-Bulb-in-the-Pool Methodp. 283
Modern Underwater Fixturesp. 283
Lighting Underwaterp. 287
Electricity and Waterp. 289
High-Speed Photography and Camera-Synchronous Strobe Lightingp. 291
Unilux H3000 Systemp. 291
Sync Delay Boxp. 294
Split Syncp. 295
Special Effects Generatorp. 295
Notesp. 296
11 Electricityp. 297
The Fundamentals of Electricity and Electrical Equationsp. 297
Amperes (Current)p. 297
Volts (Electromotive Force)p. 298
Watts (Power)p. 298
The Power Equationp. 299
Resistance and Ohm's Lawp. 301
Parallel and Series Circuitsp. 304
How Not to Use Electrical Equations--Beavis the Electricianp. 308
Circuits, Circuit Protection, and Cablep. 310
Short Circuit and Overcurrent Protectionp. 311
The Current-Carrying Capacity of Cablep. 312
Types of Feeder Cablep. 314
Types of Distribution Circuitsp. 316
Direct Current and Alternating Currentp. 316
Direct Current: Three-Wire Edison Systemp. 319
Alternating Current: Single-Phase Three-Wire Systemp. 320
Three-Phase, Four-Wire Systemsp. 322
Electrical Systems in Other Parts of the Worldp. 327
Groundingp. 328
System Groundingp. 328
Equipment Groundingp. 328
Line Lossp. 330
Effects of Line Loss and Low Voltagep. 331
Other Causes of Line Lossp. 331
Line Loss Calculationsp. 332
Using U.K. Voltage Drop Tablesp. 336
Power Problems from Electronic Loadsp. 337
Power Factorp. 338
Excessive Current on the Neutral Wirep. 341
Meters for Measuring Electricityp. 341
Circuit Testersp. 343
Measuring Voltagep. 343
Measuring Frequency (Hertz Rate)p. 344
Measuring Amperagep. 344
Testing Continuity and Testing for Shortsp. 344
Wattmeter or Power Meterp. 345
Electrical Shock and Muscle Freezep. 346
Electrical, Building, and Fire Codesp. 348
The National Electrical Codep. 348
Fire and Building Codesp. 352
OSHA and the Industry-Wide Labor-Management Safety Committeep. 352
12 Distribution Equipment, Rigging, and Dimmersp. 353
DC Three-Wire Systemp. 354
DC Cansp. 354
Sister Lugsp. 354
Spider Boxesp. 355
Remote Switchboardsp. 355
Mole Pin Connectorsp. 357
DC Paddle-and-Stage Box Systemp. 358
Plate Dimmersp. 360
AC Systemsp. 361
Main Feeder Runp. 361
AC-Power Distribution Boxesp. 364
Bates Three-Pin Connectorsp. 365
Edison Boxesp. 372
Socapex Connectors and Cablep. 373
Adaptersp. 377
Meltric and Abbott Systemp. 379
European Distribution Systemsp. 380
Riggingp. 384
Distribution Strategyp. 385
Set Power--the "Ring of Fire"p. 385
Planning the Rigp. 386
Rigging the Setp. 391
Electronic Dimmer Systemsp. 400
How an SCR Dimmer Worksp. 400
Control Signalsp. 402
Control Consolesp. 402
Definitionsp. 403
Strand CD 80 Packp. 404
Troubleshootingp. 408
13 Power Sourcesp. 411
Generatorsp. 411
Putt-Putts (Portable Honda Generators)p. 411
Full-Size Generatorsp. 412
Generator Placementp. 414
Generator Operationp. 415
Grounding Generatorsp. 417
Selecting a Generatorp. 419
Electrical Configurationsp. 420
Basic Troubleshootingp. 420
Troubleshooting--Mechanicalp. 421
Troubleshooting--Electrical Problemsp. 423
Wet Cell Battery Packs and Invertersp. 425
Inverter Systemsp. 425
Battery Packs (120-V DC)p. 425
Power on Locationp. 426
Line Dropsp. 426
Tie-insp. 427
Using Available Powerp. 432
14 The Work Worldp. 433
The Unionsp. 433
Hollywood: Local 728p. 433
Basic Agreementp. 435
Appendicesp. 437
Glossaryp. 525
Bibliographyp. 543
Indexp. 545