Cover image for Personality in work organizations
Personality in work organizations
James, Lawrence R.
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Publication Information:
Thousand Oaks : Sage Publications, [2002]

Physical Description:
xii, 252 pages : illustrations ; 23 cm.
The role of personality in organizations. John's description of his supervisor -- The view of John's coworkers -- Use of personality and social cognition to explain individual differences in framing and analysis -- Justification mechanisms for aggression -- Socially adaptive individuals -- Conditional reasoning -- General comment : personality in organizations -- Organization of this book -- Fundamental concepts of personality. Traits : the behavioral indicators of personality -- The trait of achievement motivation -- Characteristics of traits -- The trait of fear of failure -- A caveat of multiple causation -- Causes of traits : needs (motives) -- The need to achieve -- The need to avoid failure -- Resultant achievement-oriented tendency and relative motive strength -- How do needs influence traits? -- The mediating role of social cognition in need-trait relationships -- Conditional reasoning as a product of justification mechanisms -- The five themes of the social cognitive approach : a further attempt to integrate the trait and social cognition approaches -- Developmental and self-regulatory processes for AMs -- Environmental influences on motivation : the person-by-situation interaction and person-environment fit -- Cross-situational consistency, situational specificity, and coherence -- Personality variables. Prominent traits in contemporary personality -- The etiology of "trait" -- Allport and the idiographic versus nomothetic approach to traits -- The organization of traits -- Broad categories of the social cognitions that are used to justify characteristic behavioral adjustments -- Types of implicit biases that give rise to justification mechanisms -- How JMs influence reasoning strategies -- Implicit biases : wanted or unwanted -- The measurement of personality in organizational settings. Criteria for evaluating measurement procedures -- Reliability -- Validity -- Exemplars of measurement techniques for personality -- Self-report measures -- Projective techniques -- Conditional reasoning measures -- An efficient, indirect system for measuring implicit reasoning biases -- Justification mechanisms -- Use of discretionary judgments of logical persuasiveness to make inferences about JMs -- Conditional reasoning test for aggression -- Model for empirical validation analyses -- Psychometric evaluation of conditional reasoning test for aggression -- Estimates of reliability -- Results of eight empirical validation studies -- Three fertile domains for future personality research in organizations -- Integrative models of personality assessment -- Channeling hypothesis -- Integrative model -- Integrative models based on self-reports and conditional reasoning -- Integrative model of assessment for aggression -- Test of the integrative model for aggression -- Integrative model of assessment for achievement motivation -- Measurement of relative motive strength via conditional reasoning -- Tests of the integrative model of achievement motivation -- General comments regarding integrative models -- Coherence -- Situational discriminativeness in organizational research -- In search of coherence -- Differential framing -- Does job satisfaction have dispositional components?
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HF5548.8 .J256 2002 Adult Non-Fiction Central Closed Stacks

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This is a book about the past, present and future of personality at work. It begins by introducing the principal concepts of current personality theory. A concerted effort is made to communicate the sense of coherence that exists among the components of personality such as needs, traits, social cognition, and emotions. The `Five Factor Model′ of traits is described. This work also gives an overview of the techniques used to evaluate personality and is a useful guide to personality research with suggestions on how it can be integrated into organizational research.

Author Notes

He holds the Pilot Oil Chair of Excellence in Management and Industrial/Organizational Psychology at The University of Tennessee. He is a Fellow of the American Psychological Society. He earned his Ph.D. at the University of Utah in 1970, soon after which he was awarded a National Research Council Post-doctorate. He joined the faculty at the Institute of Behavior Research, Texas Christian University, where he attained the rank of Professor and headed the Organizational-Industrial Research Group. In 1980, he moved to the Georgia Institute of Technology where he was a Professor of Psychology and Coordinator of the Industrial/Organizational Psychology Program. Dr. James moved to The University of Tennessee in 1988.


Reviews 1

Choice Review

This volume contributes to a regeneration of interest in personality as it pertains to industrial-organizational psychology. Traditionally, the two domains of personality measured are needs and traits, which are complementary though unrelated. Measured with projective tests, needs are highly subjective and unreliable; behaviorally oriented and measured by self-report questionnaires, traits are reliable but not the primary causes of performance. James (Univ.of Tennessee, Knoxville) and Mazerolle (in industry) present a novel framework that integrates these two domains with the intervening concept of social cognition: needs generate social cognitions (judgments, beliefs, values, etc.), which in turn shape traits (behavioral adjustments to environments). The authors explicate this notion with five observations: people assign personal meanings to events that affect them; people make and justify decisions; people plan and regulate courses of action; environments can influence motivation; people select when and where to activate needs. The authors illustrate their approach with selected personality variables, and they describe three fertile domains for future research: integrative models of assessment (i.e., uniting measures of needs and traits), coherence (defining traits as recurring patterns in diverse situations); differential framing (individuals impute qualitatively different meanings to behavior, people, etc.). Reminiscent of Gordon Allport's Personality (1937), this is a stimulating and creative treatise on an "old chestnut." All academic collections. D. Sydiaha emeritus, University of Saskatchewan

Table of Contents

Introduction to the Series
1 The Role of Personality in Organizations
John's Description of His Supervisor
The View of John's Coworkers
Use of Personality and Social Cognition to Explain Individual Differences in Framing
General Comment: Personality in Organizations
Organization of This Book
2 Fundamental Concepts of Personality
Traits: The Behavioral Indicators of Personality
Causes of Traits: Needs (Motives)
The Mediating Role of Social Cognition in Need-Trait Relationships
Concluding Comments
3 Personality Variables
Prominent Traits in Contemporary Personality
Broad Categories of the Social Cognitions That Are Used to Justify Characteristic Behavioral Adjustments
Implicit Biases: Wanted or Unwanted
4 The Measurement of Personality in Organizational Settings
Criteria for Evaluating Measurement Procedures
Exemplars of Measurement Techniques for Personality
An Efficient, Indirect System for Measuring Implicit Reasoning Biases
Model for Empirical Validation Analyses
Psychometric Evaluation of the Conditional Reasoning Test for Aggression
Concluding Comments
5 Three Fertile Domains for Future Personality Research in Organizations
Integrative Models of Personality Assessment
Differential Framing
Closing Comments
About the Authors