Cover image for Sewage solutions : answering the call of nature
Title:
Sewage solutions : answering the call of nature
Author:
Grant, Nick.
Personal Author:
Publication Information:
Machynlleth : Centre for Alternative Technology, [2000]

©2000
Physical Description:
191 pages : illustrations ; 22 cm
General Note:
Includes index.
Language:
English
ISBN:
9781898049166
Format :
Book

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Summary

Summary

Rather than polluting watercourses with sewage, many ways exist to recycle it. Sewage Solutions explains such natural methods of treatment as reed beds, cess pits, water stabilization ponds, septic tanks and compost toilets, and also describes how to collect and recycle waste water. Whether connected to municipal drain systems or not, this is the guide for all interested in the complete process of sewage recycling.Note that this book originates from Europe and may contain measurement units, etc. not commonly used in the US.


Author Notes

The authors are all consultants on a wide range of water and wastewater issues.


Table of Contents

The authorsp. 5
Forewordp. 11
Introductionp. 13
The subject of this bookp. 13
A note on vocabularyp. 14
A warning about pathogensp. 15
Chapter 1 The Big Circlep. 17
The big circlep. 17
Sewage and the big circlep. 18
Sewage breakdown and the mineral solutionp. 18
Conditions for digestionp. 19
Reintegrationp. 20
Using the big circlep. 22
Summaryp. 23
Chapter 2 Treating Sewagep. 25
What is in domestic sewagep. 26
Why treat sewage?p. 27
Aerobic or anaerobic?p. 28
Treatment stagesp. 29
Preliminary treatmentp. 29
Primary treatmentp. 30
Secondary treatmentp. 30
Tertiary treatmentp. 32
Summaryp. 32
Chapter 3 Sewage Treatment Systemsp. 35
Choosing a treatment systemp. 35
Sewage treatment technologiesp. 36
Cesspoolsp. 37
Septic tanksp. 37
Settlement tanksp. 40
Bark ringsp. 41
Solids separatorsp. 43
Percolating filtersp. 44
Package plantsp. 47
Vertical flow reed bedsp. 52
Horizontal flow reed bedsp. 55
Waste stabilisation pondsp. 56
Leachfieldsp. 58
Willows and trenchesp. 62
Living machinesp. 62
If it ain't broke don't fix itp. 64
The horizontal reed bed fixp. 65
Summaryp. 66
Chapter 4 Monitoring and Regulationsp. 69
Monitoring Methodsp. 69
The jam-jar methodp. 70
The turbidity tubep. 70
Biochemical testsp. 71
The major determinands: SS and BODp. 72
Other determinandsp. 75
A worked examplep. 83
Biotic indicesp. 86
Regulators and Regulationsp. 90
Current uncertaintiesp. 90
The regulators and their rolesp. 91
Town and country planning Departmentp. 91
Building regulations Departmentp. 91
Environmental regulationsp. 92
Discharge consentsp. 92
Summaryp. 94
Chapter 5 Avoiding Generation of Blackwaterp. 97
From muck into gold - the process of forming humusp. 97
Soil versus waterp. 98
Humusp. 98
The choicep. 100
The challenge of making humusp. 101
How to make humanurep. 102
Composting toiletsp. 102
Composting toilets and healthp. 105
The challenges of composting human muckp. 106
Urine collectionp. 110
Electric toilets and chemical toiletsp. 112
Returning humanure to the soil; a word of cautionp. 113
Designer's flowchartp. 115
Designer's checklistp. 116
Summaryp. 120
Chapter 6 Using Domestic Water Wiselyp. 123
What you can put down the drainp. 123
Detergents and household cleaning agentsp. 124
Eco balls?p. 127
Other chemicalsp. 128
Water conservation in the homep. 129
Why conserve water?p. 129
Reasons to save waterp. 130
Order of priorities: reduce, reuse, recyclep. 130
Developing awareness, changing habitsp. 131
Leak pluggingp. 132
Technical solutionsp. 132
Toiletsp. 133
Showers, baths and basinsp. 138
Dead legsp. 139
Combi boilersp. 140
Tapsp. 140
White goodsp. 142
Water metersp. 142
Gardensp. 143
Reusing waterp. 143
Rainwater harvestingp. 143
Autonomus rainwater systemp. 145
Water recyclingp. 147
Summaryp. 149
Chapter 7 Back to Lifep. 151
Humusp. 152
The nutrient solutionp. 152
Discharge to waterp. 152
Discharge to soilp. 153
Aquaculturep. 154
Irrigating willowsp. 157
Irrigating other plantsp. 158
Flowformsp. 160
Summaryp. 163
Conclusionp. 165
Case studiesp. 167
Glossaryp. 181
Bibliographyp. 185
Resourcesp. 185
Indexp. 187
Further readingp. 191