Cover image for Fundamentals of site remediation : for metal- and hydrocarbon-contaminated soils
Title:
Fundamentals of site remediation : for metal- and hydrocarbon-contaminated soils
Author:
Pichtel, John, 1957-
Personal Author:
Publication Information:
Rockville, Md. : Government Institutes, [2000]

©2000
Physical Description:
xxiv, 358 pages : illustrations ; 23 cm
Language:
English
ISBN:
9780865876897
Format :
Book

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Summary

Summary

This introductory manual addresses environmental site restoration practices that both ensure compliance with federal statutes and prevent further contamination or expense. Emphasizing environmental chemistry, soil science, microbiology, plant science, and the underlying chemical processes, Fundamentals of Site Remediation incorporates relevant chemical principles into the cleanup and removal of hazardous chemicals from soil, geological strata, and groundwater.


Author Notes

John Pichtel is a Professor of Natural Resources and Environmental Management at Ball State University in Muncie, Indiana. He is a Certified Hazardous Materials Manager and a Certified Professional Soils Specialist


Table of Contents

List of Figures, Photos, and Tablesp. xv
Prefacep. xxi
Acknowledgementsp. xxiii
About the Authorp. xxiv
Chapter 1 How Did We Get Here? A Brief Historyp. 1
Introductionp. 1
Brownfieldsp. 9
CERCLA and the Superfundp. 9
"It ain't over 'til it's over"p. 14
Referencesp. 21
Chapter 2 Chemistry of Common Contaminant Elementsp. 23
Introductionp. 23
The Elementsp. 25
Arsenicp. 25
Bariump. 27
Cadmiump. 29
Chromiump. 31
Leadp. 33
Mercuryp. 37
Nickelp. 41
Seleniump. 42
Zincp. 44
Referencesp. 46
Chapter 3 Hydrocarbon Chemistry and Propertiesp. 53
Introductionp. 53
Structure and Nomenclaturep. 54
Aliphatic Hydrocarbonsp. 54
Alkanesp. 55
Substitution in Aliphaticsp. 56
Alkenesp. 57
Alkynesp. 58
Aromatic Hydrocarbonsp. 58
Alkylaromaticsp. 59
Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbonsp. 59
Substituted Aromaticsp. 60
Properties of Hydrocarbon Fuelsp. 61
Compositionp. 61
Refiningp. 64
Gasolinep. 65
Diesel Fuelp. 68
Kerosenep. 68
Fuel Oilp. 69
Lubricating Oilsp. 69
Chemical and Physical Properties of Fuelsp. 70
Solubilityp. 70
Specific Gravityp. 72
Viscosityp. 72
Vapor Pressurep. 73
Referencesp. 73
Chapter 4 Subsurface Properties and Remediationp. 75
Introductionp. 75
Relevant Chemistry and Mineralogyp. 76
pHp. 76
Oxidation-Reduction Statusp. 77
The Colloidal Fractionp. 78
Water Holding Capacityp. 82
The Biological Compoentp. 83
Relevant Physical Propertiesp. 84
Basic Hydrogeologyp. 84
Porosityp. 87
Permeabilityp. 88
Hydraulic Conductivityp. 88
Referencesp. 91
Chapter 5 Environmental Site Assessmentsp. 93
Introductionp. 93
The Phase I ESAp. 96
The Site Reconnaissancep. 104
Beyond the Phase Ip. 112
Release Considerationsp. 113
Contaminant Considerationsp. 115
Site Considerationsp. 118
A Note on Field Samplingp. 122
Testing in the Fieldp. 123
Field Testing Instrumentsp. 125
Referencesp. 128
Suggested Readingsp. 129
Chapter 6 Isolation of the Contaminant Plumep. 131
Introductionp. 131
Diverting Groundwater Flowp. 132
Groundwater Pumpingp. 132
Subsurface Drainsp. 134
Subsurface Barriersp. 134
Slurry Wallsp. 135
Grout Curtainsp. 138
Sheet Pilingp. 140
Cappingp. 141
Synthetic Membranesp. 141
Low Permeability Soilsp. 142
Multilayer Capp. 142
Other Practical Considerationsp. 144
General Designp. 144
Equipmentp. 145
Monitoringp. 145
Referencesp. 145
Selected Readingsp. 146
Chapter 7 Extraction Processesp. 147
Introductionp. 147
Extracting Solutionsp. 149
Flushing Metals from Soilp. 150
Chelant Recoveryp. 152
Flushing Organics from Soilp. 153
Technical/Practical Considerations in Soil Flushingp. 156
Contaminant Forms and Concentrationsp. 156
Effects of Flushing Agent on Soil Propertiesp. 158
Vertical and Lateral Distribution of Contaminationp. 159
Suitability of Site to Flooding and Installation of Subsurface Drainsp. 159
Trafficability of the Sitep. 160
Degree of Site Preparationp. 161
By-productsp. 161
The Good and the Badp. 161
Case Study: King of Prussia Superfund Sitep. 164
Referencesp. 168
Chapter 8 Solidification/Stabilizationp. 173
Introductionp. 173
Cement-based Technologiesp. 174
Organic Stabilization/Solidificationp. 176
Field Technologies: Ex Situp. 177
In Situ S/S Treatmentp. 179
Technical Considerationsp. 181
Overview of S/S Technologiesp. 182
Case Study: The Selma Pressure Treating Sitep. 184
Referencesp. 190
Chapter 9 Soil Vapor Extractionp. 193
Introductionp. 193
Site Characterizationp. 195
Field Design Considerationsp. 196
Condensationp. 200
Vapor Combustion Unitsp. 200
Catalytic Oxidation Unitsp. 200
Carbon Bedsp. 201
Chemical Oxidationp. 201
Biofiltersp. 201
Diffuser Stacksp. 201
Technical Considerationsp. 202
Contaminant-specificp. 202
Site-specificp. 203
Management-specificp. 204
Case Study: The Fairchild Superfund Sitep. 204
Referencesp. 209
Chapter 10 Microbial Remediationp. 211
Introductionp. 211
Overview of Relevant Microbiological Principlesp. 212
Bacteriap. 212
Fungip. 215
Actinomycetesp. 216
Microbial Requirements for Growth and Remediationp. 217
Oxygenp. 218
Moisturep. 219
pHp. 219
Nutrientsp. 220
Contaminant Propertiesp. 224
Pathways of Hydrocarbon Metabolismp. 225
Indigenous versus Exogenous Participantsp. 229
Field Technologiesp. 230
In Situ Processesp. 230
Slurry Biodegradationp. 244
Liquid Phase Bioremediationp. 250
Land Treatmentp. 256
Bioremediation: An Overviewp. 263
Case Study: The French Limited Superfund Sitep. 264
Case Study: The Burlington Northern Superfund Sitep. 270
Referencesp. 275
Chapter 11 Green Remediationp. 281
Introductionp. 281
Phytoextraction of Metalsp. 283
Technical Feasibilityp. 288
Treatment of Biomassp. 290
Benefits of Phytoextractionp. 291
Disadvantages of Phytoextractionp. 291
Organic Contaminationp. 292
The Rhizosphere and Associated Microbial Consortiap. 294
Phytostabilizationp. 295
Future Developmentp. 296
Summaryp. 297
Case Study: Aberdeen Proving Groundsp. 297
Referencesp. 301
Chapter 12 Innovative Technologiesp. 305
Introductionp. 305
Electrokinetic Remediationp. 305
Reactive Metallic Wallsp. 311
Reductive Dehalogenationp. 311
In Situ Vitrificationp. 312
Plasma Centrifugal Furnacep. 316
Pneumatic Fracturing and Hot Gas Injectionp. 318
Low Temperature Thermal Aerationp. 320
Evaporation-Catalytic Oxidationp. 322
Steam Enhanced Recoveryp. 325
AquaDetox/SVEp. 327
Referencesp. 329
Appendix Cost Analysis of Remediation Projectsp. 331
Glossary of Termsp. 339
Indexp. 351