Cover image for Managing chemical safety
Managing chemical safety
Nelson, Dennis G. (Dennis Glenn)
Publication Information:
Rockville, MD : ABS Consulting/Government Institutes, [2003]

Physical Description:
381 pages : illustrations ; 24 cm
Format :


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TP150.S24 N45 2003 Adult Non-Fiction Non-Fiction Area

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Referencing key OSHA, EPA, and DOT requirements, this hands-on desk reference provides facilities that handle, process, or store chemicals and hazardous materials with a "how to" book of tools for implementing or maintaining a successful chemical safety management system. You'll discover how to protect workers by identifying the toxicity and assessing the threat of on-site chemicals and how to minimize workers' exposure to toxic chemicals and ensure active worker participation. You will also learn how to evaluate your workplace conditions for potential hazards. This evaluation includes reducing the occurrence of chemical hazards by implementing common control techniques, planning for a chemical response by calculating the possible impact of a significant release, and preventing the recurrence of accidents and incidents by identifying causative factors through an accident investigation program. Author Dennis Nelson shows you key management activities that ensure the long-term success of your facility's chemical safety system. He also shows you how to prevent human and property loss by establishing an effective fire prevention program and emergency response plan and how to judge your safety system's effectiveness by measuring the performance of top management.

Author Notes

Dennis G. Nelson is the principal consultant for DNA Safety Systems

Reviews 1

Choice Review

Nelson's theme has become increasingly common among safety professionals: virtually every accident is preventable. The challenge is in instilling this notion in the workplace and making it a part of the culture of the workforce. Nelson devotes 11 chapters to describing topics from how to evaluate workplace conditions for potential hazards to how to protect workers. Two particularly interesting and useful chapters are "Fires and Explosions" and "Accident and Incident Investigation." Nelson differentiates: "An incident is an accident where there are no personal injuries." Few authors have gone into as much depth as he has on these subjects. Also discussed are regulatory requirements of EPA, OSHA, and DOT; safe work practices; safety and health training; accountability and performance measures; and chemical process design considerations. Nelson also identifies key management strategies that guarantee long-term success of a facility's chemical health and safety system. Tables contain up-to-date information and statistics on topics ranging from top ten ignition sources and EPA enforcement actions to figures on MSDS formats and self-inspection lists. With more than 40 years of professional experience in industry, Nelson writes authoritatively and crisply. A valuable resource for any industrial chemist, chemical engineer, or manager with health and safety responsibilities. ^BSumming Up: Essential. Graduate students through professionals; two-year technical program students. A. S. Casparian Wentworth Institute of Technology

Table of Contents

List of Figures and Tablesp. xi
Prefacep. xv
Introductionp. xvii
Chapter 1 Toxic Hazards
Introductionp. 1
Toxic Hazard Identificationp. 1
Types of Toxic Hazardsp. 1
Routes of Entry into the Body and Effectsp. 2
Material Safety Data Sheetsp. 2
MSDS Sectionsp. 13
Toxic Hazard Evaluationp. 14
Air Sampling and Monitoringp. 15
Toxic Release Source and Dispersion Modelsp. 15
Toxic Hazard Controlsp. 18
Chemical Hazard Controlp. 18
Safety Precedence Sequencep. 18
Chemical Hazard Control Optionsp. 19
Substitution, Intensification and Attenuationp. 20
Engineering Design Controls and Other Mitigation Measuresp. 21
Hazardous Chemical Examplesp. 22
Anhydrous ammonia--Chemical Abstracts Service (CAS) Number 7664-41-7p. 25
Benzene--CAS Number 71-43-2p. 25
Chlorine--CAS Number 7782-50-5p. 25
Ethanol (Ethyl Alcohol)--CAS Number 64-17-5p. 26
Ethylene Oxide--CAS Number 75-21-8p. 26
Hydrogen chloride--CAS Number 7647-01-0p. 27
Hydrogen sulfide--CAS Number 7783-06-4p. 27
Toluene-2, 4-di-isocyanate (TDI)--CAS Number 584-84-9p. 28
Vinyl acetate--CAS Number 108-05-4p. 28
Vinyl chloride--CAS Number 75-01-4p. 28
Implications for Chemical Safety Managementp. 29
Referencesp. 30
Chapter 2 Fires and Explosions
Firesp. 33
Basic Fire Theoryp. 34
Controlling and Extinguishing Firesp. 35
Classification of Fires and Extinguishersp. 36
Explosionsp. 37
Flammable and Combustible Liquidsp. 38
Flash Pointp. 39
Classification of Flammable Liquidsp. 39
Classification of Combustible Liquidsp. 40
Flammability Limitsp. 40
Ignition Temperaturep. 42
Vapor Densityp. 42
NFPA Classification and Labeling of Flammable Liquidsp. 42
Comparing Liquid Class and Fire Hazard Ratingsp. 47
Flammable Liquid Storage and Handling Requirementsp. 50
Electrostatic Dischargep. 52
Examples of ESD Hazardsp. 52
Eliminating and Neutralizing Electrostatic Dischargep. 52
EPA Risk Management Program (RMP)p. 53
Fire and Explosion Safetyp. 53
Emergency Planning and Responsep. 55
Types of Emergenciesp. 55
Emergency Squads, Training and Drillsp. 56
Disaster Planning and Managementp. 57
Government Hazardous Material Response Teamsp. 58
Conclusionp. 59
Referencesp. 60
Chapter 3 Chemical Process Design Considerations
Introductionp. 63
Introduction to Safety in Designp. 63
Function of Codes and Standardsp. 64
Process Safety Informationp. 64
Operating and Safety Process Limitsp. 68
Mechanical Integrityp. 71
Other Useful Standardsp. 73
Electronic Document Managementp. 74
Safety Procedures for Capital Projectsp. 74
Project Scope and Staffingp. 75
Authorization for Expenditure (AFE)p. 76
Hazard Reviewsp. 77
Facility and Equipment Sitingp. 77
Process and Design Review/Documentationp. 78
Completed Projectp. 79
Safe Design and Engineering Culturep. 79
Design Strategies and Examplesp. 81
Intrinsically Safe Designsp. 82
Equipment Overpressure Protectionp. 83
Design of Process Control Systemsp. 84
Conclusionp. 86
Referencesp. 87
Chapter 4 Accident and Incident Investigation
Introductionp. 89
Introduction to Accident and Incident Investigationp. 90
Problems Faced by Safety Coordinatorsp. 90
Levels of Accident Investigationp. 91
Major Process Related Accidents and Incidentsp. 94
Near Misses and Potential Hazardsp. 94
Staffing and Resourcesp. 96
Accident and Incident Investigation Policyp. 97
Accident/Incident Investigation Proceduresp. 98
Eight Step Incident Investigation Proceduresp. 98
Incident and Causal Factors Databasep. 115
Potential Process Incident Investigation Proceduresp. 116
OSHA Process Safety Management Requirementsp. 116
Incident Case Studiesp. 118
Example 1 Bhopal MCI Releasep. 118
Example 2 Vulnerability of Control Roomsp. 119
Example 3 Hazards Resulting From Air Emission Controlsp. 119
Example 4 Time Sequence Events Before the Accidentp. 121
Note On Legal Involvement and Corrective Actionp. 123
Conclusionp. 123
Referencesp. 124
Chapter 5 Safe Work Conditions
Introductionp. 125
Personnel and Process Safety Programp. 126
Management Systemp. 127
Physical Inspections and Followupp. 127
Policy and Planning for Inspection Programsp. 127
Hazardous Conditions to Inspectp. 128
Inspection Types, Frequencies and Participantsp. 128
Formal Audits and Regulatory Inspectionsp. 129
Loss Prevention Surveysp. 130
Informal Inspections and Reviewsp. 131
Self-Inspections and Employee Participationp. 131
Hazards and Exposuresp. 132
Inspection Proceduresp. 133
Safe Work Conditions and Process Hazards Analysisp. 145
Procedures for Completing PHA Studiesp. 146
Hazards and PHA Methodologyp. 159
Conclusionp. 167
Referencesp. 168
Chapter 6 Safe Work Practices
Introductionp. 171
Safety Management Proceduresp. 171
People Factorsp. 171
Environmental Factorsp. 173
Management Policiesp. 173
Job Safety Analysisp. 174
Basic Approachp. 174
How to Use Job Safety Analysisp. 174
Developing JSA Programsp. 176
Worker Participationp. 176
JSAs and Written Proceduresp. 177
Trainingp. 177
Behavior Based Systemsp. 177
Basic Principles of Behavior Based Systemsp. 177
Use of Antecedents, Feedback and Positive Reinforcersp. 179
Implementing Behavioral Based Safety Programsp. 183
Application of Safe Work Practice Methodologiesp. 186
Example 1 Safe Work Practices Involving HotWorkp. 187
Example 2 Confined Space Entryp. 187
Example 3 Contractor Safetyp. 191
Conclusionsp. 193
Referencesp. 194
Chapter 7 Accountability and Performance Measures
Introductionp. 197
Management Systems and Accountabilityp. 199
Components of Accountabilityp. 201
Installing Performance Measuresp. 208
Establishing Standardsp. 208
Setting Prioritiesp. 209
Achieving Employee Agreementp. 210
Establish Accountabilityp. 210
Implement a Communication Planp. 210
Application of Measurements and Performance Indicatorsp. 211
Evaluating a Safety Management Systemp. 213
Conclusionsp. 215
Referencesp. 216
Chapter 8 Regulatory Requirements
Introductionp. 219
Introduction to OSHA Standardsp. 220
OSHA Consultation Servicep. 220
OSHA Inspection and Citation Datap. 221
General Duty Clausep. 223
OSHA Standards Applicable to Chemical Safety Managementp. 224
Hazard Communicationp. 226
Process Safety Management Standardp. 227
Hazardous Waste Operations and Emergency Response Standardp. 235
Consensus and Industry Standardsp. 241
Environmental Protection Agencyp. 244
EPA Standards for Chemical Safety Managementp. 245
Enforcement Actionsp. 247
List of Listsp. 249
Risk Management Program Rule and OSHA PSMp. 249
Information and Resourcesp. 259
Department of Transportation Standardsp. 260
Hazardous Materials Tablep. 260
HAZMAT Safety Home Pagep. 261
Emergency Response Guidebookp. 261
Summaryp. 264
Integrating Standards into Policyp. 264
Example 1

p. 266

Example 2

p. 266

Conclusionp. 266
Referencesp. 268
Chapter 9 Safety and Health Training
Introductionp. 269
Training Issues and Strategiesp. 269
The Need for Chemical Process Safety in Educationp. 271
Management of a Chemical Safety Training Systemp. 271
Implementing a Training Systemp. 272
Step 1 Planningp. 272
Link Operating and Maintenance Procedures with Learning Requirementsp. 275
Conventional Learning Systemsp. 284
Advanced Learning Systemsp. 287
Step 2 Select Initial Training Programp. 289
Step 3 Develop and Field Test Programp. 290
Sept 4 Implement Training and Assess Outcomesp. 290
Establishing an Instructor Programp. 291
Conclusionp. 292
Referencesp. 293
Chapter 10 Implementing a Chemical Safety Management System
Introductionp. 295
Major Elements of Chemical Safety Management Systemp. 296
Step 1 Establish values, a vision, commitment, and an annual improvement plan for safetyp. 298
Step 2 Appoint an EHS coordinator(s) and provide adequate staffing and resourcesp. 305
Step 3 Define line-management accountability for safety. Provide performance measures and indicatorsp. 307
Step 4 Initiate opportunities for employee involvementp. 307
Step 5 Develop a system of hazard-risk evaluation and control measuresp. 309
Step 6 Draft EHS policies and procedures that meet or exceed regulatory requirementsp. 316
Step 7 Initiate internal and external communication plansp. 318
Step 8 Provide training and opportunities for learning and growthp. 322
Step 9 Strengthen OSHA recordkeeping and develop a functional management system for safety, health, and environmental informationp. 325
Implementation Resourcesp. 333
Conclusionsp. 334
Referencesp. 335
Chapter 11 Developing a Winning Game Plan
Introductionp. 337
Make an Assessment and Establish a Driving Force for Changep. 337
Compliance Auditsp. 338
Responsible Care Codes of Management Practicep. 338
The CAER Codep. 339
Process Safetyp. 339
Distributionp. 341
Pollution Preventionp. 341
Employee Health and Safetyp. 341
Integrating Chemical Safety Management Conceptsp. 342
Chapter 1 Toxic Hazardsp. 342
Chapter 2 Fires and Explosionsp. 343
Chapter 3 Design Considerationsp. 344
Chapter 4 Accident and Incident Investigationp. 344
Chapter 5 Safe Work Conditionsp. 345
Chapter 6 Safe Work Practicesp. 346
Chapter 7 Accountability and Performance Measuresp. 346
Chapter 8 Regulatory Requirementsp. 347
Chapter 9 Safety and Health Trainingp. 348
Chapter 10 Implementing a Chemical Safety Management Systemp. 348
A Final Wordp. 349
Referencesp. 349
Appendix A Using EPA's Risk Management Program Guidance
Risk Management Program Guidance for Offsite Consequence Analysisp. 351
Step 1 Define the worst case or alternative scenariop. 353
Step 2 Select the scenariop. 355
Step 3 Calculate the release ratesp. 356
Referencesp. 361
Appendix B Modeling Software
RMP*Compp. 363
ALOHAp. 365
SAFER Systemsp. 367
Comparison of Modelsp. 369
Referencesp. 372
Glossaryp. 373
Indexp. 377