Cover image for 14-18, understanding the Great War
Title:
14-18, understanding the Great War
Author:
Audoin-Rouzeau, Stéphane.
Personal Author:
Edition:
First American edition.
Publication Information:
New York : Hill and Wang, [2002]

©2002
Physical Description:
280 pages ; 22 cm
General Note:
Translation of: La Grande Guerre, 1914-1918.
Language:
English
Added Author:
ISBN:
9780809046423
Format :
Book

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Summary

Summary

With this brilliantly innovative book, Stéphane Audoin-Rouzeau and Annette Becker have shown that the Great War was the matrix on which all subsequent disasters of the twentieth century were formed. Three elements of the conflict, all too often neglected or denied, are identified as those that must be grasped if we are to understand the war: First, what inspired its unprecedented physical brutality, and what were the effects of tolerating such violence? Second, how did citizens of the belligerent states come to be driven by vehement nationalistic and racist impulses? Third, how did the tens of millions bereaved by the war come to terms with the agonizing pain? With its strikingly original interpretative strength and its wealth of compelling documentary evidence drawn from all sides in the conflict, 14-18: Understanding the Great War has quickly established itself as a classic in the history of modern warfare.


Author Notes

Stephane Audoin-Rouzeau is a director of the Historical of the Great War, an international museum and research center at the Chateau de Peronne, near the Somme.


Reviews 4

Publisher's Weekly Review

Over the last 15 years, French scholars have produced a body of research that has fundamentally altered the history of WWI, though much of the work remains largely unknown in the U.S. The authors, directors of the French Museum of the Great War, draw on much of that work and see the war through three transformative, overlapping lenses: violence, crusade and mourning. In a striking contradiction to current U.S. historians' approaches, the authors assert the necessity of battle history-not as a techno-historical end in itself, but as source material for a richly textured analysis of the interrelated effects of violence on soldiers and civilians alike, culminating in a discussion of the way the confinement of military prisoners and the widespread internment of civilians combined to institutionalize a "concentration-camp phenomenon that would reemerge two decades later in far more sinister contexts." Further, when the combatants began by defining the war in patriotic terms, as a war of national defense, it became a crusade. Patriotism escalated into a perception of the conflict as between civilization and barbarism, a dichotomy accompanied by crude hatreds and reflexive dehumanization of the enemy, fueled by the experiences of military occupation, and by the myths (or what we might now call "urban legends") produced by it. The final consequence, the authors argue persuasively, was the development of full-blown eschatologoical expectations-that the war would really prepare the way for God's dominion on earth. The resulting disillusion opened the way for individual and collective mourning as the bereavements caused by war finally sank in. Disillusion, however, also opened the path to even higher levels of violence to force achieve the frustrated messianic ends. In the final analysis, the authors suggest, the Great War left a dual legacy-grief and totalitarianism. (Dec.) (c) Copyright PWxyz, LLC. All rights reserved


Choice Review

To the modern world, the doomed generation of 1914 is usually understood by the words Alistair Horne (The Price of Glory: Verdun 1916, 1962) put into the mouth of a 1960s Frenchman: "They must have been crazy, those people!" Now, two of France's leading historians of the Great War, Audoin-Rouzeau (Univ. of Picardy) and Becker (Univ. of Paris-Nanterre), have written a fresh and revealing portrait of the mentalites that incubated and sustained the conflict: the cult of violence and its impact; the unleashing of a nationalism of such virulence that words like chauvinism or jingoism scarcely explain its raging power; and the oceans of grief that fueled wartime attitudes and whose vestiges still brood over Western civilization's memory. The result was a new brutality in war and a process of brutalization that impacted civilians almost as much as soldiers. Ignoring these "mindsets," especially the experience of combat violence, has fundamentally distorted our understanding of the war. While centered on the French and German experience, the volume brilliantly and succinctly justifies its subtitle, "Understanding the Great War." ^BSumming Up: Essential. All collections and readership levels. G. P. Cox Gordon College


Booklist Review

It seems impossible to escape the legacy of World War I. The collapse of Communist regimes in eastern and Central Europe certainly removed one odious legacy of that conflict. Yet that collapse triggered a resurgence of the extreme nationalism and interethnic hatreds that were both a cause and a result of the war. Audoin-Rouzeau and Becker have written extensively on the causes, course, and effects of the war. Here they have written a reappraisal of both the nature and the effects of the war that is striking and likely to evoke considerable controversy among both historians and laymen. They begin by examining the sheer and unprecedented violence of the war, during which many of the previous restraints were dropped. They emphatically assert that the responsibility for this violence must be placed on ordinary soldiers as well as on the easy target, the "leaders." They proceed to explore the role of a "crusading" spirit in generating enthusiasm for the war among the populace. The authors reject facile efforts to portray gullible lambs led to slaughter; rather, war enthusiasm seems to have bubbled up from below, and there were strong sentiments on both sides to "exterminate" the enemy. Finally, the phenomenon of mass mourning as a reaction to the scale of death is suggested as a constant strain in European consciousness over the past nine decades. This is an important and provocative work that offers new perspectives on a seminal conflict. --Jay Freeman


Library Journal Review

Directors of the Historial of the Great War in Peronne, France, the authors have written an innovative work concerning some neglected aspects of World War I. Breaking with historiography of the past, the authors take an anthropological approach to the cataclysm that engulfed Europe in 1914 and examine three significant aspects of the war: violence, crusade, and mourning. Never before in the history of warfare had there been so much physical violence. Violence not only on the battlefield but also in the cities and towns affecting civilians. The concentration camp phenomenon was also a part of this level of violence. The Great War was also a crusade for all countries involved. Nationalistic and racist attitudes against the enemy are thoroughly discussed. Millions of deaths were caused by the war, creating a collective mourning and personal bereavement for the survivors. Supported by contemporary documentation, this unique work will become a classic study. Recommended for all collections.-David Lee Poremba, Detroit P.L. (c) Copyright 2010. Library Journals LLC, a wholly owned subsidiary of Media Source, Inc. No redistribution permitted.


Excerpts

Excerpts

Battle, combat, violence: a necessary history The violence of war inevitably takes us back to a history of the body. In war, bodies strike each other, suffer and inflict suffering. So the reticence of historians over the violence of warfare is connected to the reticence that has long attended a genuine history of medicine (military medicine even more so). Here again Corbin is right when he notes that any history of bodily suffering engages historians. They expose themselves not only to their readers - far more, certainly, than is the case with other kinds of history (with the possible exception of the history of sexuality) - but also to the specific pain associated with the subject matter. Propriety, together with an understandable need for personal security (not to mention academic security), are at the root of the widespread, long-standing reticence of many French historians who have chosen to study the violence of warfare. ` Annales historians' in the narrow sense of that term tended to discredit the study of actual warfare, of battle, and caused damage with their hostility to `histoire-bataille' , or battle history. Actually, the battle history that the Annales founders decried was anything but an actual history of what went on in battles. And Marc Bloch himself, one of the founders of the Annales , was a marvellous historian of combat in both world wars. But in any case, the violence of warfare belongs only outwardly to what Fernand Braudel somewhat condescendingly described as `history that is restless' for it touches on the essential in the history of mankind. If the aim of historians is to start with people, and to undertake a 'history from the bottom up', as the Annales school believed, who can deny that for the men who have lived through wars and survived them, wars and their violence have been the most important experiences of their entire lives? One should note the immense need for self-expression that warfare has always aroused, from the Napoleonic wars to more recent conflicts. It was in order to recount their experiences of war, describe its violence, or at least try to say something about it (the great majority never succeeded in verbalising it) - or just to leave behind a humble trace of it, if only for their descendants - that, from the late eighteenth century on, so many warriors took up the pen, sometimes for the first and last time in their lives. And to neglect the violence of war is to neglect all those men who in growing numbers in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries endured that immense ordeal. Of course, military history has always existed, in every country. But all too often military historians consider it indecent to deal with the problem of violence in combat or to study it as such. Battles and warfare are discussed only from the tactical or strategic angle; military events are viewed only from a social or political standpoint. On the whole, the reality of war is kept at bay. As a rule, French historiography of warfare has been unconcerned with the violence of the battlefield, the men in the arena, the suffering they endure, he perceptions of the men who try to survive and, in a nutshell, the immense stakes that are crystallised in the combat zone. Avoiding these issues is an error. The violence specific to warfare is a prism that refracts many otherwise invisible aspects of the world. Entire societies can be seen anew, but one must be willing to look closely. In paroxysms of violence everything is stripped naked - starting with men, their bodies, their fantasies and desires, their fears, passions, beliefs and hatreds. The meaning they attribute to the violence of warfare and the result they hope it will bring, the motivations that allow them to kill their fellow men and endure the terror of confrontation - these pertain to something essential - something we shall call their 'representations', though the term is too vague. In the end, what happens in combat is inseparable from these representations, for soldiers always fight with their whole selves. It is not just combatants who can be seen with uncommon clarity through the violent practices of warfare; entire societies emerge in the background, with all their technical, demographic, economic possibilities and, sometimes, their 'desire to live together'. We also see political power anew, the legitimacy of which is often rooted in the actions of its representatives on the battlefield. For war is a staging of the political, it renders visible things that are ordinarily hidden from view - the power of some men over others, their power to make men kill one another in a combat fury of extreme brutality. This brutality - and here is the whole problem - is usually widely accepted and borne by all the ordinary combatants charged with implementing it. In short, by paying too little attention to the violence of war, an essential vector of historical understanding is overlooked and we deny ourselves access to many phenomena of memory-building and recollection, and to the profusion and variety of literary and artistic creation that has accompanied warfare. The history of combat violence is therefore a necessary history. In countries other than France, schools of history with different traditions of national historiography have less false modesty. American and British historians developed an often remarkable military history as early as the 1920s and 1930s, and they have none of the mental blocks that hamper many of their colleagues elsewhere. A certain pragmatism in the study of history, combined with a kind of instinctive suspicion of abstractions and grand systems of thought, allows them to broach the violence of warfare without inhibition. John Keegan, for example, is still not well known to historians on the French side of the Channel. Yet he is among those who has delved deeply into the wide-ranging problem of warfare. Plainly challenging Clausewitz and his overrated dictum that war is 'the continuation of policy by other means', he states a deep truth: war is first and foremost a cultural act. In his major work, The Face of Battle , Keegan daringly focussed exclusively on violence, in defiance of the discipline's most established rules of caution; he aimed for a diachronic comparison among the battles of Agincourt, Waterloo and the Somme, investigating the attitudes, behaviour and systems of representations prevailing in each. Not only his approach but the content was original, for what interested Keegan was precisely what no one had usually been interested in: behind the words used in the conventional accounts, he asked, behind the meaningless expressions everyone used, what exactly is happening on the battlefield, in the opaque sphere of interpersonal violence? Indeed, he tried to focus, to use one of his other expressions, on a 'history of flesh'. He therefore did not hesitate to borrow, for instance, from zoology (and its notions of 'flight distance' and 'critical distance') to explain human behaviour in attack and retreat during combat: the oft-recounted behaviour of Napoleon's Imperial Guard at Waterloo, in its last charge against the unflinching British squares, is reinterpreted in this light. This is audacious. No need to add, of course, that Keegan never 'recounts' a battle. He dissects it and pries open its mystery, meticulously describing different types of confrontation, as determined by the combatants' weaponry. As a result, our vision of armed confrontation and its violence is radically altered. In fact, his isn't a history of battle in the usual sense but an anthropology of combat. Equally revealing of the great gulf that still exists between different approaches to history is the intellectual shock provoked by another study, the American classicist Victor Davis Hanson's attempt to understand the violence peculiar to the clash of phalanxes in ancient Greece. To gain an understanding of classical infantry warfare, he didn't hesitate to burn grain, vines and olive trees in order to see in fact what the destruction of the territory of one Greek city state by another might mean, and to show its true significance in political, not just economic terms. Nor did he hesitate to make his students bear replicas of Greek weapons and armour in order to understand better the range of possibilities at the moment of a charge, to define some of the technical and physical predicaments more clearly. Then the ancient texts could be re-read in the harsh, if not cruel light of this experimentation. It is striking how much historians, though they profess to be discussing war, are cut off from areas of relevant knowledge. Weapons, for example - how they are used, how they work, and what effect they have - are outside the competence of most of them, while military historians who may be learned about weaponry don't know how to apply their knowledge. So one cannot exaggerate the value of having at least some concrete knowledge of the instruments of violence; tactile contact with them is not a superfluous historical experience. Objects lead to objections, as the etymology hints; they stand in the way of the most established historical certitudes. Taking the First World War as an example, we can see that familiarity with the infantrymen's guns, with the truncheons and daggers used in the trenches that were manufactured according to the needs and requirements of combat, even touching and handling pieces of shrapnel, is just as essential as a close acquaintance with the terrain and a more than passing knowledge of battleground topography. Modern historians should not cut themselves off from the expertise of archaeologists, whose discoveries (salvaged in digs done during highway construction for example) can contribute greatly to the knowledge of certain battle practices. A vast store of empirical knowledge is available for study and often within immediate grasp. For instance, there is a highly specialised expertise (which would merit historical studies of its own) among military collectors and battlefield enthusiasts. But this generally reliable erudition, which has spawned journals, specialised books, meetings of devotees and networks of buyers and sellers - a very useful body of knowledge for professional historians, which they would be hard put to find elsewhere - is almost completely cut off from academic scholarship. This reaction on the part of `scholarly' historians stems from distrust, indeed denial, mixed with a touch of arrogance. With chilling humour, Keegan recounts how he once offended the curator of a war museum: I constantly recall the look of disgust that passed over the face of a highly distinguished curator of one of the greatest collections of arms and armour in the world when I casually remarked to him that a common type of debris removed from the flesh of wounded men by surgeons in the gunpowder age was broken bone and teeth from neighbours in the ranks. He had simply never considered what was the effect of the weapons about which he knew so much, as artefacts, on the bodies of the soldiers who used them. But historians of war may be no more aware of these things than the curators of military museums. Thresholds of violence in the Great War Reticence in discussing violence is particularly unfortunate in the case of the Great War, for one important characteristic of this four-and-a-half-year conflict is its unprecedented levels of violence - among combatants, against prisoners and, last but not least, against civilians. To grasp these many-sided forms of violence is an indispensable prerequisite to any basic understanding of the 1914-18 conflict, and to any interpretation of the mark it left on the Western world. To understand the Great War is to try to understand that. We have to start with the fighting. We shall not try here to describe this in detail, if indeed such an endeavour is possible, but simply to point out the salient factors. The Great War brought into being a new kind of armed confrontation and thus became a historical watershed, representing a complex rupture with the circumstances and conditions of warfare as they had been known before that had huge consequences for the rest of the century. Already in 1914, at the beginning of war, battle was much more violent than it had ever been before. And then military and civilian suffering gradually intensified the violence over the duration of the conflict. This progressive intensification lent its own dynamic to the conflict; in the very first days and weeks of the war the practices of war took a brutal turn, not only on the battlefields but also for prisoners and civilians. Even for the ordinary soldier, the enormous explosion of violence that occurred in the summer of 1914 immediately and scathingly refuted all the predictions that had been made in the years prior. The death toll of the Great War is well known: around 9-10 million, nearly all soldiers. Looking at the total mobilisation figures, we find that the smaller nations were proportionally most affected, given the techniques of warfare used in the Balkans already in 1912-13; the treatment of the wounded and of prisoners, as well as the inadequacies of medical procedures, greatly contributed to the losses. (Serbia lost 37 per cent of its soldiers, Turkey close to 27 per cent, Romania 25 per cent, Bulgaria 22 per cent.) Among the great powers in the war, France holds the worst record in proportional losses: 16 per cent of its mobilised men were killed (against 15.4 per cent for Germany). But late in the war not all the men who were mobilised actually fought. If we count only the French troops who were engaged in fighting, the proportionate losses are much greater: 22 per cent of the officers died and 18 per cent of the soldiers. In the infantry itself, the most exposed branch, one out of three officers was killed and one out of four privates. Continue... Excerpted from 14-18 UNDERSTANDING THE GREAT WAR by Stéphane Audoin-Rouzeau and Annette Becker Copyright (c) 2000 by Éditions Gallimard Excerpted by permission. All rights reserved. No part of this excerpt may be reproduced or reprinted without permission in writing from the publisher.

Table of Contents

Introduction: Understanding the Great Warp. 1
I. Violence
1 Battle, combat, violence: a necessary historyp. 15
2 Civilians: atrocities and occupationp. 45
3 The camp phenomenon: the internment of civilians and military prisonersp. 70
II. Crusade
4 The beginnings of warp. 94
5 Civilisation, barbarism and war fervourp. 113
6 Great expectations, eschatology, demobilisationp. 159
III. Mourning
7 Historicising griefp. 175
8 Collective mourningp. 182
9 Personal bereavementp. 203
Conclusion: 'You didn't see anything in the 1920s and 1930s'p. 226
Notesp. 239
Indexp. 273