Cover image for Children with disabilities
Children with disabilities
Batshaw, Mark L., 1945-
Fifth edition.
Publication Information:
Baltimore : Paul H. Brookes, [2002]

Physical Description:
xxxvii, 870 pages : illustrations ; 26 cm
Format :


Call Number
Material Type
Home Location
Item Holds
RJ135 .B38 2002 Adult Non-Fiction Non-Fiction Area-Reference

On Order



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Table of Contents

Mark L. BatshawRhonda L. Schonberg and Cynthia J. TifftJames B. Hill and William H.J. HaffnerShad H. Deering and Andrew J. SatinLaura Placke Ward and Susan K. McCuneK. Rais-Bahrami and Billie Lou Short and Mark L. BatshawMartha J. Wunsch and Charles J. Conlon and Peter C. ScheidtHans M.L. Spiegel and Andrew M. BonwitLeila T. Beker and Abigail F. Farber and Colleen Comonitski YanniMarijean M. Miller and Sheryl J. Menacker and Mark L. BatshawGilbert R. Herer and Carol A. Knightly and Annie G. SteinbergSheela StuartRobert F. Keating and Caple A. Spence and David LynchArabella I. Leet and John P. Dormans and Laura L. TosiMark L. Batshaw and Bruce ShapiroNancy J. RoizenGretchen A. Meyer and Mark L. BatshawMark L. Batshaw and Mendel TuchmanMark ReberKenneth E. Towbin and Joyce E. Mauk and Mark L. BatshawMark A. Stein and Lisa A. Efron and Wendy B. Schiff and Marianne GlanzmanBruce Shapiro and Robin P. Church and M.E.B. LewisLouis PellegrinoGregory S. LiptakSteven WeinsteinLinda J. Michaud and Jennifer Semel-Concepcion and Ann-Christine Duhaime and Mary F. LazarPeggy S. EicherGeorge Acs and Man Wai Ng and Mark L. Helpin and Howard M. RosenbergCharles J. ConlonElissa Batshaw Clair and Robin P. Church and Mark L. BatshawJohn M. ParrishSusan E. Levy and Maureen O'RourkeLisa A. KurtzTerry Adirim and Kenneth M. FineTomas Jose Silber and Mark L. BatshawPaula J. BeckmanPatience H. White and Vincent Schuyler and Andrea Edelman and Adadot Hayes and Mark L. BatshawAngelo P. Giardino and Alan E. Kohrt and Lowell Arye and Nora WellsMark L. BatshawCheryl ScacheriKarl F. GumpperMargaret Rose
List of Tables and Figuresp. xiii
About the Editorp. xix
Contributorsp. xxi
A Personal Note to the Readerp. xxvii
Prefacep. xxix
Acknowledgmentsp. xxxiii
Letters from Andrew Batshawp. xxxiv
I As Life Begins
1 Chromosomes and Heredity: A Toss of the Dicep. 3
Genetic Disorders
Cell Division and Its Disorders
Genes and Their Disorders
Revising Mendelian Genetics
Multifactorial Inheritance
2 Birth Defects, Prenatal Diagnosis, and Fetal Therapyp. 27
Genetic Assessment
Screening Evaluations During Pregnancy
Invasive Diagnostic Testing
Prevention, Fetal Therapy, and Alternative Reproductive Choices
Psychosocial Implications
3 Growth Before Birthp. 43
Embryonic and Fetal Development
Maternal Nutrition
4 Having a Baby: The Birth Processp. 55
Dating a Pregnancy
Deciding When to Deliver the Baby
Perinatal Mortality
Monitoring Labor
Cesarean Section
Abnormal Labor or Dystocia
Pregnancy Complications
Birth Injuries and Defects
5 The First Weeks of Lifep. 69
Changes in Cardiopulmonary Function at Birth
The Apgar Score
Neonatal Morbidity and Mortality
6 Premature and Small-for-Dates Infantsp. 85
Definitions of Prematurity and Low Birth Weight
Incidence of Preterm Births
Causes of Premature Birth
Complications of Prematurity
Medical and Developmental Care of Low Birth Weight Infants
Survival of Low Birth Weight Infants
Care After Discharge from the Hospital
Early Intervention Programs
Neurodevelopmental Outcome
II The Developing Child
7 Substance Abuse: A Preventable Threat to Developmentp. 107
Chemical Dependency: A Disease
The Family and Substance Abuse
Effects of Psychoactive Substances on the Fetus
Prevention of and Intervention in Substance Abuse During Pregnancy
Intervention Strategies for Infants and Children of Substance-Abusing Mothers
8 HIV Infection in Childrenp. 123
Epidemiology and Diagnosis of Pediatric HIV Infection
Biology of Pediatric HIV Infection
Clinical Manifestations of Pediatric HIV Infection
Interdisciplinary Care
HIV Services in Resource-Poor Countries
9 Nutrition and Children with Disabilitiesp. 141
Typical Growth During Childhood
The Basics of Nutrition
Nutrients and Their Deficiencies
Nontraditional Diets
Nutritional Disorders
Developmental Disabilities with Nutritional Issues
Nutritional Assessment
Interventions for Nutritional Problems
Nutrition and a Child's Individual Care Plan
10 Vision: Our Window to the Worldp. 165
Structure of the Eye
Ocular Development
Development of Visual Skills
Function and Diseases of the Eye
Refractive Errors in Children
Vision Tests
11 Hearing: Sounds and Silencesp. 193
Defining Sound
The Hearing System
Embryologic Development of the Hearing Apparatus
Defining Hearing Loss
Identification of Hearing Loss
Treatment of Middle-Ear Disease
Intervention for Hearing Loss
12 Communication: Speech and Languagep. 229
Components of Communication
Typical Development of Speech and Language
Communication Disorders
Treatment for Communication Disorders
Augmentative and Alternative Communication
13 The Brain and Nervous System: Normal and Abnormal Developmentp. 243
Development of the Central Nervous System
Development of the Cortical Neuron
The Mature Central Nervous System: Brain and Spinal Cord
The Peripheral Nervous System
Cerebrospinal Fluid and Hydrodynamic Balance
Imaging the Brain
14 Muscles, Bones, and Nerves: The Body's Frameworkp. 263
The Musculoskeletal System
Common Diseases of Bones, Muscles, and Joints
The Neuromuscular System
III Developmental Disabilities
15 Mental Retardationp. 287
Early Development
Developmental Delay
Early Identification
Mental Retardation
16 Down Syndromep. 307
Chromosomal Abnormalities
Early Identification
Medical Complications in Down Syndrome
Neurodevelopmental and Behavior Impairments
Evaluation and Treatment
Early Intervention
17 Fragile X Syndromep. 321
The Genetics of Fragile X Syndrome
Clinical Findings in Affected Males
Clinical Findings in Affected Females
Origins of Abnormalities
Diagnosing Fragile X Syndrome
Intervention Strategies
18 PKU and Other Inborn Errors of Metabolismp. 333
Types of Inborn Errors of Metabolism
Clinical Manifestations
Mechanism of Brain Damage
Associated Disabilities
Diagnostic Testing
Newborn Screening
Therapeutic Approaches
19 Dual Diagnosis: Mental Retardation and Psychiatric Disordersp. 347
The Concept of Dual Diagnosis
A Historical Perspective
Prevalence and Causes of Psychiatric Disorders in Mental Retardation
Psychiatric Diagnoses
Associated Medical Problems
20 Pervasive Developmental Disordersp. 365
Central Characteristics of Pervasive Developmental Disorders
The Pervasive Developmental Disorders
Early Identification of Autistic Disorder
Distinguishing Pervasive Developmental Disorders from Other Disabilities
Evaluation of the Child with a Pervasive Developmental Disorder
Associated Conditions in Pervasive Developmental Disorders
Treatment Approaches
Living with a Child with a Pervasive Developmental Disorder
21 Attention Deficits and Hyperactivityp. 389
A History of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder
Diagnosis and ADHD Subtypes
Prevalence and Epidemiology
Causes of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder
Clinical Course
Associated Impairments
Other Associated Conditions
22 Specific Learning Disabilitiesp. 417
Defining Specific Learning Disabilities
Subtypes of Specific Learning Disabilities
Specific Reading Disability
Impairments Associated with Specific Learning Disabilities
Health Problems Simulating Specific Learning Disabilities
Assessment Procedures
Intervention Strategies
Other Intervention Issues
Early Identification of Learning Disabilities
23 Cerebral Palsyp. 443
Causes of Cerebral Palsy
Types of Cerebral Palsy
Early Diagnosis of Cerebral Palsy
Associated Impairments in Cerebral Palsy
Preventing Impairment: Managing the Musculoskeletal Complications of Cerebral Palsy
Preventing Disability: Promoting Optimal Function
24 Neural Tube Defectsp. 467
Prevalence of Neural Tube Defects
The Origin of Neural Tube Defects
Prevention of Neural Tube Defects Using Folic Acid Supplementation
Prenatal Diagnosis
Treatment of a Meningomyelocele in the Newborn Period
Primary Neurological Impairments in Children with Meningomyelocele
Associated Impairments and Medical Complications
Educational Programs
Psychosocial Issues for the Child
Interdisciplinary Management
25 Epilepsyp. 493
What Is Epilepsy and What Is a Seizure?
Classification of Seizures and Epilepsy Syndromes
Diagnosing Seizure Disorders
Intervention During a Seizure
Antiepileptic Drugs
Other Antiepileptic Therapies
Multidisciplinary Intervention
26 Traumatic Brain Injuryp. 525
Incidence of Head Injuries
Causes of Traumatic Brain Injury
Types of Brain Injuries
Inflicted Head Injury
Detecting Significant Brain Injury
Severity of Brain Injury
Treatment Approaches
IV Interventions, Families, and Outcomes
27 Feedingp. 549
The Feeding Process
Feeding and the Influence of Medical Conditions
Feeding and the Influence of Tone, Posture, and Development
Feeding Problems in Children with Disabilities
Managing Feeding Problems
28 Dental Care: Promoting Health and Preventing Diseasep. 567
Formation and Emergence of Teeth
Problems Affecting the Development of Teeth
Oral Diseases
Dental Trauma
Prevention of Dental Caries and Periodontal Disease
Providing Dental and Orthodontic Treatment
Dental Care for Children with Developmental Disabilities
29 Early Interventionp. 579
Legislation and Philosophy of Early Intervention
Identification and Referral
Assessment for Early Intervention Services
Developing an Individualized Family Service Plan
Service Coordination
Provided Services
Transition from Early Intervention to Preschool Services
Efficacy of Early Intervention
30 Special Education Servicesp. 589
History of Special Education Services
Defining Disability from an Educational Perspective
Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act and the Americans with Disabilities Act
Assessment and Evaluation
The Individualized Education Program
Disciplining Students Receiving Special Education Services
Provision of Special Education Services to Private Schools
Federal Funding
Approaches for Providing Services
Inclusion Practices
Accommodations and Modifications to the General Curriculum
Role of the Special Education Teacher in the General Classroom
Related Services
31 Promoting Adaptive Behavior While Addressing Challenging Behaviorp. 607
Origin of Behavior
Fundamental Principles and Procedures of Applied Behavior Analysis
Selected Instructional Procedures
Behavioral Diagnosis and Treatment
Positive Behavioral Support
32 Technological Assistance: Innovations for Independencep. 629
Definition and Incidence of Medical Technology Assistance
Medical Technology Assistance and Disorders that Require Its Use
Effects of Medical Technology Assistance on the Child and Family
Funding Medical Technology Assistance
Preparing for Home Care
33 Rehabilitation: Physical Therapy and Occupational Therapyp. 647
Physical and Occupational Therapy Approaches to Intervention
Guidelines for Referral
Assessment and Planning for Intervention
Therapy in Early Intervention Programs
Therapy in the School
Selected Interventions
Outcomes Measurement
34 Exercise, Sports, and Recreationp. 659
Physical Activity in Children with Disabilities
Inclusion of the Child with Disabilities in Exercise and Sports Programs in Schools
Community Sports Programs
The Pre-Participation Examination
Sport Injuries in the Athlete with Disabilities
35 Ethical Dilemmas: Evaluation and Decision Makingp. 669
The Vocabulary of Ethics
Ethics and the Law
Pediatric Clinical Ethics
Issues of Clinical Ethics Relating to Children with Disabilities
Ethics Consultation and Ethics Committees
Social Justice
36 Providing Family-Centered Servicesp. 683
Ecological Influences on Families
The Family Life Cycle
Implications for Service Providers: Family-Centered Services
37 Future Expectations: Transition from Adolescence to Adulthoodp. 693
General Principles of Transition
Moving Toward Independence
Developing Social Competence
Moving Toward Postsecondary Education
Entering the Work Force
Community Living
Adult Health Care Services
Participation in Sports, Leisure, and Community Activities
Issues of Sexuality
Developing a Life Plan
38 Health Care Delivery Systems and Financing Issuesp. 707
Children with Special Health Care Needs
Problems in Arranging Coordination of Care
The Concept of a Medical Home
The Health Care Environment and Financing
Looking Toward the Future
Appendix A Glossaryp. 725
Appendix B Syndromes and Inborn Errors of Metabolismp. 749
Appendix C Commonly Used Medicationsp. 775
Appendix D Resources for Children with Disabilitiesp. 795
Indexp. 817