Cover image for Structure & function of the body
Title:
Structure & function of the body
Author:
Thibodeau, Gary A., 1938-
Personal Author:
Edition:
Eleventh edition.
Publication Information:
St. Louis : Mosby, [2000]

©2000
Physical Description:
xxii, 528 pages, 56 unnumbered pages : color illustrations ; 27 cm
General Note:
Includes index.
Language:
English
Added Author:
ISBN:
9780323010825
Format :
Book

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Summary

Summary

Structure and Function of the Body, 11 The 11


Author Notes

Gary A. Thibodeau, PhD: Chancellor Emeritus and Professor Emeritus of Biology, University of Wisconsin-River Falls, River Falls, Wisconsin
Kevin T. Patton, PhD: Professor, Department of Life Sciences, Saint Charles Community College, Saint Peters, Missouri; Adjunct Assistant Professor of Physiology, Saint Louis University Medical School, Missouri


Table of Contents

1 An Introduction to the Structure and Function of the Bodyp. 1
Structural Levels of Organizationp. 2
Anatomical Positionp. 2
Anatomical Directionsp. 2
Planes or Body Sectionsp. 6
Body Cavitiesp. 6
Body Regionsp. 8
The Balance of Body Functionsp. 12
2 Cells and Tissuesp. 20
Cellsp. 22
Size and Shapep. 22
Compositionp. 22
Parts of the Cellp. 22
Relationship of Cell Structure and Functionp. 27
Movement of Substances Through Cell Membranesp. 28
Passive Transport Processesp. 28
Active Transport Processesp. 30
Cell Reproduction and Heredityp. 32
DNA Molecule and Genetic Informationp. 32
Cell Divisionp. 35
Tissuesp. 37
Epithelial Tissuep. 37
Connective Tissuep. 42
Muscle Tissuep. 44
Nervous Tissuep. 46
3 Organ Systems of the Bodyp. 56
Organ Systems of the Bodyp. 58
Integumentary Systemp. 58
Skeletal Systemp. 58
Muscular Systemp. 61
Nervous Systemp. 61
Endocrine Systemp. 63
Cardiovascular (Circulatory) Systemp. 63
Lymphatic Systemp. 63
Respiratory Systemp. 65
Digestive Systemp. 65
Urinary Systemp. 67
Reproductive Systemp. 68
4 The Integumentary System and Body Membranesp. 76
Classification of Body Membranesp. 78
Epithelial Membranesp. 78
Connective Tissue Membranesp. 80
The Skinp. 80
Structure of the Skinp. 80
Appendages of the Skinp. 83
Functions of the Skinp. 87
Burnsp. 89
5 The Skeletal Systemp. 96
Functions of the Skeletal Systemp. 98
Supportp. 98
Protectionp. 98
Movementp. 98
Hemopoiesisp. 98
Types of Bonesp. 98
Structure of Long Bonesp. 98
Microscopic Structure of Bone and Cartilagep. 99
Bone Formation and Growthp. 101
Divisions of Skeletonp. 103
Axial Skeletonp. 104
Appendicular Skeletonp. 111
Differences Between a Man's and a Woman's Skeletonp. 118
Joints (Articulations)p. 120
Kinds of Jointsp. 120
6 The Muscular Systemp. 132
Muscle Tissuep. 134
Structure of Skeletal Musclep. 135
Microscopic Structurep. 135
Functions of Skeletal Musclep. 137
Movementp. 137
Posturep. 137
Heat Productionp. 138
Fatiguep. 138
Role of Other Body Systems in Movementp. 138
Motor Unitp. 139
Muscle Stimulusp. 139
Types of Skeletal Muscle Contractionp. 140
Twitch and Tetanic Contractionsp. 140
Isotonic Contractionp. 140
Isometric Contractionp. 140
Effects of Exercise on Skeletal Musclesp. 140
Skeletal Muscle Groupsp. 142
Muscles of the Head and Neckp. 142
Muscles That Move the Upper Extremitiesp. 147
Muscles of the Trunkp. 148
Muscles That Move the Lower Extremitiesp. 149
Movements Produced by Skeletal Muscle Contractionsp. 150
7 The Nervous Systemp. 162
Organs and Divisions of the Nervous Systemp. 164
Cells of the Nervous Systemp. 165
Neuronsp. 165
Gliap. 165
Nervesp. 167
Reflex Arcsp. 167
Nerve Impulsesp. 171
The Synapsep. 171
Central Nervous Systemp. 173
Divisions of the Brainp. 174
Spinal Cordp. 179
Coverings and Fluid Spaces of the Brain and Spinal Cordp. 180
Peripheral Nervous Systemp. 186
Cranial Nervesp. 186
Spinal Nervesp. 186
Autonomic Nervous Systemp. 188
Functional Anatomyp. 189
Autonomic Conduction Pathsp. 191
Sympathetic Nervous Systemp. 191
Parasympathetic Nervous Systemp. 193
Autonomic Neurotransmittersp. 193
Autonomic Nervous System as a Wholep. 194
8 The Sensesp. 202
Classification of Sense Organsp. 204
Converting a Stimulus Into a Sensationp. 204
General Sense Organsp. 204
Special Sense Organsp. 204
The Eyep. 204
The Earp. 213
The Taste Receptorsp. 214
The Smell Receptorsp. 217
9 The Endocrine Systemp. 224
Mechanisms of Hormone Actionp. 226
Protein Hormonesp. 229
Steroid Hormonesp. 229
Regulation of Hormone Secretionp. 229
Prostaglandinsp. 231
Pituitary Glandp. 231
Anterior Pituitary Gland Hormonesp. 232
Posterior Pituitary Gland Hormonesp. 233
Hypothalamusp. 234
Thyroid Glandp. 235
Parathyroid Glandsp. 236
Adrenal Glandsp. 236
Adrenal Cortexp. 236
Adrenal Medullap. 240
Pancreatic Isletsp. 242
Female Sex Glandsp. 245
Male Sex Glandsp. 245
Thymusp. 245
Placentap. 245
Pineal Glandp. 245
Other Endocrine Structuresp. 246
10 Bloodp. 254
Blood Compositionp. 256
Blood Plasmap. 256
Formed Elementsp. 257
Red Blood Cellsp. 257
White Blood Cellsp. 260
Platelets and Blood Clottingp. 261
Blood Typesp. 262
ABO Systemp. 262
RH Systemp. 265
11 The Circulatory Systemp. 272
Heartp. 274
Location, Size, and Positionp. 274
Anatomyp. 274
Heart Soundsp. 277
Blood Flow Through the Heartp. 277
Blood Supply to the Heart Musclep. 279
Cardiac Cyclep. 279
Conduction System of the Heartp. 281
Electrocardiogramp. 282
Blood Vesselsp. 285
Typesp. 285
Structurep. 285
Functionsp. 287
Circulationp. 290
Systemic and Pulmonary Circulationp. 290
Hepatic Portal Circulationp. 290
Fetal Circulationp. 291
Blood Pressurep. 295
Understanding Blood Pressurep. 295
Factors That Influence Blood Pressurep. 296
Fluctuations in Blood Pressurep. 298
Pulsep. 298
12 The Lymphatic System and Immunityp. 306
The Lymphatic Systemp. 308
Lymph and Lymph Vesselsp. 308
Lymph Nodesp. 309
Thymusp. 311
Tonsilsp. 311
Spleenp. 312
The Immune Systemp. 312
Function of the Immune Systemp. 312
Nonspecific Immunityp. 312
Specific Immunityp. 313
Immune System Moleculesp. 314
Antibodiesp. 314
Complement Proteinsp. 316
Immune System Cellsp. 316
Phagocytesp. 317
Lymphocytesp. 317
13 The Respiratory Systemp. 330
Structural Planp. 332
Respiratory Tractsp. 332
Respiratory Mucosap. 332
Nosep. 335
Pharynxp. 338
Larynxp. 338
Tracheap. 338
Bronchi, Bronchioles, and Alveolip. 340
Lungs and Pleurap. 342
Respirationp. 344
Mechanics of Breathingp. 346
Exchange of Gases in Lungsp. 346
Exchange of Gases in Tissuesp. 347
Volumes of Air Exchanged in Pulmonary Ventilationp. 349
Regulation of Respirationp. 349
Cerebral Cortexp. 351
Receptors Influencing Respirationp. 351
Types of Breathingp. 351
14 The Digestive Systemp. 360
Wall of the Digestive Tractp. 362
Mouthp. 364
Teethp. 366
Typical Toothp. 367
Salivary Glandsp. 368
Pharynxp. 368
Esophagusp. 368
Stomachp. 369
Small Intestinep. 371
Liver and Gallbladderp. 373
Pancreasp. 376
Large Intestinep. 376
Appendixp. 379
Peritoneump. 380
Extensionsp. 380
Digestionp. 380
Carbohydrate Digestionp. 380
Protein Digestionp. 380
Fat Digestionp. 382
Absorptionp. 382
15 Nutrition and Metabolismp. 388
Role of the Liverp. 390
Nutrient Metabolismp. 390
Carbohydrate Metabolismp. 390
Fat Metabolismp. 392
Protein Metabolismp. 393
Vitamins and Mineralsp. 394
Metabolic Ratesp. 394
Body Temperaturep. 397
16 The Urinary Systemp. 402
Kidneysp. 405
Locationp. 405
Internal Structurep. 405
Microscopic Structurep. 405
Functionp. 406
Formation of Urinep. 409
Control of Urine Volumep. 411
Uretersp. 412
Urinary Bladderp. 412
Urethrap. 414
Micturitionp. 415
17 Fluid and Electrolyte Balancep. 422
Body Fluidsp. 424
Mechanisms That Maintain Fluid Balancep. 425
Regulation of Fluid Intakep. 426
Importance of Electrolytes in Body Fluidsp. 427
Capillary Blood Pressure and Blood Proteinsp. 432
Fluid Imbalancesp. 432
18 Acid-Base Balancep. 436
pH of Body Fluidsp. 437
Mechanisms That Control pH of Body Fluidsp. 438
Buffersp. 439
Respiratory Mechanism of pH Controlp. 441
Urinary Mechanism of pH Controlp. 442
pH Imbalancesp. 444
Metabolic and Respiratory Disturbancesp. 445
Vomitingp. 445
19 The Reproductive Systemsp. 452
Common Structural and Functional
Characteristics Between the Sexesp. 454
Male Reproductive Systemp. 454
Structural Planp. 454
Testesp. 455
Reproductive Ductsp. 459
Accessory or Supportive Sex Glandsp. 460
External Genitalsp. 460
Female Reproductive Systemp. 462
Structural Planp. 462
Ovariesp. 462
Reproductive Ductsp. 465
Accessory or Supportive Sex Glandsp. 466
External Genitalsp. 467
Menstrual Cyclep. 468
Summary of Male and Female Reproductive Systemsp. 472
20 Growth and Developmentp. 480
Prenatal Periodp. 482
Fertilization to Implantationp. 486
Periods of Developmentp. 486
Formation of the Primary Germ Layersp. 487
Histogenesis and Organogenesisp. 487
Birth or Parturitionp. 489
Stages of Laborp. 491
Postnatal Periodp. 491
Infancyp. 492
Childhoodp. 494
Adolescence and Adulthoodp. 494
Older Adulthoodp. 495
Effects of Agingp. 495
Skeletal Systemp. 495
Integumentary System (Skin)p. 495
Urinary Systemp. 495
Respiratory Systemp. 495
Cardiovascular Systemp. 497
Special Sensesp. 497
Appendixes
A Chemistry of Lifep. 504
Levels of Chemical Organizationp. 504
Atomsp. 505
Elements, Molecules, and Compoundsp. 505
Chemical Bondingp. 506
Ionic Bondsp. 506
Covalent Bondsp. 508
Inorganic Chemistryp. 509
Waterp. 509
Acids, Bases, and Saltsp. 510
Organic Chemistryp. 512
Carbohydratesp. 513
Lipidsp. 514
Proteinsp. 515
Nucleic Acidsp. 516
B Common Medical Abbreviations, Prefixes, and Suffixesp. 520
Chapter Test Answersp. 523
Glossaryp. 1