Cover image for Minority rights in America
Minority rights in America
Axelrod, Alan, 1952-
Personal Author:
Publication Information:
Washington, DC : CQ Press, 2002.
Physical Description:
xvi, 411 pages ; 29 cm
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JC599.U5 A93 2002 Adult Non-Fiction Central Closed Stacks-Oversize

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Ever since the Dominican missionary BartolomT de Las Casas (1476-1566) first raised civil and minority rights issues in an American context, they have figured prominently among some of the most profound and trying moments in American history.′′′′Minority Rights in America consists of approximately 600 engagingly written alphabetically arranged entries on civil rights, political rights, and social rights in America since the days of Christopher Columbus. The rights of all Americans are included, with particular attention to African Americans, Asian Americans, Hispanic Americans, women, and other minority groups. Many of the entries include suggested readings to facilitate additional research and understanding. ′′′′Entries include: ′′′′Biographical sketches of important historical figures who participated in the struggle to advance minority rights′′Important topics, organizations, and critical events′′Supreme Court cases, federal laws, and governmental agencies.′′′′Rounding out this comprehensive reference are three useful appendixes and a consolidated bibliography. Appendixes include:′′′′Excerpts of more than seventy-five important documents organized logically in six parts: historic documents, historic speeches and writings, historic legislation, Supreme Court decisions, rights activism documents, and documents from U.S. government agencies′′Contact information for more than sixty associations and civil rights organizations′′A list, with full citations, of the court cases mentioned in the volume. ′′′′′′′′Sample of encyclopedic entries:′′Jane Addams, Affirmative action, AIDS and rights, Antisemitism, Ross Barnett, Bonus Army, Chicano studies, Shirley Chisholm, Clayton Act, Congress of Racial, Equality (CORE), Conscientious objectors, Crazy Horse, Defense of Marriage Act, Employment at will, Medgar Evers, Farm labor rights, Orval Faubus , Gerrymandering, Gray Panthers, Angelina Grimke, Haymarket Riot, J. Edgar Hoover, Langston Hughes, Indian Citizenship Act, Japanese internment, Jim Crow laws, BartolomÄ de Las Casas, Loving v. Virginia, Megan′s Law, Million Man March, Ralph Nader, National Immigration, William Penn, Puritan Separatist, Rap music, Right to die, Margaret Sanger, Smokers′ rights, Southern Governors, Association Trail of Tears, Voting Rights Act of 1965, Harold Washington, Youth Law Center, John Peter Zenger.′′

Author Notes

Alan Axelrod was born on August 25, 1952, in New York. He was educated at Northeastern Illinois University and University of Iowa. He is a leading writer about American history, and is the author of The Complete Idiot's Guide to American History. In his books, Axelrod presents the facts, details, and faces that have helped shape the history of the United States.

Axelrod has served as a consultant to several museums and institutions. He has received numerous honors, including a National Cowboy Hall of Fame Award in 1991.

(Bowker Author Biography)

Reviews 2

Booklist Review

Written by a seasoned author of more than 30 reference books, this is a comprehensive source consisting of nearly 600 entries on various aspects of civil, social, and political rights in U.S. history. Entries are arranged alphabetically and focus on all aspects of minority rights, particularly those pertaining to African Americans, Asian Americans, and Hispanic Americans. Most entries describe seminal events, prominent individuals, or critical court cases and legislation. Broader subjects, such as Hispanic civil rights movement; Islam, Nation of; and Women's civil rights movement, are covered as well. Entries contain cross-references and conclude with suggested reading. Although the entries are brief, the scope is impressive, ranging chronologically from the colonial (William Penn), to the contemporary (Ruth Bader Ginsburg) and covering subjects like the Amistad mutiny, euthanasia, Jackie Robinson, Japanese internment, and voter registration drives. Three appendixes are included, the first of which lists historic documents, speeches, legislation, and Supreme Court decisions. The second appendix contains, in alphabetical order by name, all court cases mentioned within the volume along with their case numbers. This is a valuable tool for anyone wishing to pursue further research. The final appendix is a directory of current civil rights groups, with mailing addresses, phone numbers, and often an e-mail, Web site, and fax listing as well. It is not entirely clear why some entries are included. For example, entries on Crispus Attucks, an African American killed in the Boston Massacre, and Joe Louis, the great boxer, are quite interesting, but no obvious relation to minority rights is indicated. Also, the "Suggested Reading" is usually only one resource, sometimes two, which seems paltry for complex issues such as affirmative action or slavery. Still, although not as exhaustive and scholarly as other similar reference sources, such as Civil Rights in the United States (Macmillan, 2000) and The Encyclopedia of Civil Rights in America (Sharpe, 1998), this volume is an excellent source for quick summaries and descriptions of crucial people, places, and events in the history of minority rights in the U.S. Recommended for public and academic libraries.

Choice Review

An ambitious attempt to produce a single-volume encyclopedic treatment of the subject, this volume is appropriate for public or smaller undergraduate libraries with limited budgets for reference materials. It contains some 600 entries on civil, political, and social rights in the US since colonization, appendixes of relevant historic documents and court cases, a directory of more than 60 organizations involved in minority rights, and a consolidated bibliography. Defined as minorities are nonwhites, the disabled, religious groups, the elderly, children, women, gays and lesbians, prisoners, and Vietnam veterans. The alphabetically arranged entries cover major themes and events, key individuals, organizations, and legal hallmarks. Suggestions for further reading accompany most entries, though some are questionable, inaccurate fictional accounts, and some omissions are curious--e.g., Title IX. The relationship some entries have to minority rights is not always explicitly stated and may require intellectual leaps beyond some readers. Academic libraries may want to compare this volume with Jay A. Sigler's Civil Rights in America: 1500 to Present (1998) or The Encyclopedia of Civil Rights in America, ed. by David Bradley and Shelley Fishkin (3v., CH, May'98), both still in print, equally current, and comprehensive. ^BSumming Up: Recommended. General readers and lower-division undergraduates. L. K. Speer Southeast Missouri State University

Table of Contents

Prefacep. xv
Abernathy, Ralph Davidp. 1
Abolition Movementp. 1
Abortion and Abortion Rightsp. 3
Adarand Constructors, Inc. v. Penap. 4
Addams, Janep. 5
"Address to a Meeting in New York" (Malcolm X)p. 6
Adoption Promotion and Stability Actp. 6
Affirmative Actionp. 6
African American Civil Rights Movementp. 7
African Americansp. 8
Age Discriminationp. 13
Age Discrimination Act of 1975p. 13
Age Discrimination in Employment Act of 1967p. 13
AIDSp. 13
Alabama Christian Movement for Human Rightsp. 14
Albany Movementp. 14
Alexander v. Holmes Countyp. 16
Algebra Projectp. 16
Alianza Hispano-Americanap. 16
Alien Land Law of 1913p. 17
Alien Land Law of 1920p. 17
Alien and Sedition Actsp. 17
Ali, Muhammadp. 18
American-Arab Discrimination Committeep. 19
American Asylum for the Education of the Deaf and Dumbp. 20
American Civil Liberties Unionp. 20
American Coordinating Council of Political Educationp. 21
American Council of the Blindp. 21
American Council of Spanish-Speaking Peoplep. 22
American Federation of Laborp. 22
American Foundation for the Blindp. 23
American GI Forum of the United Statesp. 23
American Indian Religious Freedom Act of 1978p. 24
"American Promise, The" (Lyndon B. Johnson's "Special Message to the Congress, 1965")p. 24
American Protective Leaguep. 24
Americans for Democratic Actionp. 24
Americans with Disabilities Actp. 25
Americans United for the Separation of Church and Statep. 25
Amistad Mutinyp. 25
Amnesty Internationalp. 26
Amsterdam Newsp. 27
Anderson, Marianp. 27
Angelou, Mayap. 28
Anthony, Susan B.p. 28
Anti-Defamation Leaguep. 30
Anti-Saloon Leaguep. 30
Arrests, Laws Governingp. 30
Articles of Confederationp. 31
Aryan Nationsp. 31
Asian-American Legal Defense and Education Fundp. 32
Asian Law Caucusp. 33
Asiatic Exclusion Leaguep. 33
Association for Persons with Severe Handicapsp. 33
Association on American Indian Affairsp. 34
"Atlanta Compromise" Speech (Booker T. Washington)p. 34
Attainderp. 34
Attica Prison Riotp. 35
Attucks, Crispusp. 35
Baker v. Carrp. 36
Baker, Ella Jop. 36
Balch Institute for Ethnic Studiesp. 37
Barnett, Rossp. 37
Barron v. Baltimorep. 37
Barton, Clarap. 37
Beckwith, Byron de lap. 38
Bethune, Mary McLeodp. 38
Bill of Rightsp. 38
Birmingham Church Bombingp. 39
Birmingham SCLC Protestsp. 39
Birth Controlp. 40
Birth of a Nation, Thep. 41
Black Codesp. 41
Black, Hugo L.p. 42
Black Legendp. 42
Black Legionnairesp. 42
Blackmun, Harry A.p. 43
Black Muslimsp. 43
Black Panther Party for Self-Defensep. 43
Black Power Movementp. 44
Bloody Sundayp. 44
B'nai B'rithp. 45
Bolling v. Sharpep. 45
Bond, Julianp. 46
Bonus Armyp. 47
Bork, Robert H.p. 47
Brandeis, Louis Dembitzp. 48
Brotherhood of Sleeping Car Portersp. 48
Brown IIp. 49
Brown Beretsp. 49
Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, Kansasp. 49
Brown, Johnp. 50
Bunche, Ralphp. 51
Burger, Warrenp. 52
Burlington Industries, Inc. v. Ellerthp. 52
Busing, Schoolp. 52
Calhoun, John C.p. 54
Capital Punishmentp. 55
Carmichael, Stokelyp. 55
Carter, Jimmyp. 56
Catholic Bishops' Committee for the Spanish-Speakingp. 57
Catholic Worker Movementp. 57
Census, U.S.p. 57
Center for Civil and Human Rightsp. 58
Center for Law and Social Policyp. 58
Center for Women's Policy Studiesp. 59
Chaney, James Earlp. 59
Chavez, Cesarp. 60
Chicago Daily Defenderp. 60
Chicano Studiesp. 61
Child Abusep. 61
Child Abuse Prevention and Treatment Actp. 62
Child Welfare League of Americap. 62
Children's Defense Fundp. 62
Children's Rightsp. 62
Chinese for Affirmative Actionp. 63
Chinese Exclusion Repeal Actp. 63
Chinese Exclusion Treaty and Actp. 63
Chisholm, Shirleyp. 64
Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saintsp. 64
Church Women Unitedp. 64
Citadel Casep. 64
Citizen's Commission on Civil Rightsp. 65
City of Richmond v. J. R. Croson Co.p. 65
Civil Disobediencep. 65
Civil Rights Act of 1866p. 66
Civil Rights Act of 1875p. 66
Civil Rights Act of 1957p. 66
Civil Rights Act of 1964p. 66
Civil Rights Act of 1990, Veto ofp. 66
Civil Rights Act of 1991p. 67
"Civil Rights, Address on" (John F. Kennedy)p. 67
Civil Rights Commissionp. 67
Civil Rights Division, U.S. Department of Justicep. 67
Civil Unionsp. 68
Clayton Actp. 68
Cleaver, Eldridgep. 68
Clinton, Billp. 69
Coca-Cola Company, Class Action Suit Againstp. 70
Collective Bargainingp. 71
Color Linep. 71
Columbus Board of Education v. Penickp. 71
Commission on the Status of Womenp. 71
Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination against Womenp. 72
Common Lawp. 72
Community Reinvestment Actp. 72
Comprehensive Employment and Training Actp. 72
Compromise of 1850p. 73
Compromise of 1877p. 73
Comstock, Anthonyp. 74
Confessions, Law Governingp. 74
Confiscation Actsp. 75
Congress of Racial Equalityp. 75
Connor, T. Eugene "Bull"p. 76
Conscientious Objectorsp. 76
Contemptp. 76
Contempt of Congressp. 77
Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Womenp. 77
Corporal Punishmentp. 77
Council of Federated Organizationsp. 78
Coxey, Jacobp. 78
Crazy Horsep. 78
Crisis, Thep. 79
Cruel and Unusual Punishmentp. 79
Cuban Refugeesp. 80
Custer, George Armstrongp. 81
Daley, Richard J.p. 82
Darrow, Clarencep. 82
Dawes Severalty Actp. 83
Day, Dorothyp. 84
Debs, Eugene V.p. 84
Declaration of Independencep. 85
Defense of Marriage Actp. 85
Department of Health and Human Services, U.S.p. 86
Department of Housing and Urban Development, U.S.p. 86
Department of the Interior, U.S.p. 86
Department of Justice, U.S.p. 86
Department of Labor, U.S.p. 87
Desegregationp. 88
Disability Rights Education and Defense Fundp. 88
Dix, Dorotheap. 88
Domestic Violencep. 88
"Don't Ask, Don't Tell" Policyp. 89
Douglas, William O.p. 89
Draft Lawsp. 90
Dred Scott Decisionp. 90
Drug Testingp. 91
Du Bois, W.E.B.p. 91
Due Processp. 92
Ebonicsp. 93
Education Law Centerp. 93
Education Rightsp. 94
Eisenhower, Dwight D.p. 95
Emancipation Proclamationp. 96
English-only Legislation and Movementsp. 97
Equal Access Actp. 98
Equal Credit Opportunity Actp. 99
Equal Employment Opportunity Commission, U.S.p. 99
Equality League of Self-Supporting Womenp. 99
Equal Pay Act of 1963p. 100
Equal Rights Amendmentp. 100
Espionage Actp. 100
Euthanasiap. 100
Evers, Medgarp. 100
Exclusionary Zoningp. 101
Ex parte Virginiap. 101
Fair Employment Practices Committeep. 102
Fair Housing Actp. 102
Fair Labor Standards Actp. 102
Fairness Doctrinep. 103
Family and Medical Leave Actp. 103
Farmer, Jamesp. 104
Farm Labor Rightsp. 104
Farrakhan, Louisp. 104
Faubus, Orval E.p. 105
Federal Bureau of Investigationp. 105
Federalist Papers, Thep. 106
Fifteenth Amendmentp. 106
Fifth Amendmentp. 107
First Amendment Foundationp. 107
Flag Lawsp. 107
Ford, Gerald R.p. 107
Ford Motor Company, Class Action Suit Againstp. 108
Fortas, Abep. 109
Fourteenth Amendmentp. 109
Frankfurter, Felixp. 109
Freedmen's Bureaup. 110
Freedom Housep. 110
Freedom of Information Actp. 110
Freedom Ridesp. 111
Freedom Summerp. 111
Free Speechp. 112
Friedan, Bettyp. 112
Fugitive Slave Act (1793)p. 113
Fugitive Slave Lawp. 113
Gallaudet, Thomasp. 114
Gandhi, Mohandasp. 114
Garrison, William Lloydp. 116
Garvey, Marcusp. 116
Gay Rightsp. 117
Gay Rights and the Militaryp. 119
Gender Bias and Discriminationp. 119
Gentleman's Agreementp. 120
Gerrymanderingp. 120
Gilman, Charlotte Perkinsp. 121
Ginsburg, Ruth Baderp. 121
Glass Ceiling Commissionp. 122
Gompers, Samuelp. 122
Goodman, Andrewp. 122
Grandfather Clausep. 123
Gray Panthersp. 123
Great Migration, Thep. 123
Great Societyp. 123
Greensboro Sit-inp. 124
Gregory, Dickp. 124
Griggs v. Duke Power Co.p. 125
Grimke, Sarah and Angelinap. 125
Habeas Corpusp. 126
Hamer, Fannie Loup. 126
Hampton, Fredp. 127
Harlem Renaissancep. 127
Harvard Project on School Desegregationp. 127
Hate Speechp. 128
Haymarket Riotp. 128
Helms, Jesse A.p. 128
Hill, Joep. 129
Hispanic Americansp. 129
Hispanic Civil Rights Movementp. 131
Holmes, Oliver Wendell, Jr.p. 132
Home Mortgage Disclosure Actp. 133
Homeschoolingp. 133
Homestead Act of 1862p. 133
Hoover, J. Edgarp. 134
Hostile Work Environmentp. 134
House Un-American Activities Committeep. 135
Housing Rightsp. 135
Howard, Oliver O.p. 137
Hughes, Langstonp. 137
Hull Housep. 138
Human Rights Watchp. 138
Hutchinson, Annep. 139
"I Have a Dream" Speech (Martin Luther King Jr.)p. 141
Immigration Act of 1917p. 141
Immigration Act of 1924p. 141
Immigration Act of 1965p. 141
Immigration and Naturalization Act of 1952p. 142
Immigration Reform and Control Actp. 142
Immigration Rights, Statutes, and Restrictionsp. 142
Indentured Servitudep. 142
Indian Child Welfare Act of 1978p. 142
Indian Citizenship Actp. 142
Indian Civil Rights Actp. 143
Indian Country Crimes Actp. 143
Indian Freedom of Religion Actp. 143
Indian Major Crimes Actp. 143
Indian Removal Act of 1830p. 143
Indian Reorganization Actp. 144
Indian Resource Law Centerp. 144
Indian Self-Determination Actp. 144
Indian Trade and Intercourse Actsp. 144
Indian Warsp. 145
Individuals with Disabilities Education Actp. 146
Industrial Workers of the Worldp. 147
Insular Casesp. 147
Integrationp. 147
Interagency Council on the Homelessp. 148
International Ladies Garment Workers Unionp. 148
Islam, Nation ofp. 148
Isseip. 149
Jackson, Andrewp. 150
Jackson, Jesse Louisp. 151
Jackson, Mahaliap. 152
Japanese American Evacuation Claims Actp. 152
Japanese Exclusion Leaguep. 152
Japanese Internmentp. 152
Jefferson, Thomasp. 154
Jehovah's Witnesses, Supreme Court Rulings Concerningp. 155
Jim Crow Lawsp. 156
Job Corpsp. 157
Job Training Partnership Actp. 157
Johnson, Lyndon B.p. 158
Jones, Mary Harris ("Mother Jones")p. 159
Journey of Reconciliationp. 159
Kansas-Nebraska Actp. 160
Keller, Helenp. 160
Kennedy, John Fitzgeraldp. 161
Kennedy, Robert F.p. 162
King, Martin Luther, Jr.p. 163
King, Rodney, Casep. 164
Know-Nothing Partyp. 164
Korean Exclusion Leaguep. 165
Ku Klux Klanp. 165
Labor Rightsp. 167
La Follette, Robert M.p. 167
Las Casas, Bartolome dep. 168
Leadership Conference on Civil Rightsp. 169
League of Nationsp. 169
League of United Latin American Citizensp. 169
Legal Services for Prisoners with Childrenp. 170
"Letter from Birmingham Jail" (Martin Luther King Jr.)p. 170
Lewisburg Prison Projectp. 170
Lewis, Johnp. 171
Lincoln, Abrahamp. 171
Literacy Tests for Votingp. 172
Little Rock School Crisisp. 173
Local 93 International Association of Firefighters AFL-CIO v. Clevelandp. 174
Los Angeles Race Riotp. 174
Louis, Joep. 174
Loving v. Virginiap. 175
Lynchingp. 175
Madison, Jamesp. 176
Magna Cartap. 177
Malcolm X (El-Hajj Malik El-Shabazz)p. 177
Mandela, Nelsonp. 178
March Against Fearp. 179
March on Washingtonp. 179
Margold Reportp. 180
Marshall, Thurgoodp. 180
Martin Luther King Dayp. 181
Martin Luther King Jr. Center for Social Changep. 181
Maryland Colonyp. 181
Massachusetts Body of Libertiesp. 182
Mattachine Societyp. 182
McCarthy, Josephp. 182
McKinley Homeless Assistance Actp. 183
McLaurin v. Oklahoma State Regentsp. 183
Medicaid and Medicarep. 183
Meiklejohn Civil Liberties Institutep. 184
Melting Pot Conceptp. 184
Mentally Ill, Rights of thep. 184
Meredith, James Howardp. 185
Meredith Marchp. 186
Mexican-American Legal Defense and Education Fundp. 186
Mexican Warp. 186
Mfume, Kweisip. 186
Migrant Laborp. 186
Migrant Legal Action Programp. 188
Military, Desegregation of thep. 188
Million Man Marchp. 188
Miranda v. Arizonap. 189
Miscegenation Lawsp. 189
Mississippi Freedom Democratic Partyp. 190
Mississippi, University ofp. 190
Missouri Compromisep. 191
Missouri ex rel. Gaines v. Canadap. 192
Montgomery Bus Boycottp. 192
Montgomery Improvement Associationp. 193
Morgan v. Virginiap. 193
Mormon Churchp. 194
Moses, Robert Parrisp. 194
Mount Laurel Casesp. 195
Nashville Student Movementp. 196
National Abortion Rights Action Leaguep. 196
National Advisory Commission on Civil Disorders, Report ofp. 197
National Affordable Housing Actp. 197
National American Woman Suffrage Associationp. 197
National Association for the Advancement of Colored Peoplep. 198
National Association of Colored Womenp. 198
National Center for Lesbian Rightsp. 199
National Center for Youth Lawp. 199
National Clearinghouse for the Defense of Battered Womenp. 199
National Congress of American Indiansp. 199
National Council of La Razap. 200
National Council of Senior Citizensp. 200
National Farm Workers Associationp. 200
National Gay and Lesbian Task Forcep. 200
National Housing Law Projectp. 201
National Immigration Projectp. 201
National Lawyers Guildp. 201
National Negro Conferencep. 202
National Organization for Womenp. 202
National Urban Leaguep. 202
National Woman's Partyp. 203
National Women's Law Centerp. 204
Nation of Islamp. 204
Native American Churchp. 204
Native American Civil Rights Movementp. 205
Native American Rights Fundp. 206
Native Americansp. 206
Nativismp. 208
Naturalization Act of 1870p. 208
Natural Rightsp. 208
Newton, Huey P.p. 209
New York Association for Improving the Conditions of the Poorp. 209
New York Children's Aid Societyp. 210
Niagara Movementp. 210
Niseip. 210
Nixon, Richard M.p. 210
Nonviolence Doctrinep. 212
NOW Legal Defense and Education Fundp. 213
Occupational Safety and Health Actp. 214
O'Connor, Sandra Dayp. 214
Office for Civil Rightsp. 215
Office of Federal Contract Compliance Programp. 215
Open Housing Actp. 215
Owens, Jessep. 215
Paine, Thomasp. 217
Palmer Raidsp. 218
Parks, Rosap. 218
Passive Resistancep. 219
Pennsylvania Colonyp. 219
Penn, Williamp. 219
Philadelphia Planp. 220
"Philadelphia Plan, Remarks on the" (Arthur Fletcher)p. 221
Planned Parenthood Federation of Americap. 221
Plessy v. Fergusonp. 221
Police Brutalityp. 222
Political Asylump. 222
Poll Taxesp. 222
Poor People's Campaignp. 223
Powell, Adam Clayton, Jr.p. 223
Prisoners' Rightsp. 224
Privacy Rightsp. 225
Probable Causep. 226
Proposition 187p. 226
Proposition 209p. 227
Public and Indian Housing Programp. 227
Puerto Rican Legal Defense and Education Fundp. 227
Quakersp. 228
Quotas, Immigrationp. 228
Quotas, Racialp. 228
Race Riotsp. 229
Racial Profilingp. 229
Racismp. 230
Radical Republicansp. 230
Randolph, A. Philipp. 230
Rap Musicp. 231
Ray, James Earlp. 231
Reagan, Ronald W.p. 232
Reasonable Doubtp. 233
Reconstructionp. 234
Reeb, Jamesp. 235
Regents of the University of California v. Bakkep. 235
Rehnquist, William H.p. 235
Religion, Freedom ofp. 236
Reparations Assessment Groupp. 237
Reservations, Indianp. 237
Reverse Discriminationp. 238
Rhode Island Colonyp. 238
Richardson, Gloria St. Clair Hayesp. 239
Right to Diep. 239
Right-to-Life Movementp. 240
Robinson, Jackiep. 240
Roe v. Wadep. 241
Roosevelt, Eleanorp. 241
Roosevelt, Franklin Delanop. 242
Rustin, Bayardp. 244
Sacco and Venzetti Casep. 245
Salem Witch Trialsp. 246
Sanger, Margaretp. 246
Savio, Mariop. 247
Schlafly, Phyllisp. 247
Schneiderman, Rosep. 248
Schomburg Center for Research in Black Culturep. 248
School Prayerp. 248
Schwerner, Michaelp. 248
Scottsboro Boysp. 249
Seale, Bobbyp. 249
"Segregation Today, Segregation Forever" Speech (George C. Wallace)p. 250
Selective Service Systemp. 250
Selma (Alabama) SNCC-SCLC Demonstrationp. 250
Seneca Falls Conferencep. 251
"Separate but Equal" Doctrinep. 251
Seton, Elizabeth Annp. 252
Sexismp. 252
Sexual Harassmentp. 252
Shaw v. Renop. 253
Shelley v. Kraemerp. 253
Siege at Wounded Kneep. 253
Simpson, O. J.p. 254
Sit-insp. 254
Sitting Bullp. 255
Sixth Amendmentp. 255
Slaughterhouse Casesp. 256
Slaveryp. 256
Social Darwinismp. 258
Southern Christian Leadership Conferencep. 258
Southern Manifesto, Thep. 258
Southern Negro Youth Congressp. 259
Sovereign Immunityp. 259
Speech, Freedom ofp. 259
Stanton, Elizabeth Cadyp. 259
States' Rightsp. 260
Stereotypes, Ethnic and Racialp. 260
Stonewall Protestp. 261
Stowe, Harriet Beecherp. 261
Strauder v. West Virginiap. 262
Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committeep. 262
Students for a Democratic Societyp. 263
Suicide, Assistedp. 264
Supreme Courtp. 264
Swann v. Charlotte-Mecklenburg Board of Educationp. 264
Sweatt v. Painterp. 264
Tailhook Scandalp. 266
Tarbell, Idap. 266
Tenement House Law of 1867p. 267
Test Casep. 267
Thirteenth Amendmentp. 267
Thomas, Clarencep. 267
Thoreau, Henry Davidp. 268
Three-Fifths Compromisep. 269
Thurmond, James Stromp. 269
Till, Emmettp. 270
To Secure These Rightsp. 270
Trail of Tearsp. 270
Triangle Shirtwaist Firep. 271
Truman, Harry S.p. 271
Truth, Sojournerp. 273
Tubman, Harrietp. 273
Tuskegee Airmenp. 274
Tuskegee Institutep. 274
Uncle Tomp. 276
Underground Railroadp. 276
United Farm Workersp. 277
United Nationsp. 277
United States v. Cruikshankp. 278
United States v. Kagamap. 278
United States-Mexican Warp. 278
Universal Declaration of Human Rightsp. 280
Universal Negro Improvement Associationp. 280
University of California v. Bakkep. 280
Urban Institutep. 281
Urban Renewalp. 281
Veterans' Rightsp. 282
Victims' Rights Legislationp. 282
Vietnam War Protest Movementp. 283
Violence Against Women Act of 1998p. 285
Voter Registration Drivesp. 285
Voting Rights Act of 1965p. 285
Voucher Plansp. 286
Wald, Lillian D.p. 287
Wallace, George C.p. 287
Wards Cove Packing Co. v. Antoniop. 288
War on Povertyp. 289
Warren, Earlp. 289
Washington, Booker T.p. 290
Washington, D.C., Voting Rights inp. 290
Washington, Georgep. 291
Watts (Los Angeles) Race Riotp. 292
Welfare Statep. 292
"We Shall Overcome"p. 293
Wheeler-Howard Indian Reorganization Actp. 293
White Supremacy Movementsp. 293
Wilkins, Roy O.p. 294
Williams, Rogerp. 295
Women's Civil Rights Movementp. 295
Women's Law Projectp. 298
Women's Liberation Movementp. 298
Women's Rightsp. 298
Women's Suffrage Movementp. 299
Woolworth Lunch Counter Sit-inp. 299
Young Negroes Cooperative Leaguep. 300
Young, Whitney Moore, Jr.p. 300
Youth Law Centerp. 300
Zellner, Robertp. 302
Zenger Casep. 302
Appendix A Documentsp. 305
Appendix B Court Cases Mentionedp. 377
Appendix C Contact Information for Agencies and Organizations Involved in Minority Rightsp. 379
Bibliographyp. 385
Indexp. 399