Cover image for Thomas Mann : life as a work of art : a biography
Thomas Mann : life as a work of art : a biography
Kurzke, Hermann.
Personal Author:
Uniform Title:
Thomas Mann. English
Publication Information:
Princeton, N.J. : Princeton University Press, [2002]

Physical Description:
xi, 581 pages : illustrations, portraits ; 25 cm
General Note:
Includes index.
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Format :


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PT2625.A44 Z73293 2002 Adult Non-Fiction Non-Fiction Area

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This vivid, sometimes tragic, and often humorous literary biography brings to life as never before the extraordinary talent and complex person who was Thomas Mann.

Engrossing vignettes enable us to enter Mann's life and work from unique angles. We meet the difficult, even unsavory private man: hypochondriac and nervous, narcissistic and vainglorious, isolated and greedy for love, shy and often ungenerous. But we are also introduced to a man who lived an eventful life, was capable of great kindness, loved dogs, doted on his daughters, and listened to Jack Benny.

We experience Mann's tragedy as the quintessential German forced by the rise of National Socialism first into inner exile and then into real exile in Switzerland, Princeton, and California. His letters from this time reveal the torment that exile represented for a writer whose work, indeed whose very self, was inextricably bound up with the German language.

The book provides fresh and sometimes startling insights into both famous and little-known episodes in Mann's life and into his writing--the only realm in which he ever felt free. It shows how love, death, religion, and politics were not merely themes in Buddenbrooks, The Magic Mountain , and other works, but were woven into the fabric of his existence and preoccupied him unrelentingly. It also teases out what is known about what Mann considered his celibate homoeroticism and what others have labeled closeted homosexuality. In particular, we learn about his affection for the young man who inspired the character of Tadzio in Death in Venice . And, against the unfocused accusations of anti-Semitism that have been leveled at Mann, the book examines in human detail his relationships with Jewish writers, friends, and family members.

This is the richest available portrait of Thomas Mann as man and writer--the place to start for anyone wanting to know anything about his life, work, or times.

Author Notes

Hermann Kurzke is Professor of Literature at the University of Mainz.

Reviews 4

Publisher's Weekly Review

More than any other modernist writer, Thomas Mann (1875-1955) has remained something of a mystery. Biographers have concluded from his writings that he was an anti-Semite, a closet homosexual, a proto-fascist and an authoritarian father. In exhaustive detail, renowned Mann scholar Kurzke offers what may easily become the definitive biography of the great writer. Drawing deeply on letters, journals, diaries and essays, he engages in close readings of all of Mann's writings to demonstrate the ways the writer's life so intimately informs his art and the ways that his art informs his life. Kurzke reads the essay "Reflections of a Nonpolitical Man," for example, to show how Mann's resistance to WWI nevertheless convinced him of the political power of art. Kurzke's Mann emerges as a celibate homoerotic writer who sublimated erotic desires and political questions into his art. Above all, Kurzke's biography proclaims, Mann ambitiously and tirelessly worked at his art ("He exists not for the sake of living but for the sake of writing") as he became an aesthete and man of letters. Kurzke's narrative is an unusual one that moves from past tense to present, from Mann's childhood to his later years, drawing on his writings blended with Kurzke's own interpretations. This style won't please everyone (and this is probably not for those looking for an introduction to Mann), but his portrait overcomes the theoretical tendencies of some recent Mann biographies (such as Anthony Heilbut's Thomas Mann: Eros and Literature) to offer a balanced, if sometimes hagiographic, study of Mann. 40 b&w photos. (Sept.) (c) Copyright PWxyz, LLC. All rights reserved

Choice Review

Kurzke (Univ. of Mainz, Germany) provides a comprehensive, sensitive biography that takes into consideration all the new information about Mann's life that has become known in recent years, particularly in the diaries. The author deals sympathetically with the relationship of Mann to his parents, wife, and children, to his brother Heinrich, and to Germany, with which he had a love-hate relationship. He analyzes Mann's works as they related to his life in a concise and straightforward manner. Readers seeking postmodern interpretations of the novels and short stories will need to look elsewhere, since Kurzke avoids critical analysis and writes for the celebrated general reader. Since per capita, there are far more of those interested in Mann in Germany than in the US, the German version fared far better than this translation is likely to do in the US. Willson's translation is, as always, expert. This civilized, readable, erudite but never arcane study is one of the best accounts of the life of a complex man, perplexed, tortured by his sexual predilections. ^BSumming Up: Highly recommended. Upper-division undergraduates through faculty; general readers. J. Hardin emeritus, University of South Carolina

Booklist Review

The writer who once declared, "Wherever I am, Germany is" deserves a biography in German. Now, thanks to the translating labors of Willson, Kurzke's much-lauded 1999 biography also is available in English. Readers should understand that, unlike many literary biographies, Kurzke's takes the author's life, not his books, as his primary focus. To be sure, Kurzke probes Mann's brilliant fiction, illuminating particularly the genius with which Mann revealed taboo personal feelings behind the fictional veil of such masterpieces as The Magic Mountain and Buddenbrooks. But the conception that unifies the biography is that of Mann's life itself as an imaginative creation, a work artistically conceived and executed like each of his novels. In devising the artistry of his life, Mann created a structure capacious enough to contain even the eruptions of Germany's tempestuous twenthieth-century history, capacious enough to permit an aesthetic interest in the character of "Brother Hitler," whose loathsome politics forced Mann into exile. But by far the more powerful influences in shaping the artistry of his life were his own internal impulses, especially a sublimated and celibate homoeroticism. In exploring Mann's living artistry, Kurzke deftly teases out hidden connections--between Mann's egotistic narcissism and his aesthetic independence, for instance, and between his antifascist politics and his patriarchal Protestant religion. A major achievement in literary biography. --Bryce Christensen

Library Journal Review

Thomas Mann was one of the great humanist authors of the past century, the Nobel prize-winning architect of such beloved works as Death in Venice, Buddenbrooks, and The Magic Mountain, a naturalized American, a citizen of the world, and the quintessence of German genius. He was also a closeted homosexual who scheduled the release of his diaries to occur decades after his death in 1955 to assure a new wave of interest in his work for another generation and who took few actual or symbolic steps in public without considering their impact on his carefully managed career. The existing biographies are massive, encyclopedic endeavors, but they either shortchange the work (e.g., Donald Prater's Thomas Mann: A Life) or miss the complexity of the figure Mann (e.g., Anthony Heilbut's Eros and Literature). Kurzke's (literature, Univ. of Mainz) portrait strikes a fortuitous balance in blending excerpts from Mann's writings with nonjudgmental commentary. The focus lies with Mann's homosexuality, his relations to Jews and Judaism, the canny construction of the persona of Great Author, and how Mann transformed everything around him into art. But the book is gravely marred by a ploddingly literal translation. Teutonic syntax and idiomatic expression are preserved to a degree that would be laughable, if only this hack translation did not do such disservice to both an inspired biographer and to Mann the unparalleled stylist. Recommended for research libraries only.-Ulrich Baer, NYU (c) Copyright 2010. Library Journals LLC, a wholly owned subsidiary of Media Source, Inc. No redistribution permitted.



Childhood and School Days CHRONICLE 1875-1894 Thomas Mann, or to be precise, Paul Thomas Mann, was born on June 6, 1875, in Lübeck and baptized as a Protestant on June 11 in St. Mary's Church. His parents were very refined people: Thomas Johann Heinrich Mann, born in Lübeck in 1840, and Julia Mann, née da Silva-Bruhns, who had seen the light of day for the first time in 1851 in Brazil. His father was the owner of the Johann Siegmund Mann grain firm, further a consul to the Netherlands, and later the senator overseeing taxes for Lübeck, which joined the German Empire as an independent city-state in 1871. His mother came from a wealthy German-Brazilian merchant family. His older brother Heinrich was born in 1871; the siblings born later were Julia, 1877; Carla, 1881; and Viktor, 1890. As was customary in his circles, instead of entering the public primary school or elementary school, from Easter 1882 on, Thomas Mann attended a private school, the Progymnasium of Dr. Bussenius, in which there were six grades. In addition to the three primary-school classes, there were the first, second, and third years of the secondary school. He was held back for the first time in the third year and had to repeat it. He transferred at Easter 1889 to the famed Katharineum on Lübeck's Königstrasse. Since he was to become a merchant, he did not attend the humanistic branch but rather the mathematical-scientific branch. In March 1894, after the fourth year (twice), the fifth year, and the sixth year (twice) of secondary school, he left at the age of almost nineteen, with the authorization for one year of volunteer military service but without graduating. The grain firm had just celebrated its hundredth anniversary (in May 1890) when his father died at the age of only fifty-one on October 13, 1891. His will decreed the dissolution of the firm. His mother left Lübeck a few months later and moved to Munich with her younger children, Julia, Carla, and Viktor. Heinrich, who had also left school without finishing, was at the time already at work as a trainee with the young S. Fischer Publishing Company in Berlin. Thomas boarded for a time with various teachers until he followed his mother to Munich at the end of March 1894. HOROSCOPE My horoscope was propitious; the sun stood in the sign of Virgo and reached its apex on that day; Jupiter and Venus looked at her with a friendly eye, Mercury not adversely, while Saturn and Mars remained indifferent: the moon alone, just full, exerted the power of her reflection all the more, as she had then reached her planetary hour. She opposed herself, therefore, to my birth, which could not be accomplished until this hour had passed. Smiling, Goethe flirts at the beginning of Truth and Poetry with the state of the stars at the time of his birth. Thomas Mann, for his part, gazes up to Goethe when, regarding his hour of birth, he asserts: The position of the planets was favorable, as adepts of astrology later often assured me-based on my horoscope they predicted a long and happy life and a gentle death for me. Of course, like his Jacob, he is not sure whether astronomy was to be counted among the true and useful things or more among the abominations. But he had a horoscope made for himself in 1926. It is correct that the position of the planets is described as favorable, since the most influential stars stand in their own or in friendly signs. But the astrological art of prediction was silent about a long life and a gentle death. Here Thomas Mann helped things along somewhat. When he conjured up the astronomical report in the novel Joseph and His Brothers , he also took only what he could use and left out what was a hindrance. The hour hand at Joseph's birth reflects an idealized version of his own horoscope. "I transferred my own to him." Accordingly, the sun was at its vertex, which was not quite true in reality, and in the Sign of Gemini, while in the east the Sign of Virgo was rising. With Ninurtu (Saturn) it had a trine, which "points a finger to a share in the events in the realms of earth." That was to come true. But above all, Joseph's, that is, Tommy's, birth is in the Sign of Mercury (the Babylonian Nabu, the Greek Hermes, the Egyptian Thot), the familiar mediator and witty scribe who is a reconciler between things and promotes exchange, but who also, fragile and needing contact, is determined more closely by the society in which he happens to be. In our case it is that of the dangerous Nergal (Mars), the mischief-maker, who lends toughness to the Hermes child, and that of the seductive Ishtar (Venus), "whose part is moderation and grace, love and mercy." She peaks at that hour and appears amicably with Mercury and the Moon. She also stands in Taurus, "and experience teaches us that, of course, that lends composure and shapes enduring courage and understanding delightfully." Venus, too, receives a trine from Nergal, but that is not bad at all-it makes her taste not sweet and pallid but sharp and spicy. In the final analysis everything takes place between the Sun and the Moon. The Moon is strong. If Nabu, the smart one, meets it, "then there is a reaching out into the world." Nabu is the mediator between the Sun and the Moon, between the world of the father, who stands in the sign of majestic Jupiter, and the world of the mother, who keeps with Venus. The father world will become that of duty and responsibility and middle-class society, the mother world that of dream and temptation, of love and death. Between the two, Thomas Mann will try to play the role of Hermes. SUNDAY BELLS His birth was easy and happy, like those of his siblings. "I was born with Sunday bells." The writer does not recall any reluctance to exchange the dark of his mother's womb for the light of day. It was important for him to have his life appear blessed. "I was born on Sunday, June 6, 1875, at twelve o'clock noon," he writes in 1936. Thomas Mann was a Sunday's child, that's true. However, it was not twelve o'clock when he took his first breath, as can be seen from the official documentation, but rather a quarter after ten. Goethe was born at noon (if on his part, he did not give himself a literary helping hand): "On August 28, 1749, at noon, with the clock striking twelve, I came into the world in Frankfurt am Main." The inclination to give his life a "course," a nice and coherent order, was strong in Thomas Mann. In A Sketch of My Life he will announce for reasons of symmetry that he would die at seventy-later he interprets a serious lung operation in 1949 as the meager fulfillment of that prophecy. In My Time , written in 1950, he reinforces the rhythm of the quarter centuries. Born in 1875, Buddenbrooks finished in 1900, The Magic Mountain in 1925. All of that is only approximately correct, but it felt good to him to look at it that way. "My time-it was so changeable, but my life in it is a unity. The order in which my life is related to the times in numbers stirs in me the pleasure I find in all order and coherence." For him it is always a matter of a measure of time. "Childlike pleasure in beginning a new month." All his life he will note down days of commemoration and decisive points of all kinds with special attention. He even sanctified Sunday in his own way-not that he necessarily stopped working, but that he entered the date in red in his diary. He wanted his life to be orderly. It was to be "a well-rounded art work of a life." In truth he conducted a desperate battle against encroaching chaos. Inner chaos threatened through the laziness and dreaminess of his early years, his unrealized homoerotic inclinations, and the desire to let himself go. The chaos of external history brought in 1894 the loss of the world of his origins in Lübeck, and in 1933 that of his chosen home of Munich, followed by change of residence in exile, the renewed homelessness in the United States, and at an advanced age the move to Switzerland. Today Thomas Mann cities interested in tourism carry on the idyllic cultivation of classic writers with traces of his life, but there is not much there. Only late, very late, did the city of Lübeck buy the so-called Buddenbrook House, the house of his grandparents on Mengstrasse. In reality, the architectonic remains of this life exhibit a trace of catastrophy. In May 1942 only the façade of the Buddenbrook House was still standing, and his parents' various other houses in Lübeck have totally disappeared from the face of the earth. Only the foundation of the Munich house on Poschingerstrasse, on which a new postwar construction was erected, remains. The American places of residence are in private hands with no interest in the past. The last place of residence in Kilchberg outside of Zurich was bought by a banker in 1996. Only in the diaries of his old age did the Sunday's child relax the palliative strictures. "Not all of my life was painful. Very likely such a mixture of torment and glory was rare" (September 20, 1953). Was his birth really so easy and happy? IN THE SHADOW OF ST. MARY'S CHURCH The delivery of a baby is something intimate and private; in the case of Thomas Mann, it took place, as was usual at the time, at home, probably Breite Strasse 36. A baptism, on the other hand, is something public. It signifies not only acceptance into the Church, in this case the Lutheran, but also into middle-class society, with which this church was all-too-intimately connected. To be baptized in St. Mary's: Seen socially, that was the best place. While in the nineteenth century the Lübeckers let their cathedral fail into ruins, stored building rubble in their St. Katharine's Church, and tore down the magnificent Renaissance city gate still situated at the Holsten Gate, they kept faith with St. Mary's Church, located at the market place, and with city hall. In The Magic Mountain old Hans Lorenz Castorp tells his grandson about the baptismal bowl that had for generations received the baptismal water trickling from the heads of the newborn Castorps or, as the case may be, of the Manns, for into this bowl the water from the little head of five-day-old Thomas had flowed. The sexton poured it into the pastor's hollowed hand, "and from there it ran over the crown of your head into the bowl here. But we had warmed it so you would not be startled and not cry, and you didn't either; on the contrary you had been crying before, so that Bugenhagen didn't have it easy with his homily, but when the water came, you fell silent, and showed respect for the holy sacrament, let us hope." It may also have happened like that at the baptism of Thomas-we assume so. Admittedly, the roguish stylization of the scene by the author of The Magic Mountain is typical. In the wailing during the sermon he already hints at protest against the bourgeois church and its rhetoric, in the quiet during the flowing application of the baptismal water reverence for an indefinable something more sublime. St. Mary's Church is not only a place left over from the nineteenth century. Mightier experiences half a millenium older fill its echoing breadth. It belongs among those places "where as you walked, hat in hand, you fell into a certain, reverential, forward-rolling gait, your heels never touching the ground." It conveys two things: the middle-class façade and its opposite, the atmosphere of death. Mann in 1921 calls his hometown a "Dance of Death homeland," with reference to "the humorously macabre thrills that emanated from the Dance of Death frescoes in St. Mary's Church," that late-medieval cycle by Bernt Notke, which burned in the Second World War. When in California, Thomas Mann heard about the bombing attacks on Lübeck and had to assume that St. Mary's Church could have suffered damage-he did not have much sympathy. "I think of Coventry," he said in a BBC broadcast, "and have nothing against the idea that everything must be paid for." That takes aim at the guilt of middle-class, National Socialist Lübeck. But after the war, when it is a matter of rescuing and rebuilding St. Mary's Church, he makes a genuine effort to raise the necessary funds. He does not do that for the sake of the citizens of Lübeck but because of the reverential rocking gait. St. Mary's, as middle class as it was mysterious, place of baptism and death, overshadowed besides a childhood dream, the Buddenbrook House in Mengstrasse. THUNDER AND LIGHTNING With "Amen, I know something, Grandfather!" eight-year-old Tony Buddenbrook closes her recitation of the catechism she has learned by heart. What does she know? "If it's a warm flash," Tony said, nodding her head at each word, "then lightning is striking. But if there's a cold flash, then thunder is striking." When old Herr Buddenbrook demands to know who taught the child such idiocy, it turns out that it was Ida Jungmann, the child's recently engaged nanny from Marienwerder in West Prussia. There were nannies not only in the Buddenbrook home but naturally also in Mann's home. They were very influential. Until Tommy's thirteenth or fourteenth year, it was Ida Springer who obviously served as the model for Ida Jungmann. She, too, will have had that fine sense of class and rank that is characterized ironically in Buddenbrooks : She was a person of aristocratic principles who distinguished exactly between first and second social ranks and between middle class and lower middle class; she was proud as a devoted servant to serve the first social ranks, and she did not like, for instance, to see Toni become friends with a schoolmate who in Mamsell Jungmann's estimation was to be counted only among the upper middle class. An older brother with three younger siblings experiences his own learning process three more times, that is, when it happens to each of the others. In this way he becomes aware of what the only child or the last child in the row must remain unaware of because each of them is too close. Only what is known can become a story. Tommy is not Tony; it was not he who believed in striking thunder, but he either observed from a distance how the little story impressed his younger siblings or he took part early on in the good-natured mockery by adults about Ida Springer. Incidents of this sort belong at one time or another to a treasure of family legends whose original kernel of experience disappears more and more behind an anecdotal point that already has something literary about it. Continue... Excerpted from THOMAS MANN : Life As a Work of Art by Hermann Kurzke Copyright (c) 1999 by C.H. Beck'sche Verlagsbuchhandlung, München Excerpted by permission. All rights reserved. No part of this excerpt may be reproduced or reprinted without permission in writing from the publisher.

Table of Contents

Translator's Prefacep. xiii
I. Childhood and School Days
Chronicle 1875-1894p. 2
Horoscopep. 3
Sunday Bellsp. 4
In the Shadow of St. Mary's Churchp. 5
Thunder and Lightningp. 7
Othellosp. 9
Lead Soldiers and Playing Godsp. 10
Your Sapiency and Lubeck's Most Beautiful Womanp. 12
Bed and Sleep, Elegiacalp. 19
Stretch, Curtail, Corruptp. 20
Flunkingp. 24
The Autodidactp. 25
Fellow Studentsp. 27
II. Early Love and First Writings
Chronicle 1889-1893p. 32
First Love: Armin Martensp. 33
Williram Timpep. 37
The Sunken Treasurep. 42
Lost Poems and Dramasp. 43
Spring Storm and Other Immature Thingsp. 45
Girls in Lubeckp. 47
III. Before Fame
Chronicle 1894-1901p. 52
Deciding for His Motherp. 54
Freedomp. 55
Talented and Chosenp. 58
A Metaphysical Magic Potionp. 60
Klarchenp. 61
Quiet in All the Cellars!p. 64
Knowledge Is the Deepest Torment in the Worldp. 68
Elbow Room: Little Herr Friedemannp. 69
Primal Odds and Endsp. 71
The Opera Glassp. 76
General Dr. von Staatp. 78
Italyp. 83
"Amen!" Means "Enough!"p. 84
A Scavengerp. 87
But the Little Hunchback, Toop. 89
IV. Thomas and Heinrich
Chronicle 1875-1914p. 96
Papa's Death and Goodwillp. 98
In Inimicosp. 98
Lorenzo and the Priorp. 102
Correspondencep. 104
Plebeians and Chandalas, Renaissance Men and the Ideal of Feminine Artistic Beautyp. 108
The Hunt for Lovep. 109
Heinrich and Katiap. 112
V. The Path to Marriage
Chronicle 1900-1905p. 116
A Stroke of Luckp. 117
Tonio Krogerp. 118
I Love You! My God ... I Love You!p. 120
The Flirtation Squabblep. 128
Paul's Deathp. 132
Chastityp. 133
"Du"--Informal Addressp. 134
Literature and Lifep. 135
Mary Smithp. 137
Money Matchesp. 139
The Courtship of Katia Pringsheimp. 141
Prince and Algebrap. 149
Engagement and Weddingp. 150
Katia, Fictionallyp. 153
VI. Ambitious Plans
Chronicle 1905-1914p. 160
Fame!p. 161
Fiorenzap. 162
Heroism: Frederick the Greatp. 164
The Unsuccessful Bilse Piece and Other Activitiesp. 165
Workday and Alcoholp. 168
Why Did I Get Married?p. 169
Mayap. 170
The Train Wreckp. 171
The State, Our Father, and an Enlightened Monarchp. 172
Censor Anti-Censorp. 174
How Jappe and Do Escobar Had a Fightp. 175
Death in Venicep. 177
A Death in Pollingp. 179
Sense of Family, a Snapshotp. 182
Plans of Doing Away with Oneselfp. 185
VII. Jews
The Blood of the Walsungs and Doctor Sammetp. 188
Anti-Semitism?p. 191
The Jewish Girlp. 193
Thomas Mann--Wasn't He a Jew?p. 194
The Harden Trialp. 196
Alfred Kerrp. 198
Theodor Lessingp. 205
A Wretched Manp. 210
Chronicle 1914-1918p. 216
Soldier and Military Man Aschenbachp. 217
1914 in Lettersp. 220
Military Servicep. 223
Thomas Mann and the Grand Coalitionp. 224
The Ordealp. 226
Zolap. 227
Saying Everythingp. 229
Eroticism and Ironyp. 230
Fratricidal Warp. 231
Opinionsp. 234
Attempt at a Reconciliationp. 235
Mysticismp. 239
Churchp. 241
Faithp. 243
IX. Attempts at Orientation
Chronicle 1918-1921p. 248
Heinrichp. 249
Politics: Theory and Practicep. 250
The Bavarian Soviet Republicp. 254
Revolution in Russiap. 257
Conservative Revolutionp. 263
On the Jewish Questionp. 264
Domesticsp. 266
A Comfort: Dogsp. 270
X. Family, No Fun Either
Chronicle 1918-1933p. 274
Poor Little Katiap. 276
Lonelinessp. 281
Father of Sixp. 282
Erikap. 287
Klausp. 289
Golop. 291
Monikap. 293
Elisabethp. 294
Michaelp. 295
XI. In the Magic Mountain
Chronicle 1912-1924p. 298
We Phantoms along the Pathp. 299
The Pyramidp. 300
The Drift Netp. 301
Bonelessp. 304
The Most Sensuous Thing I Ever Didp. 305
Smokingp. 307
Kings Know No Ironyp. 308
Things Most Questionablep. 310
From Life to His Workp. 316
XII. Republican Politics
Chronicle 1922-1933p. 320
The Reconciliation with Heinrich and the Shift to the Republicp. 322
The Vanquisher of the Romanticp. 324
Trillion-Dollar Eggsp. 326
The Fight against Fascismp. 328
Seven Reasons for the Astonishing Politicization of Thomas Mannp. 331
Johst, Hubscher, and Pilot Roguesp. 333
Storm Troopers in Tuxedosp. 336
Ernst Jungerp. 338
XIII. Homoeroticism of Midlife
A Hesitant Coming Outp. 342
Boys 1918-1921p. 343
Weber, Wyneken, Wickersdorfp. 347
Monstrous Indecenciesp. 350
Impotencep. 351
Eros As a Statesmanp. 352
On Marriagep. 353
Against Paragraph 175p. 354
Klaus Heuser and Amphitryonp. 354
A Candid Confessorp. 359
A Don Quixote of Lovep. 361
XIV. Ostracized
Chronicle 1933-1936p. 364
Hitler and Friedemannp. 366
The Suitcasep. 368
Let the World Know Mep. 369
House, Heins, Heydrichp. 371
Where Did the Hate Come From?p. 375
Towering Alonep. 376
The Great Disappointmentp. 378
A Political Actp. 381
The Liberationp. 383
XV. Joseph and His Brothers
Chronicle 1924-1943p. 390
Anti-Bilse?p. 392
Icing on the Cakep. 395
Thamar and Agnes Meyerp. 397
Father and Mother, Katia and Paulp. 400
Churchill and the Biblep. 405
God, the Father, and the Angelic Creaturep. 407
On the Magician's Chastityp. 412
Militant Christianityp. 414
XVI. Hate for Hitler
Chronicle 1936-1945p. 416
I Am an Americanp. 419
Morally a Good Timep. 419
Thank You, Mr. Hitler!p. 422
This Man Is My Brotherp. 423
The Jews Will Endurep. 425
Shameless but Fascinatingp. 427
Self-Lovep. 430
It Is Always a Life Storyp. 431
Oh--Really?p. 436
War and Peacep. 439
Bermann and Landshoffp. 440
In the White Housep. 442
Golo, Klaus, and Erikap. 443
Heinrichp. 449
Frighteningly Leftist Goings-onp. 452
Brechtp. 454
Prize Recipient and Shadow Presidentp. 455
XVII. Doctor Faustus
Chronicle 1943-1949p. 460
Thomas Faust?p. 462
Retouchingsp. 465
The Herz Woman at Table, Unfortunatelyp. 466
Schwabing and Polling, Palestrina and Pacific Palisadesp. 470
The Adviserp. 473
The Real Thingp. 477
Rudi and Paulp. 479
Not Serenus, but Adrianp. 481
The Devilp. 483
The Emotionalism of Impurityp. 485
Klopfgeisselp. 487
Superbia et Gratiap. 490
XVIII. Pain and Glory
Chronicle 1945-1955p. 494
No, They Are Not a Great Peoplep. 496
Come As a Good Doctor!p. 498
Why I Will Not Return to Germanyp. 499
Kastnerp. 501
Hausmannp. 502
Vikko, Pree, and Godfather Bertramp. 503
The Goethe Trip and Its Consequencesp. 509
Russian Minkp. 513
The Firemanp. 514
Why I Will Not Remain in Americap. 516
Einstein and the Bombp. 519
The Little Planet in a Corner of the Universep. 521
Showered with the Gold of Praisep. 528
XIX. To the Last Breath
Instead of a Chroniclep. 532
Soitp. 533
Franzlp. 534
The Eroticism of Michelangelop. 544
Mann As Madamep. 546
Sin and Gracep. 548
XX. Final Things
Liebestod and Skeletonp. 554
Time Runs Outp. 558
Consecration and Transfigurationp. 560
Eternal Lifep. 562
Real Dyingp. 564
Whispers of the Deadp. 566
Figure Creditsp. 571
Index of Namesp. 573