Cover image for The African-American odyssey
Title:
The African-American odyssey
Author:
Hine, Darlene Clark.
Personal Author:
Edition:
Second edition.
Publication Information:
Upper Saddle River, N.J. : Prentice Hall, [2003]

©2003
Physical Description:
xxix, 609 pages, 56 unnumbered pages : illustrations (some color), maps ; 29 cm + 1 audio CD (4 3/4 in.).
Language:
English
ISBN:
9780130977960
Format :
Book

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E185 .H533 2003 Adult Non-Fiction Black History Non-Circ
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Summary

Summary

This textbook traces the history of Black people in America, from the time of first colonization to today. It describes slavery, the role of African-Americans in the Revolutionary War, the status of free Blacks in the Antebellum south, the abolition movement, the Civil War, and emancipation


Author Notes

Darlene Clark Hine was born in Morley, Missouri on February 7, 1947. She received a BA from Roosevelt University in 1968 and a MA and PhD from Kent State University in 1970 and 1975, respectively. She is considered a leading historian of the African American experience who helped found the field of black women's history. She has taught at South Carolina State College, Purdue University, and Michigan State University. She has written numerous books including Black Victory: The Rise and Fall of the White Primary in Texas; When the Truth Is Told: Black Women's Community and Culture in Indiana, 1875-1950; Black Women in White: Racial Conflict and Cooperation in the Nursing Profession, 1890-1950; and Speak Truth to Power: The Black Professional Class in United States History.

(Publisher Provided)


Excerpts

Excerpts

"One ever feels his two-ness,--an American, a Negro; two souls, two thoughts, two unreconciled strivings; two warring ideals in one dark body." So wrote W.E.B. Du Bois in 1897. African-American history, Du Bois maintained, was the history of this double-consciousness. Black people have always been part of the American nation that they helped to build. But they have also been a nation unto themselves, with their own experiences, culture, and aspirations. African-American history cannot be understood except in the broader context of American history. American history cannot be understood without African-American history. Since Du Bois's time our understanding of both African-American and American history has been complicated and enriched by a growing appreciation of the role of class and gender in shaping human societies. We are also increasingly aware of the complexity of racial experiences in American history. Even in times of great racial polarity some white people have empathized with black people and some black people have identified with white interests. It is in light of these insights that The African-American Odyssey tells the story of African Americans. That story begins in Africa, where the people who were to become African Americans began their long, turbulent, and difficult journey, a journey marked by sustained suffering as well as perseverance, bravery, and achievement. It includes the rich culture--at once splendidly distinctive and tightly intertwined with a broader American culture--that African Americans have nurtured throughout their history. And it includes the many-faceted quest for freedom in which African Americans have sought to counter white oppression and racism with the egalitarian spirit of the Declaration of Independence that American society professes to embody. Nurtured by black historian Carter G. Woodson during the early decades of the twentieth century African-American history has blossomed as a field of study since the 1950s. Books and articles have appeared on almost every facet of black life. Yet this survey is the first comprehensive college textbook of the African-American experience. It draws on recent research to present black history in a clear and direct manner, within a broad social, cultural, and political framework. It also provides thorough coverage of African-American women as active builders of black culture. The African-American Odyssey balances accounts of the actions of African-American leaders with investigations of the lives of the ordinary men and women in black communities. This community focus helps make this a history of a people rather than an account of a few extraordinary individuals. Yet the book does not neglect important political and religious leaders, entrepreneurs, and entertainers. And it gives extensive coverage to African-American art, literature, and music. African-American history started in Africa, and this narrative begins with an account of life on that continent to the sixteenth century and the beginning of the forced migration of millions of Africans to the Americas. Succeeding chapters present the struggle of black people to maintain their humanity during the slave trade and as slaves in North America during the long colonial period. The coming of the American Revolution during the 1770s initiated a pattern of black struggle for racial justice in which periods of optimism alternated with times of repression. Several chapters analyze the building of black community institutions, the antislavery movement, the efforts of black people to make the Civil War a war for emancipation, their struggle for equal rights as citizens during Reconstruction, and the strong opposition these efforts faced. There is also substantial coverage of African-American military service, from the War for Independence through American wars of the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. During the late nineteenth century and much of the twentieth century, racial segregation and racially motivated violence that relegated African Americans to second-class citizenship provoked despair, but also inspired resistance and commitment to change. Chapters on the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries cover the great migration from the cotton fields of the South to the North and West, black nationalism, and the Harlem Renaissance. Chapters on the 1930s and 1940s--the beginning of a period of revolutionary change for African Americans--tell of the economic devastation and political turmoil caused by the Great Depression, the growing influence of black culture in America, the racial tensions caused by black participation in World War II, and the dawning of the civil rights movement. The final chapters tell the story of African Americans during the second half of the twentieth century. They relate the successes of the civil rights movement at its peak during the 1950s and 1960s and the efforts of African Americans to build on those successes during the more conservative 1970s and 1980s. Finally, there are portrayals of black life during the concluding decades of the twentieth century and of the continuing impact of African Americans on life in the United States. In all, The African American Odyssey tells a compelling story of survival, struggle, and triumph over adversity. It will leave students with an appreciation of the central place of black people and black culture in this country and a better understanding of both African-American and American history. The Second Edition With the generous assistance and advice of many colleagues, we have enhanced, strengthened, and updated this Second Edition. We have added material on stateless societies in West Africa and on contacts between peoples of African and American Indian descent. There is new information on Africans at Jamestown as well as those who were in Spanish Florida and French Louisiana. There is more coverage of the underground railroad and on black homesteaders. Anna Julia Cooper and black feminism, the American Negro Academy, the 1900 New Orleans riot, and the elimination of Rosewood, Florida in 1923 are new to this edition. We have expanded coverage of religion with more information on black Roman Catholics and black Episcopalians. There is a fresh discussion of the impact of black Christianity on the civil rights movement. There are new biographical profiles of Billie Holiday, Mabel Staupers, Rosa Parks, Eleanor Holmes Norton, and a new dual profile of nineteenth century black entrepreneurs Stephen Smith and William Whipper. There is an analysis of the Clinton presidency and coverage of the 2000 election as well as the 2000 census. The odyssey of African Americans has been extended into the twenty-first century with discussions of racial profiling, reparations for slavery, and the events of September 11, 2001. Special Features The many special features and pedagogical tools integrated within The African American Odyssey are designed to make the text accessible to students. They include a variety of tools to reinforce the narrative and help students grasp key issues. Outlines provide students with a brief overview of the material they are about to read. Introductory quotations set the theme for each chapter. NEW -- Part-opening Timelines thematically organize events in African-American history. "Voices" boxes provide students with first-person perspectives on key events in African-American history. Brief introductions and study questions help students analyze these primary source documents and relate them to the text. The biographical sketches in the "Profiles" boxes highlight the contributions and personalities of both prominent individuals and ordinary people, illuminating common experiences among African Americans at various times and places. Brief chronologies provide students with a snapshot of the temporal relationship among significant events. End-of-chapter Timelines establish a chronological context for events in African-American history by relating them to events in American history and in the rest of the world. Review questions encourage students to analyze the material they have read and to explore alternative perspectives on that material. The recommended reading and additional bibliography lists direct students to more information about the subject of each chapter. NEW -- Retracing the Odyssey sections guide instructors and students to educational sites that explore the diverse dimensions of African-American history. NEW -- Each chapter now concludes with African-American History on the Internet sections that help students use the Web for research. Maps, charts, and graphs help students visualize the geographical context of events and grasp significant trends. Abundant illustrations, many now in four-color, and tied to the text with informative captions, provide a visual link to the African-American past. Supplementary Instructional Materials The extensive package of both traditional and electronic supplements that accompanies The African-American Odyssey provides instructors and students with an array of resources that combine sound scholarship, engaging content, and a variety of pedagogical tools to enrich the classroom experience and students' understanding of African-American history. Instructor's Manual with Tests. The Instructor's Manual with Tests provides summaries, outlines, learning objectives, lecture and discussion topics, and audio/visual resources for each chapter. Test materials include multiple choice, essay, identification and short-answer, chronology, and map questions. Prentice Hall Custom Test. This commercial-quality, computerized test management program, available for Windows and Macintosh environments, allows instructors to select from testing material in the Instructor's Manual with Tests and design their own exams. Study Guide (Volumes I and II). This student study aid includes a summary for each chapter, reviews key points and concepts, and provides multiple choice, essay, chronology, and map questions. Documents Set (Volumes I and II). The Documents Set supplements the text with additional primary and secondary source material covering the social, cultural, and political aspects of African-American history. Each reading includes a short historical summary and several review questions. The African-American Odyssey Companion Website ™. The Companion Website ( www.prenhall.com/hine )works with the text to provide students with additional study materials--including questions and map labeling exercises--and directs them to appropriate sources on African-American history available on the Internet. A Faculty Module provides instructors with downloadable material from both the Instructor's Manual and the text to aid in course organization. Living Words: An Audio CD of African-American Oral Tradition. Every new copy of The African-American Odyssey includes an audio CD that presents the rich oral tradition of the African-American experience. Speeches, songs, stories, and poetry expose students to the African roots of African-American culture, connect them to the rhythms of a musical tradition that has left an indelible stamp on American history, and expose them to the urgency of a political struggle that continues today. Extensively revised to accompany the Second Edition of The African American Odyssey, eleven new tracks have been added, including excerpts of speeches by Frederick Douglass and Ida B. Wells, and excerpts from World War II-era music. To achieve tighter integration between the audio CD and The African-American Odyssey, each of the forty-three tracks on the audio CD is now denoted by a special icon at appropriate places in the text. Instructor's CD-ROM for The African-American Odyssey. New to the Second Edition, this ancillary contains PowerPoint™ presentations directly linked to the text; maps and graphs from The African-American Odyssey; lecture outlines; and other instructional material. Prentice Hall and Penguin Bundle Program. Prentice Hall and Penguin are pleased to provide adopters of The African-American Odyssey with an opportunity to receive significant discounts when orders for The African-American Odyssey are bundled together with Penguin titles in American history. Please contact your local Prentice Hall representative for details. Excerpted from The African-American Odyssey: Combined Edition by Darlene Clark Hine, William C. Hine, Stanley Harrold All rights reserved by the original copyright owners. Excerpts are provided for display purposes only and may not be reproduced, reprinted or distributed without the written permission of the publisher.

Table of Contents

Part I Becoming African Americanp. 1
Chapter 1 Africap. 2
Chapter 2 Middle Passagep. 24
Chapter 3 Black People in Colonial North America, 1526-1763p. 46
Chapter 4 Rising Expectations: African Americans and the Struggle for Independence, 1763-1783p. 72
Chapter 5 African Americans in the New Nation, 1783-1820p. 94
Part II Slavery, Abolition, and the Quest for Freedom: The Coming of the Civil War, 1793-1861p. 120
Chapter 6 Life in the Cotton Kingdomp. 122
Chapter 7 Free Black People in Antebellum Americap. 146
Chapter 8 Opposition to Slavery, 1800-1833p. 170
Chapter 9 Let Your Motto Be Resistance, 1833-1850p. 188
Chapter 10 "And Black People Were at the Heart of It": The United States Disunites over Slaveryp. 204
Part III The Civil War, Emancipation, and Black Reconstruction: The Second American Revolutionp. 230
Chapter 11 Liberation: African Americans and the Civil Warp. 232
Chapter 12 The Meaning of Freedom: The Promise of Reconstruction, 1865-1868p. 258
Chapter 13 The Meaning of Freedom: The Failure of Reconstructionp. 284
Part IV Searching for Safe Spacesp. 306
Chapter 14 White Supremacy Triumphant: African Americans in the South in the Late Nineteenth Centuryp. 308
Chapter 15 Black Southerners Challenge White Supremacyp. 334
Chapter 16 Conciliation, Agitation, and Migration: African Americans in the Early Twentieth Centuryp. 364
Chapter 17 African Americans and the 1920sp. 400
Part V The Great Depression and World War IIp. 426
Chapter 18 The Great Depression and The New Dealp. 428
Chapter 19 Black Culture and Society in the 1930s and 1940sp. 454
Chapter 20 The World War II Era and Seeds of a Revolutionp. 480
Part VI The Black Revolutionp. 510
Chapter 21 The Freedom Movement, 1954-1965p. 512
Chapter 22 The Struggle Continues, 1965-1980p. 542
Chapter 23 Modern Black America, 1980 to Presentp. 576
Epilogue: "A Nation Within a Nation"p. 608