Cover image for Photographic lenses : photographer's guide to characteristics, quality, use and design
Photographic lenses : photographer's guide to characteristics, quality, use and design
Wildi, Ernst.
Personal Author:
Publication Information:
Buffalo, N.Y. : Amherst Media, Inc. , [2002]

Physical Description:
125 pages : color illustrations, 28 cm
Learn the impact that lens characteristics, quality and design have on every photograph you take.
Format :


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TR270 .W54 2002 Adult Non-Fiction Non-Fiction Area-Oversize

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The camera lens determines, to a great extent, the quality of the image produced in any camera and must be a major consideration when selecting a camera and lens for serious work. This guide offers a complete, dedicated treatment of all types of lenses for all types of cameras, including digital. Explored in detail are the terminology of lenses, how different lens types function, the advantages and disadvantages of different types of lenses, and how the angle of view, aperture, shutter, andfocusing abilities of a lens affect the photos taken with it. Photographers will also learn the basics of lens design, aspheric lens elements, retrofocus lenses, shift control lenses, image stabilizers, and much more.

Author Notes

Ernst Wildi is a world-renowned photographer and a gifted lecturer who has taught his techniques for producing superior images to students on six continents. He is the author of Composition Techniques From a Master Photographer and Creating World-Class Photography, both from Amherst Media.

Table of Contents

Introductionp. 8
1. Lens Characteristicsp. 9
Advertising Claimsp. 9
Lenses for Film Photography and Digital Recordingp. 10
Lens Specificationsp. 10
Focal Lengthp. 10
Zoom Lensesp. 11
The Operational Advantages of Zoom Lensesp. 12
Disadvantages of Zoom Lensesp. 12
Focal Length and Image Formatp. 12
Focal Length for Movie/Video Camerasp. 14
Focal Length and Image Recording Area on Digital Camerasp. 14
Angle of Viewp. 15
Area Coveragep. 15
Angle of View and Area Coverage for APS Camerasp. 15
Angle of View and Area Coverage for Panoramic Camerasp. 17
Covering Powerp. 18
Image Circlep. 20
The Lens Aperturep. 21
T-Numbersp. 22
Shutter and Shutter Speedp. 23
Lens Shuttersp. 23
Focal Plane Shuttersp. 24
Exposure Valuesp. 25
Focusing Controlp. 25
Internal Focusingp. 25
Automatic Focusingp. 25
Exposure at Close Distance Settingsp. 28
Macro Lensesp. 28
Macro Lenses for Large Format Camerasp. 29
Reversing Lensesp. 29
Special lenses for Macro Photographyp. 29
Other Optical Lens Specificationsp. 30
2. Lens Designp. 31
Computer Designsp. 31
Low-Dispersion Glassp. 31
Number of Lens Elementsp. 31
Aspheric Lens Elementsp. 33
Apochromatic Lensesp. 33
Wide-Angle Designp. 35
Optically True Wide-Angle Designp. 35
Retrofocus Wide-Angle Designp. 37
Floating Lens Element Designp. 37
Fisheye Lensesp. 37
Telephoto Lensesp. 39
Optically True Telephoto Typesp. 39
Telephoto Lenses for Close-Up Workp. 39
Mirror Lensesp. 39
Using Telephotos on a Tripodp. 40
Shift Control, PC Lenses and PC Teleconvertersp. 40
Tilt Possibilities and Controlsp. 41
Lenses with an Image Stabilizerp. 41
Teleconvertersp. 43
Characteristics of Teleconvertersp. 43
Focusing Range and Area Coverage with Teleconvertersp. 43
Exposure with Teleconvertersp. 43
Soft Focus Lensesp. 44
Infrared, Ultraviolet Photography and Fluorescence Photographyp. 47
Lenses for Infrared Photographyp. 47
Focusing in Infrared Photographyp. 47
Ultraviolet Photographyp. 49
Fluorescence Photographyp. 49
Lens Names and Engravingsp. 50
Lenses for Enlargingp. 51
Protecting Your Lensesp. 51
3. Lens Qualityp. 52
What Determines the Quality of a Lens?p. 52
Lens Aberrationsp. 52
Chromatic Aberrationp. 52
Spherical Aberrationp. 52
Comap. 52
Astigmatismp. 55
Field Curvaturep. 55
Distortionp. 55
Quality Specifications for Lensesp. 56
Understanding MTF Diagramsp. 56
Quality at Different Aperturesp. 58
Lens Quality at Small Aperturesp. 59
Quality with Large Format Camera Lensesp. 59
Covering Power and Usable Image Circle of Large Format Lensesp. 59
Lens Quality and Performance for Digital Photographyp. 60
Quality of Zoom Lensesp. 61
Quality with Teleconvertersp. 62
Your Own Quality Testsp. 64
The Loupe for Image Evaluationp. 64
Quality with Enlarging Lensesp. 65
Quality of Projection Lensesp. 65
Relative Illuminancep. 66
Color Renditionp. 68
Lens Flarep. 70
Coating and Multicoatingp. 70
Lens Shadesp. 72
Photographing against White Backgroudsp. 73
Using Lens Shades Most Effectivelyp. 73
Lens Distortionp. 74
Other Image Distortionsp. 75
Foreshorteningp. 75
Slanted Verticalsp. 76
Wide-Angle Distortionp. 76
4. Image Qualityp. 79
Quality-Determining Elementsp. 79
Film Choice and Sharpnessp. 80
Image Plane Flatnessp. 80
Mirror Motion in SLR Camerasp. 82
Evaluating Image Sharpnessp. 82
Viewing and Focusingp. 83
Determining Focusing Accuracyp. 83
Focusing Screens on SLR Camerasp. 84
Focusing with a Split-Image Rangefinderp. 84
Focusing with a Microprismp. 84
Camera Motionp. 85
Viewfinders in Handheld Photographyp. 85
Working with a Tripodp. 85
Exposurep. 86
Depth of Fieldp. 86
Depth of Field Charts and Scalesp. 88
Depth of Field with Different Focal Length Lensesp. 88
Depth of Field with Teleconvertersp. 88
Depth of Field in Different Image Formatsp. 89
Hyperfocal Distancep. 89
Depth of Focusp. 90
Image Quality with Filtersp. 90
Filters for Long Telephoto Lensesp. 90
Ultraviolet Absorptionp. 90
Selection of Close-Up Accessoriesp. 91
Close-Up Lensesp. 91
Subject Distancesp. 91
Image Quality with Close-Up Lensesp. 91
Extension Tubes and Bellowsp. 92
Choice of Lensp. 93
Exposure with Extension Tubes and Bellowsp. 93
Depth of Field in Close-Up Photographyp. 93
5. Selecting and Using Lensesp. 95
Lenses for Area Coveragep. 95
Effective Wide-Angle Photographyp. 95
Subject Distortions with Wide-Angle Lensesp. 97
Fisheye Photographyp. 98
Non-Fisheye Imagesp. 99
Background Area Coveragep. 99
Different Focal Length Lenses in the Studiop. 101
Background Subject Sizep. 101
Other Facts about Perspectivep. 102
Lenses for Location Portraiturep. 103
Composing Group Picturesp. 105
Background Sharpnessp. 105
Foreground Sharpnessp. 107
Evaluating Image Sharpness and Depth of Field in the Camerap. 107
Using the SLR Viewfinderp. 108
Use and Application of Tilt Controlp. 108
Limitation in Sharpness Controlsp. 109
Covering Power with Tilt Controlp. 110
Using Tilt Control for Creative Purposesp. 110
Applying Shift Controlp. 110
Limitations of Shift Controlp. 111
Purpose of Fresnel Correction Slidesp. 111
Correcting Verticals in Other Waysp. 112
Glossaryp. 113
Indexp. 122