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### Summary

### Summary

The internal combustion engine that powers the modern automobile has changed very little from its initial design of some eighty years ago. Unlike many high tech advances, engine design still depends on an understanding of basic fluid mechanics and thermodynamics. This text offers a fresh approach to the study of engines, with an emphasis on design and on fluid dynamics. Professor Lumley, a renowned fluid dynamicist, provides a lucid explanation of how air and fuel are mixed, how they get into the engine, what happens to them there, and how they get out again. Particular attention is given to the complex issue of pollution. Every chapter includes numerous illustrations and examples and concludes with homework problems. Examples are taken from the early days of engine design, as well as the latest designs, such as stratified charge gasoline direct injection engines. It is intended that the text be used in conjunction with the Stanford Engine Simulation Program (ESP). This user-friendly, interactive software tool answers a significant need not addressed by other texts on engines. Aimed at undergraduate and first-year graduate students, the book will also appeal to hobbyists and car buffs who will appreciate the wealth of illustrations of classic, racing, and modern engines.

### Author Notes

John L. Lumley is the Willis H. Carrier Professor of Engineering, Sibley School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Cornell University.

### Table of Contents

Dedication | p. v |

Preface | p. xi |

Acknowledgments | p. xvii |

1 Thermodynamic Considerations | p. 1 |

1.1 The Ideal Otto Cycle | p. 1 |

1.2 Efficiencies | p. 5 |

1.2.1 Air Cycle Efficiency | p. 5 |

1.2.2 Real Gas Efficiency | p. 6 |

1.2.3 Indicated Efficiency | p. 6 |

1.3 A More Realistic Cycle | p. 7 |

1.3.1 Time Loss | p. 8 |

1.3.2 Heat Loss | p. 9 |

1.3.3 Exhaust Blowdown Loss | p. 9 |

1.3.4 Other Losses | p. 9 |

1.4 Knocking | p. 12 |

1.5 Mean Effective Pressures | p. 15 |

1.5.1 A Word on Units | p. 15 |

1.5.2 Brake Mean Effective Pressure | p. 16 |

1.5.3 Indicated Mean Effective Pressure | p. 17 |

1.6 Piston Speed | p. 17 |

1.7 Specific Power | p. 18 |

1.8 Stroke/Bore Ratio | p. 19 |

1.9 Power Equation | p. 24 |

1.10 Influence on Design | p. 26 |

1.11 Bmep Again | p. 27 |

1.12 Some More Thermodynamics | p. 29 |

1.12.1 Turbulence and Flow in the Cylinder | p. 29 |

1.12.2 Heat Transfer | p. 30 |

1.12.3 Chemical Reaction | p. 30 |

1.12.4 STANJAN, ESPJAN and ESP | p. 31 |

1.12.5 Heating Values and Enthalpy | p. 31 |

1.13 Problems | p. 31 |

2 Breathing Exercises | p. 33 |

2.1 Introduction | p. 33 |

2.2 Flow Through the Inlet Valve | p. 33 |

2.3 The Discharge Coefficient | p. 35 |

2.4 The Flow Coefficient | p. 37 |

2.5 The Mach Index and Volumetric Efficiency | p. 38 |

2.6 Partial Throttle | p. 41 |

2.7 The XK Engine | p. 42 |

2.8 Combustion Chamber Shape | p. 44 |

2.9 Valve Actuation | p. 48 |

2.10 Valve Timing | p. 54 |

2.11 Variable Valve Timing | p. 59 |

2.12 Manifold Tuning | p. 66 |

2.12.1 Introduction | p. 66 |

2.12.2 Helmholtz Resonators | p. 66 |

2.12.3 Organ Pipes | p. 70 |

2.12.4 What Does ESP Do? | p. 76 |

2.12.5 The Exhaust System | p. 77 |

2.13 Folding the Manifold | p. 78 |

2.14 Supercharging/Turbocharging | p. 80 |

2.14.1 Introduction | p. 80 |

2.14.2 Characteristics of Super/Turbochargers | p. 82 |

2.14.3 Thermodynamic Considerations | p. 85 |

2.14.4 Turbines | p. 87 |

2.14.5 Knock | p. 87 |

2.15 Intercoolers | p. 89 |

2.16 Problems | p. 92 |

3 Engine Cooling | p. 95 |

3.1 Introduction | p. 95 |

3.2 Valve Seat Recession | p. 97 |

3.3 Heat Transfer in the Cylinder | p. 100 |

3.3.1 Conduction in the Solid | p. 100 |

3.3.2 Heat Transfer in the Gas | p. 101 |

3.3.3 Variation of Part Temperature | p. 103 |

3.3.4 Turbulent Velocities | p. 104 |

3.3.5 Conclusions Regarding Temperatures | p. 106 |

3.4 Overall Heat Transfer | p. 106 |

3.5 The Exhaust Valve | p. 111 |

3.6 Ceramic Coatings | p. 114 |

3.7 Problems | p. 116 |

4 Engine Friction Losses | p. 118 |

4.1 Lubrication | p. 118 |

4.2 Total Engine Friction | p. 119 |

4.3 Attribution of Friction Losses | p. 122 |

4.4 Hydrodynamic Lubrication | p. 125 |

4.5 Mechanical Efficiency | p. 127 |

4.6 Inertial Loading | p. 129 |

4.7 The Piston Ring | p. 130 |

4.8 Problems | p. 132 |

5 Flow in the Cylinder | p. 134 |

5.1 Introduction | p. 134 |

5.2 Phases of the Flow | p. 136 |

5.3 Averaging | p. 137 |

5.4 A Word About Turbulence | p. 142 |

5.5 Turbulence Induced by the Inlet Jet | p. 145 |

5.6 Inducing Swirl and Tumble | p. 148 |

5.6.1 Lift Strategies | p. 153 |

5.6.2 Port and Valve Configurations | p. 153 |

5.7 Effect of Compression | p. 155 |

5.7.1 Effect on Swirl and Tumble | p. 155 |

5.7.2 Effect on Turbulence | p. 158 |

5.8 Charge Stratification | p. 161 |

5.9 Squish | p. 163 |

5.10 Pollution | p. 163 |

5.10.1 Atmospheric Chemistry | p. 168 |

5.10.2 Chemistry in the Cylinder | p. 168 |

5.11 Lean Burn | p. 170 |

5.11.1 Honda VTEC-E 1.5 L SOHC 16 Valve Four-in-Line | p. 172 |

5.11.2 Toyota Carina 4A-ELU 1.6 L DOHC 16 Valve Four-in-Line | p. 172 |

5.11.3 Mitsubishi Mirage 4G15MPI-MVV 1.5 L SOHC 12 Valve Four-in-Line | p. 172 |

5.11.4 Mazda Surround Combustion 2.0 L DOHC 16 Valve Four-in-Line | p. 173 |

5.12 Gasoline Direct-Injection Engines | p. 174 |

5.12.1 Mitsubishi GDI Engine | p. 181 |

5.12.2 Toyota GDI Engine | p. 181 |

5.13 Problems | p. 181 |

6 Overall Engine Performance | p. 185 |

6.1 Introduction | p. 185 |

6.2 Carburetion vs. Injection | p. 185 |

6.2.1 Fuel Injection | p. 186 |

6.2.2 Mixing and Evaporation | p. 186 |

6.2.3 Droplet Size | p. 187 |

6.2.4 Puddling | p. 188 |

6.3 Transient Response | p. 189 |

6.4 Brake Specific Fuel Consumption | p. 189 |

6.4.1 Power and Torque Curves | p. 191 |

6.5 Problems | p. 193 |

7 Design Considerations | p. 194 |

7.1 Introduction | p. 194 |

7.2 Similarity Considerations | p. 194 |

7.2.1 Inertial Stress | p. 196 |

7.2.2 Valve Speed | p. 197 |

7.2.3 The MIT Engines | p. 199 |

7.3 Balance and Vibration | p. 201 |

7.4 The In-Line Four | p. 203 |

7.4.1 The Forces | p. 203 |

7.4.2 Moments | p. 204 |

7.4.3 Balance Shafts | p. 205 |

7.5 The Five Cylinder In-Line | p. 205 |

7.6 Problems | p. 208 |

8 The Stanford Esp | p. 210 |

8.1 Introduction | p. 210 |

8.2 Outline of the Model | p. 211 |

8.3 Model Details | p. 213 |

8.3.1 Gas Properties | p. 213 |

8.3.2 Analysis of the Compression Stages | p. 213 |

8.3.3 Ignition Analysis | p. 214 |

8.3.4 Analysis of the Burn Stage | p. 215 |

8.3.5 Analysis of the Expansion Stage | p. 218 |

8.3.6 Analysis of the Gas Exchange Stage | p. 218 |

8.3.7 Turbulence Model | p. 221 |

8.4 ESP Manifold Analysis | p. 222 |

8.4.1 Overview | p. 222 |

8.4.2 Unsteady One-Dimensional Compressible Flow | p. 223 |

8.4.3 The Method of Characteristics | p. 226 |

8.4.4 Inlet Manifold Model | p. 232 |

8.4.5 Exhaust Manifold Model | p. 233 |

8.4.6 ESP Calculations | p. 234 |

8.5 Program Status | p. 235 |

Bibliography | p. 237 |

Index | p. 243 |