Cover image for Digital preservation and metadata : history, theory, practice
Title:
Digital preservation and metadata : history, theory, practice
Author:
Lazinger, Susan S. (Susan Smernoff)
Publication Information:
Englewood, Colo. : Libraries Unlimited, 2001.
Physical Description:
xxii, 359 pages ; 24 cm
General Note:
"With an annotated list of electronic social science data archives and cultural heritage digitization projects and centers by Helen R. Tibbo."
Language:
English
Added Author:
ISBN:
9781563087776
Format :
Book

Available:*

Library
Call Number
Material Type
Home Location
Status
Item Holds
Searching...
Z701.3.C65 L39 2001 Adult Non-Fiction Central Closed Stacks
Searching...

On Order

Summary

Summary

Protect your digital resources This book addresses critical issues of preservation, giving you everything you need to effectively protect your resources-from dealing with obsolescence, to responsibilities, methods of preservation, cost, and metadata formats. It also gives examples of numerous national and international institutions that provide frameworks for digital libraries and archives. A long-overdue text for anyone involved in the preservation of digital information, this book is critical in understanding today's methods and practices, intellectual discourse, and preservation guidelines. A must for librarians, archiving professionals, faculty and students of library science, administrators, and corporate leaders


Author Notes

SUSAN S. LAZINGER is Senior Lecturer, School of Library Science, Archive & Information Studies, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Israel.


Reviews 1

Library Journal Review

Lazinger (senior lecturer, School of Library Science, Archive & Information Studies, Hebrew University of Jerusalem) comprehensively presents in understandable terms a complex and protean topic. She argues that the issue of digital preservation has gained a new urgency since the advent of the web. Likewise, it is sobering to note that "there is no comprehensive system or legal responsibility within the U.S. government to identify, capture, retain, and provide continuous public access to electronic files of government information." Aside from the responsibility of the library and archival community to preserve the historical record, the investment in creating digital libraries and in purchasing electronic resources demands action to protect that investment. The problem of digital preservation is essentially defined by technological obsolescence: the "solutions" refreshing, migration, and emulation each having their limitations and costs. Lazinger includes an excellent chapter on "How Much Will It Cost?," conveniently bringing together helpful information for decision-makers. The inescapable drawback of her book is that the approaches discussed are in such flux that it remains incumbent upon readers to update themselves occasionally (through web sites such as the Council on Library and Information Resources, www.clir.org) on changes in the field. Gregory Hunter's Preserving Digital Information (Professional Media, LJ 10/15/00) is less clogged with acronyms but lighter on discussions of metadata the apparent key to the survivability of digital information. Highly recommended for all larger libraries and archives and for those in IS facing the challenges of this issue. Barry Chad, Carnegie Lib. of Pittsburgh (c) Copyright 2010. Library Journals LLC, a wholly owned subsidiary of Media Source, Inc. No redistribution permitted.


Table of Contents

Acknowledgmentsp. xiii
Introductionp. xv
Theory: Issues, Models, and Standards in Digital Preservation
Part I Issues
Chapter 1 Why Is Digital Preservation an Issue?p. 5
1.1. Uncontrolled Accumulation of Datap. 5
1.2. Inadvertent Destruction of Datap. 6
1.3. Unauthorized Tampering with Datap. 7
1.4. Lack of Metadata and Systems Documentationp. 8
1.5. Electronic Data in Forms That Cannot Be Preservedp. 9
1.6. Lack of Empowering Mechanisms for Preservationp. 11
1.7. Why: Summary and Recent Developmentsp. 14
Notesp. 15
Chapter 2 What Electronic Data Should Be Preserved?p. 17
2.1. Defining the Digital Resourcep. 17
2.1.1. Contentp. 19
2.1.2. Fixityp. 21
2.1.3. Referencep. 22
2.1.4. Provenancep. 23
2.1.5. Context/Linkagep. 25
2.2. Typology of Electronic Publicationsp. 26
2.2.1. Characteristics of Electronic Publicationsp. 27
2.2.1.1. Bit-Mapped or Character-Codedp. 28
2.2.1.2. Delivered on Material Medium or as a Transmitted Signalp. 29
2.2.2. Present Forms of Electronic Publicationsp. 29
2.3. Criteria for Selecting What Electronic Data Should Be Preservedp. 36
2.4. What: Summary and Recent Developmentsp. 40
Notesp. 42
Chapter 3 Who Should Be Responsible for Digital Preservation?p. 47
3.1. Stakeholdersp. 47
3.1.1. Creators: Individuals, Institutions, Organizationsp. 49
3.1.2. Publishersp. 49
3.1.3. Distributorsp. 50
3.1.4. Systems Administratorsp. 52
3.1.5. Librariesp. 52
3.1.6. Archivesp. 53
3.1.7. Usersp. 53
3.2. Potential Responsible Agenciesp. 54
3.2.1. National Librariesp. 54
3.2.2. Businessesp. 55
3.2.3. Government Agenciesp. 56
3.2.4. Universities and University Library Consortiap. 58
3.3. The Issue of Legal Depositp. 59
3.3.1. Conference of Directors of National Libraries (CDNL) Working Groupp. 62
3.4. Who: Summary and Recent Developmentsp. 64
Notesp. 70
Chapter 4 How Can Electronic Publications Be Preserved?p. 75
4.1. Dealing with Technological Obsolescencep. 75
4.1.1. Refreshingp. 76
4.1.2. Migrationp. 77
4.1.3. Emulationp. 77
4.2. "Active Maintenance" Concept: Migration or Emulation?p. 78
4.2.1. Preserving Access Rather Than the Object or Mediump. 78
4.2.2. Dealing with Obsolescence of Carrier of Electronic Informationp. 78
4.2.3. Developing Migration Strategiesp. 79
4.2.3.1. Less Stable to More Stable Mediap. 79
4.2.3.2. Highly Software-Dependent Formats to Less Software-Intensive Formatsp. 80
4.2.3.3. Multiplicity of Formats to Smaller Number of Common Formatsp. 80
4.2.3.4. Development of Backward Compatibility Pathsp. 80
4.2.3.5. Standard Development and Impositionp. 81
4.2.3.6. Development of Process Centers for Migration and Reformattingp. 81
4.2.4. Emulation: "Mimicking" Obsolescent Hardware in Softwarep. 83
4.2.4.1. Emulatorsp. 84
4.2.4.2. Encapsulating Metadata with an Emulator to Describe the Hardware Environmentp. 85
4.2.5. Digital Tabletsp. 87
4.3. Additional Considerationsp. 88
4.3.1. Authenticityp. 88
4.3.1.1. Definitionp. 88
4.3.1.2. Questionsp. 89
4.3.1.3. Types of Alterationsp. 89
4.3.1.3.1. Accidental (Changes During Copying)p. 89
4.3.1.3.2. Well-Meaning (Updating, Restructuring)p. 90
4.3.1.3.3. Fraudulent (Changing/Damaging One's Own Work)p. 90
4.3.1.4. Techniques for Authenticationp. 91
4.3.1.4.1. Encryptionp. 91
4.3.1.4.2. Hashingp. 92
4.3.1.4.3. Digital Time-Stampingp. 93
4.3.1.4.4. Digital Signaturesp. 94
4.3.1.5. International Research on Authenticity: InterPARES Projectp. 95
4.3.2. Copyright: Levels of Permitted Accessp. 96
4.4. How: Summary and Recent Developmentsp. 100
Notesp. 105
Chapter 5 How Much Will It Cost?p. 111
5.1. Costs for Converting Information into Digital Formp. 112
5.1.1. Cost Variables in the Digitization Processp. 112
5.1.2. Costing Studies and Comparative Analysisp. 115
5.2. Costs for Maintaining Digital Informationp. 122
5.3. How Much: Summary and Recent Developmentsp. 126
Notesp. 132
Part II Models, Formats, and Standards
Chapter 6 Models for Syntactic and Semantic Interoperability: Metalanguages and Metadata Formatsp. 139
6.1. Types of Metadatap. 141
6.1.1. Automatically Generated Indexesp. 141
6.1.2. Manually Created Recordsp. 142
6.2. Categories of Metadatap. 142
6.3. Metadata Models and Interoperabilityp. 144
6.3.1. Syntactic Interoperability: Metalanguagesp. 145
6.3.1.1. SGMLp. 146
6.3.1.2. XMLp. 146
6.3.2. Semantic Interoperability: Text Mark-up Languages (DTDs)p. 147
6.3.2.1. HTMLp. 147
6.3.2.2. Other DTDs in SGML/XMLp. 148
6.3.2.2.1. Encoded Archival Description (EAD)p. 148
6.3.2.2.2. Text Encoding Initiative (TEI)p. 149
6.3.2.2.3. Computer Interchange of Museum Information (CIMI)p. 150
6.3.3. Selected Metadata Element Setsp. 151
6.3.3.1. Generalp. 151
6.3.3.1.1. The Dublin Corep. 151
6.3.3.1.2. USMARCp. 157
6.3.3.2. Specializedp. 159
6.3.3.2.1. Government Information Locator System (GILS)p. 159
6.3.3.2.2. FGDC Content Standards for Digital Geospatial Metadata (CSDGM)p. 163
6.3.4. Rights Metadata: Digital Object Identifier (DOI)p. 165
6.3.5. Content Selection Metadata: Platform for Internet Content Selection (PICS)p. 167
6.3.6. Preservation Metadatap. 168
6.3.6.1. Digital Rosetta Stonep. 168
6.3.7. Crosswalks between Metadata Schemesp. 169
6.4. Storing Metadatap. 170
6.4.1. Storing Metadata in the Items Themselvesp. 170
6.4.2. Storing Metadata in Linked Itemsp. 171
6.4.3. Storing Metadata in External Catalogs or Finding Aidsp. 173
6.4.4. Integrating Metadata with the Digital Object in a Repository Structure: Encapsulationp. 173
6.4.5. Conclusionp. 174
6.5. Metadata: Summary and Recent Developmentsp. 174
Notesp. 182
Chapter 7 Standards for Structural Interoperability: Frameworks and Wrapper Technologiesp. 189
7.1. Universal Preservation Format (UPF) for the Archiving of Media Assetsp. 189
7.1.1. OpenDoc Standard Interchange Format ("Bento Specification"): A Standard for Storing Multiple Different Types of Objectsp. 190
7.1.2. Open Media Framework (OMF) Interchange: A Standard for the Interchange of Digital Media Data among Different Platformsp. 191
7.2. Warwick Framework/Resource Description Framework (RDF): The Grammar of Metadatap. 193
7.3. Frameworks: Summary and Recent Developmentsp. 200
Notesp. 203
Selected Electronic Data Archives
Chapter 8 From Theory to Reality: Selected Electronic Data Archives in the United Statesp. 209
8.1. Digital Library and Archive Organizations, Cooperatives, and Consortiap. 212
8.2. Selected Cultural Heritage Digital Projects and Programs, Collaboratives, and Centers in the United Statesp. 216
8.2.1. National Initiativesp. 216
8.2.2. Statewide Projects, Programs, Collaboratives, and Centersp. 222
8.2.3. Institution-Based Projects, Programs, Collaboratives, and Centersp. 224
8.2.4. Museum Projects and Programsp. 236
8.3. Selected Social Science Electronic Data Archives Located in the United Statesp. 236
8.3.1. International Data Archives (Commercial)p. 237
8.3.2. U.S. Government Social Science Data Archivesp. 238
8.3.3. Government Portalsp. 238
8.3.4. Individual Federal Government Agenciesp. 239
8.3.5. Academic Social Science Data Archivesp. 242
8.3.5.1. Alabamap. 243
8.3.5.2. Californiap. 243
8.3.5.3. Coloradop. 245
8.3.5.4. Connecticutp. 245
8.3.5.5. Delawarep. 246
8.3.5.6. Georgiap. 246
8.3.5.7. Illinoisp. 247
8.3.5.8. Indianap. 248
8.3.5.9. Iowap. 248
8.3.5.10. Louisianap. 249
8.3.5.11. Massachusettsp. 249
8.3.5.12. Michiganp. 250
8.3.5.13. Minnesotap. 252
8.3.5.14. Missourip. 252
8.3.5.15. New Hampshirep. 253
8.3.5.16. New Jerseyp. 253
8.3.5.17. New Yorkp. 254
8.3.5.18. North Carolinap. 255
8.3.5.19. Ohiop. 255
8.3.5.20. Oregonp. 256
8.3.5.21. Pennsylvaniap. 256
8.3.5.22. Rhode Islandp. 257
8.3.5.23. Texasp. 257
8.3.5.24. Virginiap. 257
8.3.5.25. Wisconsinp. 258
Notesp. 258
Chapter 9 Further Reality: International Digital Cultural Heritage Centers and Sites and Electronic Data Archivesp. 259
9.1. Digital Cultural Heritage Repositoriesp. 259
9.2. Professional Associations, Organizations, and Programs Supporting Cultural Heritage Computing Initiativep. 261
9.2.1. International Associations and Organizationsp. 261
9.2.2. Australian Initiativesp. 263
9.2.3. Canadian Centers, Initiatives, and Networksp. 263
9.2.4. Humanities Computing Support in the United Kingdomp. 265
9.3. Selected International Cultural Heritage Digitization Projects and Programsp. 268
9.3.1. International Collaborative Effortsp. 268
9.3.2. Individual Countriesp. 269
9.3.2.1. Armeniap. 269
9.3.2.2. Australiap. 269
9.3.2.3. Canadap. 270
9.3.2.4. Czech Republicp. 270
9.3.2.5. Finlandp. 271
9.3.2.6. Francep. 271
9.3.2.7. Germanyp. 272
9.3.2.8. Hungaryp. 273
9.3.2.9. Japanp. 273
9.3.2.10. Netherlandsp. 273
9.3.2.11. New Zealandp. 274
9.3.2.12. Portugalp. 274
9.3.2.13. Spainp. 274
9.3.2.14. Swedenp. 275
9.3.2.15. United Kingdomp. 275
9.4. Data Archives at Non-U.S. Institutionsp. 277
9.4.1. Organizations and Consortia of International Social Science Data Archivesp. 279
9.4.2. International Statistics Generating Organizationsp. 280
9.4.3. Social Science Data Archives and Organizations in Individual Countriesp. 283
9.4.3.1. Australiap. 283
9.4.3.2. Austriap. 284
9.4.3.3. Belgiump. 284
9.4.3.4. Brazilp. 285
9.4.3.5. Canadap. 285
9.4.3.5.1. Governmental Agenciesp. 285
9.4.3.5.2. Academic Institutionsp. 286
9.4.3.6. Chilep. 289
9.4.3.7. Chinap. 289
9.4.3.8. Czech Republicp. 290
9.4.3.9. Denmarkp. 291
9.4.3.10. Estoniap. 291
9.4.3.11. Finlandp. 291
9.4.3.12. Francep. 292
9.4.3.13. Germanyp. 292
9.4.3.14. Hungaryp. 293
9.4.3.15. Indiap. 294
9.4.3.16. Irelandp. 294
9.4.3.17. Israelp. 294
9.4.3.18. Italyp. 295
9.4.3.19. Jamaicap. 295
9.4.3.20. Japanp. 296
9.4.3.21. Latviap. 296
9.4.3.22. Luxembourgp. 296
9.4.3.23. Netherlandsp. 297
9.4.3.24. New Zealandp. 298
9.4.3.25. Norwayp. 298
9.4.3.26. Russiap. 299
9.4.3.27. Sloveniap. 299
9.4.3.28. South Africap. 299
9.4.3.29. South Koreap. 300
9.4.3.30. Spainp. 300
9.4.3.31. Swedenp. 300
9.4.3.32. Switzerlandp. 301
9.4.3.33. Taiwanp. 301
9.4.3.34. United Kingdomp. 302
9.4.3.34.1. Governmentalp. 302
9.4.3.34.2. Nongovernmentalp. 303
9.4.3.34.3. Academicp. 303
9.4.3.35. Uruguayp. 306
Bibliographyp. 307
Indexp. 335