Cover image for Human-computer interaction in the new millennium
Human-computer interaction in the new millennium
Carroll, John M. (John Millar), 1950-
Publication Information:
New York, New York : ACM Press ; Boston, MA : Addison-Wesley, [2002]

Physical Description:
xxxvii, 703 pages : illustrations ; 25 cm
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QA76.9.H85 H857 2001 Adult Non-Fiction Central Closed Stacks

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The more than 25 essays in this volume consider the social implications of advanced human-computer interaction. They look at revolutionary interfaces for multimedia, hypermedia, collaboration, virtual environments, and ubiquitous computing.

Author Notes

John M. Carroll, Ph.D. , is Professor of Computer Science, Education, and Psychology at Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, where he is also the director of the Center for Human-Computer Interaction. Dr. Carroll has written more than 250 technical papers, presented numerous conference plenary addresses, and authored or edited 14 books. He serves on editorial boards for a variety of journals and handbooks.




Human-Computer Interaction (HCI) has been a focal area for innovative multi-disciplinary computing research and development for the past 25 years. At the dawn of a new millennium, we should ask where the HCI project is going; what critical technical challenges and opportunities will define HCI research and development work beyond the year 2001; what approaches will sustain and enhance the vitality and effectiveness of HCI in this new era; and how HCI will be different from and similar to what it is today. These questions can be addressed both in the broad view and with respect to specific subdomains within HCI. In spring 1998, Jonathan Grudin, editor ofACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction, and Tom Moran, editor ofHuman-Computer Interaction, suggested a coordinated special issue project celebrating "Human-Computer Interaction in the New Millennium." Because I serve on both editorial boards--and probably because I was unable to attend this meeting--I was asked to coordinate the project. In late spring, an initial call for papers was circulated for theTransactions. About 50 research groups expressed initial interest, and in the end, 30 papers were submitted for the January 1999 deadline. Thirteen associate editors of theTransactions, Joelle Coutaz, Paul Dourish, Wayne Gray, Jim Hollan, Scott Hudson, Hiroshi Ishii, Robert Jacob, Sirkka Jarvenpaa, Allan MacLean, Brad Myers, Bonnie Nardi, Randy Pausch, and I, helped to manage the review process. The result was a double special issue of theTransactionsin March and June 2000. The ten papers from that double special issue are included in this book, with some revision to make them briefer and more accessible to a larger audience. In February 1999, the Human-Computer Interaction Consortium held a workshop on research visions and directions for the new millennium. A special issue of the Human-Computer Interactions was organized from the papers presented at this workshop. It was edited by Wendy Kellogg, Clayton Lewis, and Peter Polson. The five papers from that special issue are also included here.Human-Computer Interactionshas a tradition of presenting rather lengthy and comprehensive papers. I thank this group of authors in particular for heroic revision efforts. In some cases, excellent papers were cut to less than half their original length, with their excellence preserved! I think both journal special issue projects were highly successful. But journal projects are always limited by what papers are submitted. To help balance content, I solicited 14 papers in addition to the 15 special issue papers from the two journals. Frankly, however, even 29 papers cannot begin to cover the scope of human-computer interaction. I thank this group of authors for writing to my half-baked specifications with such creativity and good nature. Many experts from throughout the human-computer interaction community served as referees. The energy and insight that can be marshaled for projects like this is awesome. I hope the efforts of all those who were involved in trying to take stock of where we are and to ponder where we are going will benefit them and the whole HCI community as we take our first steps into the future. John M. Carroll Department of Computer Science Center for Human-Computer Interaction Virginia Tech 0201704471P07162001 Excerpted from Human-Computer Interaction in the New Millennium by John M. Carroll All rights reserved by the original copyright owners. Excerpts are provided for display purposes only and may not be reproduced, reprinted or distributed without the written permission of the publisher.

Table of Contents

John M. CarrollAlistair SutcliffePhilip Barnard and Jon May and David Duke and David DuceGeorge W. FurnasJames Hollan and Edwin Hutchins and David KirshSuresh K. Bhavnani and Bonnie E. JohnFrank E. Ritter and Gordon D. Baxter and Gary Jones and Richard M. YoungKim J. VicenteSteve Whittaker and Loren Terveen and Bonnie A. NardiKen MaxwellBrad Myers and Scott E. Hudson and Randy PauschBen ShneidermanTerry WinogradMurray Turoff and Starr Roxanne Hiltz and Jerry Fjermestad and Michael Bieber and Brian WhitworthMark S. AckermanThomas Erickson and Wendy A. KelloggErnesto G. Arias and Hal Eden and Gerhard Fischer and Andrew Gorman and Eric ScharffJohn M. Carroll and George Chin and Mary Beth Rosson and Dennis C. NealeGary M. Olson and Judith S. OlsonSharon Oviatt and Phil Cohen and Lizhong Wu and John Vergo and Lisbeth Duncan and Bernhard Suhm and Josh Bers and Thomas Holzman and Terry Winograd and James Landay and Jim Larson and David FerroAndrew DillonHenry LiebermanLoren Terveen and Will HillGregory D. Abowd and Elizabeth D. MynattKevin L. Mills and Jean ScholtzNorbert A. Streitz and Peter Tandler and Christian Muller-Tomfelde and Shin'ichi KonomiBrygg Ullmer and Hiroshi IshiiChris Quintana and Andrew Carra and Joseph Krajcik and Elliot SolowayDoug SchulerPaul Resnick
Prefacep. xxv
Introduction: Human-Computer Interaction, the Past and the Presentp. xxvii
Part I Models, Theories, and Frameworksp. 1
Chapter 1 On the Effective Use and Reuse of HCI Knowledgep. 3
1.1 Introductionp. 3
1.2 Theories and Cognitive Modelsp. 4
1.3 Claims, Products, and Artifactsp. 9
1.4 Generalizing Claims and Reusing HCI Knowledgep. 13
1.5 Conclusionsp. 24
Chapter 2 Macrotheory for Systems of Interactorsp. 31
2.1 Theory Development in a Boundless Domainp. 31
2.2 Systems of Interactors, Macrotheory, Microtheory, and Layered Explanationp. 32
2.3 Macrotheory and Interactionp. 36
2.4 Capturing Significant Variation in Interaction Trajectoriesp. 39
2.5 Realizing Coherent Type 1 Theories of Interactionp. 43
2.6 Extension to Higher Order Systems of Interactionp. 46
2.7 Conclusionp. 49
Chapter 3 Design in the MoRASp. 53
3.1 Introduction: ++HCI and the MoRASp. 53
3.2 The MoRASp. 54
3.3 Illustrating the Consequencesp. 59
3.4 The MoRAS and ++HCI Designp. 68
3.5 Future Directionsp. 69
Chapter 4 Distributed Cognition: Toward a New Foundation for Human-Computer Interaction Researchp. 75
4.1 Introductionp. 75
4.2 A Distributed Cognition Approachp. 77
4.3 An Integrated Framework for Researchp. 80
4.4 Conclusions and Future Directionsp. 90
Part II Usability Engineering Methods And Conceptsp. 95
Chapter 5 The Strategic Use of Complex Computer Systemsp. 97
5.1 Introductionp. 97
5.2 Strategies in the Intermediate Layers of Knowledgep. 98
5.3 Evidence for the Effects of Aggregation Strategies on Performancep. 103
5.4 Possible Explanations for Inefficient Computer Usagep. 110
5.5 General Computer Strategies beyond Aggregationp. 117
5.6 Summary and Future Researchp. 120
Chapter 6 User Interface Evaluation: How Cognitive Models Can Helpp. 125
6.1 The Synergy between Cognitive Modeling and HCIp. 125
6.2 A Route to Supporting Models as Usersp. 127
6.3 Example Cognitive Models That Perform Interactive Tasksp. 132
6.4 Cognitive Models as Users in the New Millenniump. 141
Chapter 7 HCI in the Global Knowledge-Based Economy: Designing to Support Worker Adaptationp. 149
7.1 Introductionp. 149
7.2 Case Study: Hedge Funds in August 1998p. 150
7.3 The Global Knowledge-Based Economy and the Demand for Adaptationp. 152
7.4 Cognitive Work Analysis: A Potential Programmatic Approachp. 158
7.5 The Future: What Can We Be Sure Of?p. 164
Chapter 8 A Reference Task Agenda for HCIp. 167
8.1 The Problems with HCI as Radical Inventionp. 167
8.2 The Reference Task Solutionp. 170
8.3 Reference Tasks in HCIp. 172
8.4 How to Define a Reference Taskp. 176
8.5 An Example Reference Task: Browsing and Retrieval in Speech Archivesp. 177
8.6 Conclusionsp. 185
Chapter 9 The Maturation of HCI: Moving beyond Usability toward Holistic Interactionp. 191
9.1 Introductionp. 191
9.2 Present Levels of HCI Maturityp. 193
9.3 Future HCI: Level 3: Individualized and Holistic Interactionp. 195
9.4 Summary and Conclusionsp. 205
Part III User Interface Software And Toolsp. 211
Chapter 10 Past, Present, and Future of User Interface Software Toolsp. 213
10.1 Introductionp. 213
10.2 Historical Perspectivep. 215
10.3 Future Prospects and Visionsp. 221
10.4 Operating System Issuesp. 229
10.5 Conclusionsp. 230
Chapter 11 Creating Creativity: User Interfaces for Supporting Innovationp. 235
11.1 Introductionp. 235
11.2 Three Perspectives on Creativityp. 236
11.3 Levels of Creativityp. 238
11.4 Genex: A Four-Phase Framework for Generating Excellencep. 240
11.5 Integrating Creative Activitiesp. 242
11.6 Architectural Scenariop. 253
11.7 Conclusionp. 254
Chapter 12 Interaction Spaces for Twenty-First-Century Computingp. 259
12.1 Introductionp. 259
12.2 Architecture Modelsp. 261
12.3 Robust Dynamic Configuration and Communicationp. 265
12.4 Context-Based Interpretationp. 266
12.5 Action and Perceptionp. 268
12.6 Research Issuesp. 272
12.7 Conclusionp. 274
Part IV Groupware And Cooperative Activityp. 277
Chapter 13 Computer-Mediated Communications for Group Support: Past and Futurep. 279
13.1 Introductionp. 279
13.2 Early Roots and Insightsp. 280
13.3 Tailoring Communicationsp. 283
13.4 Discourse Structuresp. 285
13.5 Collective Intelligencep. 288
13.6 Multimedia Communication Systemsp. 291
13.7 Conclusionp. 295
Chapter 14 The Intellectual Challenge of CSCW: The Gap between Social Requirements and Technical Feasibilityp. 303
14.1 Introductionp. 303
14.2 A Biased Summary of CSCW Findingsp. 304
14.3 The Social-Technical Gap in Actionp. 307
14.4 What to Do?p. 313
14.5 Conclusionp. 319
Chapter 15 Social Translucence: Designing Systems That Support Social Processesp. 325
15.1 Introductionp. 325
15.2 Foundations: Social Translucencep. 326
15.3 Application Domain: Knowledge Managementp. 328
15.4 Implementation: Social Translucence in Digital Systemsp. 332
15.5 Some Research Issuesp. 337
15.6 Conclusionp. 342
Chapter 16 Transcending the Individual Human Mind: Creating Shared Understanding through Collaborative Designp. 347
16.1 Introductionp. 347
16.2 Challenging Problems for the Future of Human-Computer Interactionp. 348
16.3 The Envisionment and Discovery Collaboratory (EDC)p. 353
16.4 Assessmentp. 364
16.5 Future Workp. 366
16.6 Conclusionp. 367
Chapter 17 The Development of Cooperation: Five Years of Participatory Design in the Virtual Schoolp. 373
17.1 Introductionp. 373
17.2 Stages of Cooperative Engagementp. 375
17.3 The Practitioner-Informantp. 376
17.4 The Analystp. 380
17.5 The Designerp. 383
17.6 The Coachp. 386
17.7 Transitions between Stagesp. 388
17.8 Conclusionp. 391
Chapter 18 Distance Mattersp. 397
18.1 Introductionp. 397
18.2 Collocated Work Todayp. 399
18.3 Remote Work Todayp. 402
18.4 The Findings Integrated: Four Conceptsp. 405
18.5 Distance Work in the New Millenniump. 410
18.6 Conclusionp. 413
Part V Media And Informationp. 419
Chapter 19 Designing the User Interface for Multimodal Speech and Pen-Based Gesture Applications: State-of-the-Art Systems and Future Research Directionsp. 419
19.1 Introduction to Multimodal Speech and Gesture Interfacesp. 421
19.2 Advantages and Optimal Uses of Multimodal Interface Designp. 423
19.3 Architectural Approaches to Multimodal Integration and Systemsp. 426
19.4 Diversity of Emerging Speech and Gesture Applicationsp. 436
19.5 Future Research Directions for Multimodal Interfacesp. 450
19.6 Conclusionp. 452
Chapter 20 Technologies of Information: HCI and the Digital Libraryp. 457
20.1 Introductionp. 457
20.2 Antecedents of Digital Libraries: The Ideas and the Evidencep. 458
20.3 HCI Research: From Enabling to Envisioningp. 461
20.4 Problems with HCI's Role in Digital Library Designp. 465
20.5 Extending HCI's Remit with DLsp. 469
20.6 Conclusionp. 472
Chapter 21 Interfaces That Give and Take Advicep. 475
21.1 Introduction: Advance-Based Interfacesp. 475
21.2 Examples of Advice in Interfacesp. 477
21.3 Advice-Based Interfaces in AI and HCIp. 481
21.4 The Future of Advice-Oriented Interfacesp. 483
21.5 Conclusionp. 485
Chapter 22 Beyond Recommender Systems: Helping People Help Each Otherp. 487
22.1 Introductionp. 487
22.2 Recommendation: Examples and Conceptsp. 488
22.3 A Model of the Recommendation Processp. 489
22.4 Content-Based Recommendersp. 493
22.5 Recommendation Support Systemsp. 494
22.6 Social Data Miningp. 496
22.7 Collaborative Filteringp. 499
22.8 Current Challenges and New Opportunitiesp. 502
22.9 Conclusionp. 505
Part VI Integrating Computation And Real Environmentsp. 511
Chapter 23 Charting Past, Present, and Future Research in Ubiquitous Computingp. 513
23.1 Introductionp. 513
23.2 Computing with Natural Interfacesp. 515
23.3 Context-Aware Computingp. 518
23.4 Automated Capture and Access to Live Experiencesp. 522
23.5 Toward Everyday Computingp. 524
23.6 Additional Challenges for Ubicompp. 527
23.7 Conclusionp. 534
Chapter 24 Situated Computing: The Next Frontier for HCI Researchp. 537
24.1 Introductionp. 537
24.2 Grand Challenge #1: Emancipating Informationp. 539
24.3 Grand Challenge #2: Clueing in Those Clueless Computersp. 545
24.4 Conclusionp. 548
Chapter 25 Roomware: Toward the Next Generation of Human-Computer Interaction Based on an Integrated Design of Real and Virtual Worldsp. 553
25.1 Introductionp. 553
25.2 Three Points of Departurep. 556
25.3 Related Workp. 558
25.4 Design Perspectives for the Workspaces of the Futurep. 560
25.5 Cooperative Buildingsp. 561
25.6 Requirements from Creative Teamsp. 564
25.7 Roomware Componentsp. 565
25.8 Network Infrastructurep. 573
25.9 The Beach Software: Supporting Creativityp. 573
25.10 Conclusionp. 575
Chapter 26 Emerging Frameworks for Tangible User Interfacesp. 579
26.1 Introductionp. 579
26.2 A First Example: Urpp. 580
26.3 Tangible User Interfacesp. 581
26.4 Interaction Modelp. 582
26.5 Key Characteristicsp. 584
26.6 Example Two: mediaBlocksp. 585
26.7 Terminologyp. 587
26.8 Coupling Objects with Digital Informationp. 588
26.9 Interpreting Systems of Objectsp. 592
26.10 Application Domainsp. 595
26.11 Related Areasp. 596
26.12 Conclusionp. 598
Part VII Hci And Societyp. 603
Chapter 27 Learner-Centered Design: Reflections and New Directionsp. 605
27.1 Introductionp. 605
27.2 An Overview of Learner-Centered Designp. 606
27.3 Open Issues In Designing Learner-Centered Toolsp. 616
27.4 Conclusionp. 622
Chapter 28 HCI Meets the "Real World": Designing Technologies for Civic Sector Usep. 627
28.1 Introduction: A "Network Society"p. 628
28.2 Support for the Communityp. 628
28.3 Community Networksp. 630
28.4 The Seattle Community Network--A Whirlwind Tourp. 633
28.5 Opportunities and Ideasp. 639
28.6 How Can HCI Research Get Transferred to the Community?p. 641
28.7 Challenges for HCIp. 642
28.8 Discussionp. 642
28.9 Conclusionp. 643
Chapter 29 Beyond Bowling Together: SocioTechnical Capitalp. 647
29.1 Introductionp. 647
29.2 How Social Capital Worksp. 651
29.3 The Anatomy of Social Capitalp. 653
29.4 SocioTechnical Capital Opportunitiesp. 656
29.5 Examples of New SocioTechnical Relationsp. 660
29.6 Research Agendap. 665
29.7 Conclusionp. 668
Contributorsp. 673
Indexp. 685