Cover image for Effective supervision : a guidebook for supervisors, team leaders, and work coaches
Effective supervision : a guidebook for supervisors, team leaders, and work coaches
Goetsch, David L.
Personal Author:
Publication Information:
Upper Saddle River, N.J. : Prentice Hall, [2002]

Physical Description:
xv, 247 pages : illustrations ; 28 cm
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HF5549.12 .G638 2002 Adult Non-Fiction Central Closed Stacks-Oversize

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Containing ten years of experience, this complete "seminar in a book" includes success tips for supervisors, and "hands-on, real-world" activities that teach the many and varied skills necessary for success in today's workplace. It develops individuals who know not only about supervision, but who know how to supervise. Chapter topics cover leadership, facilitating change, communication, ethics, motivation, decision making and problem solving, performance appraisal, employee complaints, workplace violence, legal issues, training, health and safety, staffing, and team building and teamwork. For supervisors, team leaders, and work coaches--for on-the-job training, business and industry seminars, and distance learning.

Author Notes

David L. Goetsch is Provost of the Fort Walton Beach Campus of the University of West Florida and Okaloosa-Walton Community College where he is also Professor of Quality, Safety, and Management. He teaches Effective Supervision in all of the formats described earlier and is also President and CEO of the Center for Effective Supervision, a private consulting and training company that specializes in developing supervisors for business, industry, and government organizations.



BACKGROUND One of the most valuable assets an organization can have in today's hypercompetitive global marketplace is talented supervisors who know how to achieve consistent peak performance from their direct reports and who know how to help their direct reports improve continually. A good supervisor makes the same kinds of contributions to an organization's success that a good coach makes to a professional sports team's success. Supervisors go by many names in today's workplace--team leader, work coach, foreman, and many other titles. Regardless of what they are called, supervisors are people who are responsible for the performance of a given unit and the people, processes, and procedures that, together, generate that performance. Carrying out this responsibility has become an increasingly complex undertaking. There are many reasons for this. Prominent among them are rapid and continual technological advances; the unrelenting pressure of global competition; a steadily growing body of law relating to employee rights, safety, and health; a national trend toward more conflict and violence in the workplace; the persistent problems associated with substance abuse; the worldwide "quality revolution"; and demands from the public for ethical business practices. WHY THIS BOOK WAS WRITTEN AND FOR WHOM This book was written to satisfy the need for (1) an up-to-date teaching text that allows students in colleges, universities, and technical schools to learn "hands-on, real-world" supervision skills in addition to the foundational theories, principles, and concepts on which those skills are built; (2) a practical "how-to" teaching tool for use in business, industry, and government training settings such as seminars, workshops, and short courses; and (3) a "hands-on" oriented text that can be used for teaching supervision in a distance learning format (on-line, simulcast, or self-paced/text-based). Effective Supervision was developed in a "worktext" format so that it could meet all three of these needs. All of the text material one would expect to find in a traditional textbook on supervision is contained in this book. In addition, each section of text in each chapter is followed by real-world "Application and Discussion" activities that require learners to discuss and apply the material just presented. These activities help learners transform theoretical and conceptual material into practical, hands-on skills. At the end of every chapter, comprehensive "On-the-Job Scenarios" require learners to apply all of the material from the chapter in solving the types of actual problems supervisors confront on the job. The goal of Effective Supervision is to develop individuals who don't just know about supervision, but who know how to supervise. HOW TO USE THIS BOOK This book was designed to be used in any one or all of the following approaches: (1) as the principal teaching tool in a traditional classroom setting; (2) as a "hands-on" supplement to another text in a traditional classroom setting; (3) as the principal teaching tool for seminars, workshops, or short courses provided for business, industry, and government organizations; and (4) as the principal teaching tool in a distance learning course on supervision. Strategies for using this book most effectively in each of these settings follow. Traditional Classroom Setting In this setting, learners should read the text material in the usual manner. The "Application and Discussion" activities can be used in two ways. They can be used to guide and generate discussion during class, and they can be used as written assignments to be completed outside of class. The "On-the-Job Scenarios" at the end of each chapter can be used as group projects, written assignments, or tests, or as the basis for individual or group classroom presentations and research papers. Having students "act out" the scenarios in small groups in class is also an effective learning strategy. Having done so, the rest of the class can then discuss and critique their solutions. Tests are provided as a supplement. Supplement in a Traditional Classroom Setting Effective Supervision can be used to supplement other texts, particularly in providing realistic hands-on, skill-building activities. The "Application and Discussion" activities and the "On-the-Job Scenarios" from each chapter are flexible enough to be used in conjunction with any supervision text. Tests are provided in the supplement. Seminars, Workshops, and Short Courses Effective Supervision was designed in such a way as to be a complete "seminar in a book." Everything that is needed to provide a comprehensive seminar, workshop, or short course on supervision can be found within its covers. In addition, each chapter can be used as a one-topic seminar that focuses on a particular area of need or concern. The "Application and Discussion" activities and the "On-the-Job Scenarios" are especially effective for helping people who are already working to develop the knowledge and skills needed to be successful supervisors. Distance Learning Courses Effective Supervision, along with the supplemental Instructor's Manual that accompanies it, makes an excellent tool for use in a distance learning course. All of the theories, concepts, and principles needed are contained in each chapter. The "Application and Discussion" activities can be used to guide and generate on-line discussion in chat rooms. They can also be used as written assignments that can be submitted electronically. The "On-the-Job Scenarios" can be used for assigning larger projects. Tests are provided in the supplement. Various web page linkages are listed in Appendix A. HOW THIS BOOK DIFFERS FROM OTHERS There are many excellent books available on supervision. Effective Supervision contains all of the material one would expect to find in these and any other current book on the topic, and it has the following strengths not associated with most supervision texts: (1) All of the discussion, application, and on-the-job activities come from actual work cases and are designed to place learners in the shoes of practicing supervisors and require them to answer the question, "Based on what you just learned, what would you do in this situation?" Learners read about no more than one subtopic at a time in a chapter before being required to apply that reading in dealing with an actual on-the-job problem; (2) All material in this book has been field-tested and revised based on instructor, student, and trainer input. Activities that worked well in a live setting were kept; others were replaced. The material contained herein has been tested in traditional classrooms, seminars, workshops, short courses, and distance learning settings. In all of these settings it has been well received, the practical hands-on approach being its most popular feature; and (3) Effective Supervision is up-to-date in terms of both the text material and the hands-on activities. All activities contained in this book are of the kind that supervisors can expect to confront in today's workplace. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS I would like to acknowledge the reviewers of this text: Constantine Ciesielski, East Carolina University (NC); Brian Hoyt, Ohio University; and Allen B. Young, Bessemer State Technical College (AL). Excerpted from Effective Supervision: A Guidebook for Supervisors, Team Leaders, and Work Coaches by David L. Goetsch All rights reserved by the original copyright owners. Excerpts are provided for display purposes only and may not be reproduced, reprinted or distributed without the written permission of the publisher.

Table of Contents

Chapter 1 Leadershipp. 1
What Is Leadership?p. 1
What Is a Good Leader?p. 2
Are Leaders Born or Made?p. 2
Leadership and Motivationp. 3
Understanding Individual Human Needsp. 3
Theories of Leadershipp. 4
Theory X and Leadershipp. 5
Theory Y and Leadershipp. 5
Theory XY and Leadershipp. 6
Leadership Stylesp. 6
Autocratic Leadershipp. 6
Democratic Leadershipp. 7
Participative Leadershipp. 7
Goal-Oriented Leadershipp. 7
Situational Leadershipp. 7
Selecting the Appropriate Leadership Stylep. 8
Winning and Maintaining Followershipp. 8
Popularity and the Leaderp. 8
Leadership Characteristics That Win and Maintain Followershipp. 9
Pitfalls that will Undermine Followershipp. 9
Trust Building and Leadershipp. 10
Chapter 2 Facilitating Changep. 13
Facilitating Change as a Leadership Functionp. 13
Change-Management Systemp. 14
Scannersp. 15
Receiving Pointsp. 15
Deliberative Groupsp. 16
Executive Committeep. 16
Change Implementation Modelp. 17
Develop the Change "Picture"p. 17
Communicate with All Stakeholders about the Changep. 18
Provide Any Necessary Trainingp. 18
Implement the Changep. 18
Monitor and Adjustp. 19
Restructuring and Changep. 19
Be Smart and Empatheticp. 20
Communicate the Change "Picture"p. 20
Establish Incentives That Promote the Changep. 20
Continue to Trainp. 20
Chapter 3 Communicationp. 23
Communication Definedp. 23
Communication Versus Effective Communicationp. 24
Communication Levelsp. 24
Communication as a Processp. 25
Inhibitors of Communicationp. 26
Differences in Meaningp. 26
Insufficient Trustp. 26
Information Overloadp. 26
Interferencep. 27
Condescending Tonesp. 27
Listening Problemsp. 27
Premature Judgmentsp. 27
Inaccurate Assumptionsp. 27
Technological Glitchesp. 27
Communication Networksp. 28
Communication by Listeningp. 29
What Is Listening?p. 29
Inhibitors of Effective Listeningp. 30
Communicating Nonverballyp. 31
Body Factorsp. 31
Voice Factorsp. 32
Proximity Factorsp. 32
Communicating Verballyp. 33
Interestp. 33
Attitudep. 33
Flexibilityp. 34
Tactp. 34
Courtesyp. 34
Improving Verbal Communication by Questioningp. 34
Drop Your Defensesp. 34
State Your Purposep. 34
Acknowledge Emotionsp. 34
Use Open-Ended Questions and Phrase Questions Carefullyp. 35
Communicating Corrective Feedbackp. 35
Steps to Improved Communicationp. 36
Selecting the Appropriate Communication Methodp. 36
Electronic Communicationp. 37
Chapter 4 Ethicsp. 41
An Ethical Dilemmap. 41
Ethics Definedp. 42
Guidelines for Determining Ethical Behaviorp. 43
Ethical Behavior in Organizationsp. 45
The Supervisor's Role in Ethicsp. 45
Best Ratio Approachp. 46
Black and White Approachp. 46
Full Potential Approachp. 46
The Organization's Role in Ethicsp. 47
Creating an Ethical Environmentp. 47
Setting an Ethical Examplep. 47
Handling Ethical Dilemmasp. 48
Apply the Guidelinesp. 48
Select the Approachp. 49
Proceed with the Decisionp. 49
Chapter 5 Motivationp. 53
Definition and Rationale for Motivation What Motivates Peoplep. 54
Specific Human Needs Related to Workp. 55
The Work Ethic and Motivationp. 56
Improving the Work Ethicp. 56
Job Satisfaction and Motivationp. 57
Expectancy and Motivationp. 58
Achievement and Motivationp. 59
Recognizing Achievement-Oriented Employeesp. 59
Using Achievement to Motivate Employeesp. 59
Job Design and Motivationp. 60
Task-Oriented Job Designp. 60
People-Oriented Job Designp. 61
Balanced Orientation in Job Designp. 61
How to Use Job Design to Motivatep. 61
Competition and Motivationp. 62
Communication and Motivationp. 63
Promotions and Motivationp. 64
New Employees and Motivationp. 64
Problem Employees and Motivationp. 66
Motivating Part-Time Workersp. 67
Incentive Programs and Motivationp. 68
Developing Personal Motivation Plans (PMPs)p. 69
Chapter 6 Decision Making and Problem Solvingp. 73
Decision Making Definedp. 73
Evaluating Decisionsp. 74
Problems and Decision Makingp. 75
Characteristics of Problemsp. 75
The Decision-Making Processp. 77
Identify/Anticipate the Problemp. 77
Consider Alternativesp. 79
Choose the Best Alternative, Monitor, and Adjustp. 79
Decision-Making Modelsp. 80
Objective Approach to Decision Makingp. 80
Subjective Approach to Decision Makingp. 80
Involving Employees in Decision Makingp. 81
Advantages of Employee Involvementp. 81
Disadvantages of Employee Involvementp. 81
Brainstormingp. 81
Nominal Group Techniquep. 82
Quality Circlesp. 82
Potential Problems with Group Decision Makingp. 82
Information and Decision Makingp. 83
Data Versus Informationp. 84
Value of Informationp. 84
Amount of Informationp. 84
Creativity in Decision Makingp. 85
Creativity Definedp. 85
Creative Processp. 86
Factors That Inhibit Creativityp. 86
Chapter 7 Performance Appraisalp. 89
Rationale for Performance Appraisalsp. 89
Effective Performance Appraisalp. 90
Supervisor's Role in Performance Appraisalp. 90
Developing and Completing the Appraisal Formp. 90
Performance Criteriap. 92
Rating Methodologyp. 92
Comments Sectionp. 92
Employee's Response Sectionp. 93
Supervisor's Report Sectionp. 93
Keeping Performance Appraisals Consistent and Objectivep. 93
Review Performance Standardsp. 93
Base Ratings on Factsp. 94
Avoid Personality Biasp. 95
Avoid Extremes in Assigning Ratingsp. 96
Avoid the Halo Effectp. 96
Avoid Pecking Order Biasp. 96
Conducting the Appraisal Interviewp. 96
Communicationp. 96
Feedbackp. 97
Counselingp. 97
Planning for Improvementp. 98
Facilitating the Appraisal Interviewp. 98
Explain the Purpose of the Performance Appraisalp. 98
Discuss the Ratingsp. 98
Solicit Feedbackp. 99
Find Out How Employees Rate Themselvesp. 99
Set Goals for Improvementp. 99
Follow-Up and Feedbackp. 99
Giving Corrective Feedback To Employeesp. 100
Legal Aspects of Performance Appraisalsp. 101
Keep Comprehensive Recordsp. 101
Focus on Performance, Not Personalityp. 102
Be Positive, Constructive, and Specificp. 102
Be Honest and Treat All Employees the Samep. 102
Apply Objective Standardsp. 102
The Supervisor as a Career Coachp. 103
Chapter 8 Employee Complaintsp. 107
Why Complaints Must Be Handled Properlyp. 107
Roles of Listening in Handling Complaintsp. 108
Role of Questioning and Confirming in Handling Complaintsp. 109
Handling Employee Complaintsp. 110
Handling Habitual Complainersp. 111
Involving Employees in Resolving Complaintsp. 112
Handling Complaints About Wagesp. 113
Turning Complaints into Improvementsp. 114
Chapter 9 Conflict Management/Workplace Violencep. 117
Causes of Workplace Conflictp. 117
How People React to Conflictp. 119
Why Conflict Resolution Skills Are Importantp. 119
How Conflict Should Be Handledp. 120
How and When Conflict Should Be Stimulatedp. 121
Communication in Conflict Situationsp. 122
Dealing With Angry Employeesp. 123
Behaviors to Avoidp. 123
What Supervisors Should Dop. 124
How to Calm an Angry Employeep. 124
Overcoming Territorial Behavior in Organizationsp. 125
Manifestations of Territorialityp. 125
Overcoming Territorial Behaviorp. 126
Overcoming Negativity in Employeesp. 127
Recognizing Negativityp. 127
Overcoming Negativityp. 127
Workplace Violencep. 129
Rights of Violent Employeesp. 129
Employee Liability for Workplace Violencep. 129
Making Work-Related Determinationsp. 130
Reducing the Riskp. 130
Natural Surveillancep. 131
Control of Accessp. 131
Establishment of Territorialityp. 132
Activity Supportp. 132
Administrative Controlsp. 132
Contributing Factorsp. 132
Individual Factors Associated with Violencep. 132
Environmental Factors Associated with Violencep. 133
Rules of Thumb for Supervisorsp. 134
Chapter 10 Legal Issues: Discipline, Termination, Sexual Harassment, and Drugsp. 137
Disciplining Employees: The Rationalep. 137
Fundamentals of Disciplining Employeesp. 138
Guidelines for Disciplining Employeesp. 139
The Discipline Processp. 140
Informal Discussion/Counselingp. 141
Verbal Warningp. 141
Written Warningp. 142
Suspensionp. 143
Dismissalp. 143
Sexual Harassment and the Supervisorp. 146
What Is Sexual Harassment?p. 146
EEOC Guidelines on Sexual Harassmentp. 146
Effects of Sexual Harassmentp. 147
What Is the Supervisor's Role?p. 148
Do's and Don'ts for Supervisorsp. 149
Drug Abuse in the Workplacep. 150
Supervisor's Role in Handling Drug Abuse in the Workplacep. 150
Chapter 11 Trainingp. 155
Training Definedp. 155
Need for Trainingp. 156
Competition in the Marketplacep. 157
Rapid and Continual Changep. 157
Technology Transfer Problemsp. 157
Changing Demographicsp. 157
Assessing Training Needsp. 158
Writing Training Objectivesp. 160
Providing Trainingp. 161
Internal Approachesp. 161
External Approachesp. 162
Partnership Approachesp. 162
Evaluating Trainingp. 163
The Supervisor as a Trainerp. 165
Principles of Learningp. 165
Four-Step Teaching Approachp. 166
Training the Supervisorp. 168
Chapter 12 Health and Safetyp. 171
Legal Foundation of Health and Safety Programsp. 171
Administration and Enforcementp. 171
Employer and Employee Rights Under OSHAp. 172
OSHA Violationsp. 174
Policy Aspects of Health and Safetyp. 175
Assigning Responsibility for Health and Safetyp. 176
Safety Trainingp. 176
Accident Prevention Techniquesp. 177
Accident Investigation and Reportingp. 178
Writing the Accident Reportp. 178
Worker's Compensationp. 179
Worker's Compensation Benefitsp. 180
Employer Liability Beyond Workers' Compensationp. 180
Bloodborne Pathogens and Employee Health and Safetyp. 181
Legal Considerationsp. 181
Chapter 13 Staffingp. 187
Staffing Definedp. 187
Overview of the Staffing Processp. 188
Analyzing and Specifyingp. 188
Forecastingp. 188
Recruitingp. 188
Interviewingp. 189
Selectingp. 189
Orientingp. 189
Legal Considerations of Staffingp. 189
Equal Employment Opportunityp. 190
Compensation and Benefitsp. 191
Health and Safetyp. 192
Employee Relationsp. 193
Forecasting Staffing Needsp. 194
Interviewingp. 196
General Interviewing Guidelinesp. 196
Questions to Ask in an Interviewp. 196
Questions to Avoid in an Interviewp. 197
Characteristics to Look for in an Interviewp. 198
Contacting Referencesp. 198
The Employment Testing Issuep. 199
Job Knowledge Skillsp. 199
Selectionp. 200
Put Aside Personal Biasp. 200
Make a Checklistp. 200
Physical Examinationp. 201
Check Referencesp. 201
Orientationp. 201
Other Staffing Concernsp. 202
Finding Employees During Labor Shortagesp. 202
Reference Checkingp. 203
Handling Layoffs Effectivelyp. 203
Termination by Dischargep. 204
Chapter 14 Total Qualityp. 209
What Is Quality?p. 209
Total Quality Definedp. 210
How Is Total Quality Different?p. 210
Key Elements of Total Qualityp. 211
Customer Focusp. 211
Obsession with Qualityp. 212
Scientific Approachp. 212
Long-Term Commitmentp. 212
Teamworkp. 212
Continual Improvement of Systemsp. 212
Education and Trainingp. 212
Freedom through Controlp. 212
Unity of Purposep. 213
Employee Involvement and Empowermentp. 213
Supervisor's Role in Quality Improvementp. 214
Chapter 15 Team Building and Teamworkp. 217
Overview of Teamworkp. 217
Rationale for Teamsp. 217
Learning to Work Togetherp. 218
Team Performancep. 218
Four-Step Approach to Team Buildingp. 219
Assessing Team Needsp. 220
Planning Team-Building Activitiesp. 221
Executing Team-Building Activitiesp. 222
Evaluating Team-Building Activitiesp. 222
"Coaching" Work Teamsp. 222
Clearly Defined Charterp. 223
Team Development/Team Buildingp. 223
Mentoringp. 223
Mutual Respect and Trustp. 223
Human Diversityp. 224
Handling Conflict in Teamsp. 225
Resolution Strategies for Team Conflictsp. 226
Structural Inhibitors of Teamworkp. 227
Rewarding Team and Individual Performancep. 228
Nonmonetary Rewardsp. 229
Recognizing Teamwork and Team Playersp. 230
Appendlx A Web Site Linkages for Supervisorsp. 233
Appendix B Success Tips for Supervisorsp. 235
Appendix C Checklists for Supervisorsp. 237
Indexp. 241