Cover image for Encyclopedia of the Spanish-American & Philippine-American wars
Encyclopedia of the Spanish-American & Philippine-American wars
Keenan, Jerry.
Personal Author:
Publication Information:
Santa Barbara, Calif. : ABC-CLIO, [2001]

Physical Description:
xxxii, 467 pages : illustrations, maps ; 27 cm
Added Corporate Author:
Format :


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E715 .K27 2001 Adult Non-Fiction Central Closed Stacks

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An A-Z encyclopedia covering the principal battles and campaigns, key military and political figures, and the political maneuvering during the Spanish-American and Philippine-American Wars.

* Analyzes all of the campaigns and principal battles of the Spanish-American and Philippine-American wars, along with their political and historical context

* Profiles key military and political figures in the United States, Cuba, Spain, and the Philippines

* Charts the chronological development of the confrontations from 1868 to 1903

* Generously illustrates the discussion with maps, tactical diagrams, and archival photos

Author Notes

Jerry Keenan is a professional writer pursuing projects in U.S. and military history specializing in the American West and the Civil War.

Reviews 2

Booklist Review

At the end of the nineteenth century, as at the end of the twentieth and the beginning of the twenty-first, the U.S. became involved in wars that featured terrorism, Muslim animosity toward "infidels," guerrilla warfare, atrocities, serious infighting among various critical agencies, and illnesses that plagued the warriors who returned. The brief, but popular, Spanish-American and Philippine-American Wars also showed the world that the U.S. had become a leading power. This encyclopedia's more than 300 A^-Z entries are written "to provide students and other interested readers with basic information . . . names, dates, and summaries of the significant events related to those wars." Numerous biographical sketches of military and political leaders on all sides offer some background, then concentrate on the important contributions and accomplishments of the subjects during the period in question. See also references and suggestions for further reading direct users to more detailed information. Most of the illustrations are portraits or group photographs. There are some maps, but researchers might also wish for detailed photos or drawings of uniforms, flags, and weapons. There is an entry for "Civilize 'em with a Krag," which is a line from an army song that originated during the Philippine-American War, but there is no picture of the Krag-Jorgensen rifle. An extensive bibliography of print monographs, dissertations, and journal articles follows the entries. There is also an interesting list of relevant motion pictures. Most Americans learn little about this period unless they major in American history. Libraries wanting to fill that gap will want to add this item to their collections so that readers can learn how U.S. signal balloons were used, who the "immunes" were, and why the U.S. Navy Flying Squadron was called that. A similar resource, Brad Berner's The Spanish-American War: A Historical Dictionary (Scarecrow, 1998), is not illustrated and does not devote so much attention to the Philippine-American War. Libraries that do not have Berner's book will certainly want to consider Keenan's; those that do will want to decide whether the photos and additional coverage justify duplication.

Choice Review

Keenan (author of Encyclopedia of American Indian Wars, 1492-1890, CH, Apr'98) has prepared a 358-entry encyclopedia on the Spanish-American War and the Philippine Insurrection intended for students and interested readers. The book focuses primarily on the military aspects of the two related conflicts. The entries cover battles, political and military leaders, journalists, sites, and other topics (e.g., logistics, communications, rations). The text is supported by 62 photographs, 13 maps, a chronology, a brief introduction, and a bibliography that cites 585 publications. The see also references, index, and contents effectively help readers navigate through the encyclopedia. Keenan provides basic information about the wars, but the subject has been covered in three other recent reference works: Brad Berner's The Spanish-American War: A Historical Dictionary (CH, May'99); Donald H. Dyal's Historical Dictionary of the Spanish American War (CH, Dec'96); and The War of 1898 and US Interventions 1898-1934: An Encyclopedia, ed. by Benjamin R. Beede (1994). Libraries holding those titles may not wish to make further additions in this subject area. Undergraduates and general readers. B. P. Tolppanen Eastern Illinois University

Table of Contents

Prefacep. xvii
Introductionp. xix
Chronologyp. xxv
Adams, Charles Francis, Jr. (1835-1915)p. 1
Agoncillo, Don Felipe (1859-1941)p. 1
Aguadores River (Cuba), Demonstration atp. 2
Aguinaldo y Famy, Emilio (1869-1964)p. 3
Alejandrino (Alexandrino), Jose (1871-1951)p. 6
Alfonso XII (1857-1885)p. 7
Alfonso XIII (1885-1941)p. 8
Alger, Russell Alexander (1836-1907)p. 8
Allen, Charles H. (1848-1934)p. 10
Allen, Henry Tureman (1859-1930)p. 11
Allianca Incidentp. 11
Almodovar del Rio, Duque de (Juan Manuel Sanchez y Gutierrez de Castro) (1859-1906)p. 12
Anderson, Thomas McArthur (1836-1917)p. 13
Anti-Imperialist Leaguep. 14
Antillesp. 15
Army, Filipino Nationalistp. 15
Army, Spanish (Ejercito de Espana)p. 16
Army, U.S.p. 18
Artists and Illustratorsp. 21
Asiatic Squadron, U.S. Navyp. 21
Astor, John Jacob (1864-1912)p. 22
Atrocitiesp. 23
Augustin Davila, Don Basilio (1840-1910)p. 24
Aunon y Villalon, Ramon (1844-1925)p. 25
Auxiliary Squadron, U.S. Navyp. 25
Balangiga Massacre (Philippines) (28 September 1901)p. 27
Baldwin, Frank Dwight (1842-1923)p. 28
Baler, Siege of (Philippines) (1 July 1898-2 June 1899)p. 29
Balloons (U.S. Signal Corps)p. 30
Bandholtz, Harry Hill (1864-1925)p. 31
Barton, Clara (Clarissa) Harlowe (1821-1912)p. 31
Bates, John Coalter (1842-1919)p. 32
Bates Treaty (Philippines) (1899)p. 33
Bayang (Moro Province, Philippines), Battle of (2 May 1902)p. 34
Beef Scandalp. 35
Bell, James Franklin (1856-1919)p. 37
Benevolent Assimilationp. 38
Benjamin, Anna Northend (1874-1902)p. 39
Bennett, James Gordon, Jr. (1841-1918)p. 39
Bigelow, Poultney (1855-1954)p. 40
Biyak-na-Bato (Philippines), Pact of (14-15 December 1897)p. 41
Black American Soldiersp. 42
Black, Wilsone (1837-1909)p. 44
Blanco y Erenas, Ramon (1833-1906)p. 44
Bliss, Tasker Howard (1853-1930)p. 45
Bonifacio, Andres (1863-1897)p. 46
Boxer Rebellion (Uprising) (1899-1901)p. 47
Bradford, Royal Bird (1844-1914)p. 48
Breckinridge, Joseph Cabell (1842-1920)p. 49
Brooke, John Rutter (1838-1926)p. 50
Bryan, William Jennings (1860-1925)p. 51
Bud Bagsak (Philippines), Battle of (13-15 January 1913)p. 52
Bud Daju (Philippines), Battle of (5-7 March 1904)p. 53
Bullard, Robert E. Lee (1861-1947)p. 54
Bundy, Omar (1861-1940)p. 55
Cadarso, Luis (1844-1898)p. 57
Cailles, Juan (ca. 1868-?)p. 57
Camara y Libermoore (Livermore), Manuel de la (1836-1920)p. 58
Cambon, Jules Martin (1845-1935)p. 59
Camps, Staging Areas, and Embarkation Points, U.S. Armyp. 59
Canary Islandsp. 64
Cannon, Joseph Gurney (1836-1926)p. 64
Canovas del Castillo, Antonio (1828-1897)p. 65
Cape Tunas (Cuba)p. 65
Cape Verde Islandsp. 65
Capitulation Agreement, Santiago de Cuba (16 July 1898)p. 66
Cardenas (Cuba)p. 67
Carnegie, Andrew (1835-1919)p. 68
Casualtiesp. 68
Cavite (Philippine Islands)p. 70
Censorshipp. 71
Cervera y Topete, Pascual (1839-1909)p. 71
Cespedes, Carlos Manuel de (1819-1874)p. 74
Chadwick, French Ensor (1844-1919)p. 74
Chaffee, Adna Romanza (1842-1914)p. 75
Chandler, William Eaton (1835-1917)p. 76
Chichester, Edward (1849-1906)p. 77
Christy, Howard Chandler (1873-1952)p. 77
Cienfuegos (Cuba), Cutting the Cable at (May 1898)p. 78
Cisneros, Evangelina (ca. 1880-?)p. 80
"Civilize 'em with a Krag"p. 82
Clark, Charles Edgar (1843-1922)p. 82
Clayton-Bulwer Treaty (19 April 1850)p. 83
Cleveland, (Stephen) Grover (1837-1908)p. 83
Coaling Stationsp. 84
Coastal Defenses, U.S.p. 85
Colonial Policies, U.S.p. 86
Colwel, John Charles (1856-?)p. 87
Committee on the Philippinesp. 88
Communicationsp. 88
Competitor Incidentp. 90
Converse, George Albert (1844-1909)p. 91
Cook, Francis Augustus (1843-1916)p. 92
Corbin, Henry Clark (1842-1909)p. 92
Correa, Miguel (1830-1900)p. 93
Corregidor Island (Philippines)p. 93
Cortelyou, George Bruce (1862-1940)p. 94
Cottasp. 95
Crane, Stephen (1871-1900)p. 95
Creelman, James (1859-1915)p. 97
Cubap. 97
"Cuba Libre"p. 98
Cuba, U.S. Military Occupation ofp. 99
Cuban Campaign (June-July 1898)p. 100
Cuban Expeditionary Force, U.S.p. 104
Cuban Juntap. 105
Cuban League of the U.S.p. 106
Cuban Revolution (Insurrection) (1895-1898)p. 106
Cuban Revolutionary Armyp. 107
Cuban Revolutionary Governmentp. 109
Cuban Revolutionary Party (El Partido Revolucionario Cubano)p. 110
Dana, Charles Anderson (1819-1897)p. 111
Davis, Charles Henry (1845-1921)p. 112
Davis, Richard Harding (1864-1916)p. 112
Dawes, Charles Gates (1865-1951)p. 114
Day, William Rufus (1849-1923)p. 114
Derby, George McClellan (1856-1948)p. 115
Dewey, George (1837-1917)p. 116
Diseasesp. 117
Dodge, Grenville Mellen (1831-1916)p. 119
Dorst, Joseph Haddox (1852-1915)p. 120
Duffield, Henry Martyn (1842-1912)p. 120
Dunne, Finley Peter (1867-1936)p. 121
Dupuy de Lome, Enrique (1851-1904)p. 121
Eagan, Charles Patrick (1841-1919)p. 125
Eastern Squadron, U.S. Navyp. 126
El Caney (Cuba), Battle of (1 July 1898)p. 127
Estrada Palma, Tomas (1835-1908)p. 130
Eulate y Ferry, Antonio (1845-1952)p. 131
Evans, Robley Dunglison (1846-1912)p. 132
Fifty Million Dollar Billp. 133
Filibusterp. 133
Filipino Revolutionary Movementp. 135
Flying Squadron, U.S. Navyp. 135
Foraker-Turpie Amendmentp. 136
Fort San Antonio de Abad (Philippines)p. 137
Frye, William Pierce (1831-1911)p. 137
Funston, Frederick (1865-1917)p. 138
Garcia Iniguez, Calixto (1839-1898)p. 141
Garcia, Pantaleon T. (1856-1936)p. 142
Gearetson, George Armstrong (1844-1916)p. 142
Germanyp. 143
Ghost Squadronp. 144
Glass, Henry (1844-1908)p. 145
Gomez Baez, Maximo (1826-1905)p. 145
Gorgas, William Crawford (1854-1920)p. 146
Gorman, Arthur Pue (1839-1906)p. 147
Gray, George (1840-1925)p. 147
Great Britainp. 148
Greene, Francis Vinton (1850-1921)p. 149
Greenleaf, Charles Ravenscroftp. 150
Gridley, Charles Vernon (1844-1898)p. 151
Grito de Bairep. 151
Guamp. 151
Guantanamo (Cuba), Battle of (3-15 June 1898)p. 152
Gullon y Iglesia, Don Pio (1835-1916)p. 154
Gunboat Operations, Philippinesp. 155
Gunboatsp. 156
Hanna, Marcus (Mark) Alonzo (1837-1904)p. 159
Havana (Cuba)p. 159
Hawaiian Islandsp. 160
Hawkins, Hamilton Smith (1834-1910)p. 161
Hay, John Milton (1838-1905)p. 161
Hearst, William Randolph (1863-1951)p. 162
Hellings, Martin Luther (1841-1908)p. 164
Henry, Guy Vernor (1839-1899)p. 165
Hoar, George Frisbie (1826-1904)p. 166
Hobson, Richmond Pearson (1870-1937)p. 166
Howell, John Adams (1840-1918)p. 169
Hull Billp. 170
Ilustradosp. 171
Immunesp. 171
Imperialism/Expansionismp. 171
Insular Affairs, Bureau ofp. 173
Interservice Relationsp. 174
Jaudenes y Alvarez, Ferminp. 177
Jingoismp. 177
Journalismp. 178
Katipunanp. 181
Kennan, George (1845-1924)p. 181
Kent, Jacob Ford (1835-1918)p. 182
Key West, Floridap. 183
Kimball, William Warren (1848-1930)p. 183
Lake Lanao (Mindanao, Philippines) Campaigns (1901-1903)p. 185
Las Guasimas (La Quasima) (Cuba), Battle of (24 June 1898)p. 187
Lawton, Henry Ware (1843-1899)p. 191
Lee, Fitzhugh (1835-1905)p. 192
Leon y Castillo, Fernando de (1842-1918)p. 194
Liga Filipinap. 195
Linares y Pomba, Arsenio (1848-1914)p. 196
Lodge, Henry Cabot (1850-1924)p. 196
Logisticsp. 197
Long, John Davis (1838-1915)p. 198
Ludington, Marshall Independence (1839-1919)p. 200
Ludlow, William (1843-1901)p. 201
Lukban, Vicente (1860-1916)p. 202
Luna de St. Pedro, Antonio Narcisco (1866-1899)p. 203
Luzon (Philippine Islands)p. 204
Luzon Campaigns (Philippine Islands)p. 205
Macabebe (Maccabebe) (Filipino) Scoutsp. 211
MacArthur, Arthur (1845-1912)p. 212
Maceo Grajales, Antonio (1845-1896)p. 213
Macias y Casado, Manuel (1845-?)p. 215
Mahan, Alfred Thayer (1840-1914)p. 216
Maine (Battleship)p. 217
Maine, Inquiries into the Sinking ofp. 221
Malolos (Philippines), Capture of (31 March 1899)p. 223
Mambisesp. 224
Manifest Destinyp. 225
Manila Bay, Battle of (1 May 1898)p. 225
Manila (Philippine Islands), First Battle of (13 August 1898)p. 230
Manila (Philippine Islands), Second Battle of (4-23 February 1899)p. 234
Manzanillo (Cuba), Actions at (30 June-1 July, 18 July, and 12 August 1898)p. 237
Maria Cristina, Queen Regent of Spain (1858-1929)p. 239
Mariel (Cuba)p. 239
Marinduque (Philippine Islands)p. 241
Marine Corps, U.S.p. 243
Marti y Perez, Jose (1853-1895)p. 244
Martinez de Campos, Arsenio (1831-1900)p. 245
Matanzas (Cuba)p. 246
Mayaguez (Puerto Rico), Battle of (10 August 1898)p. 247
McClernand, Edward John (1848-1926)p. 247
McCoy, Frank Ross (1874-1954)p. 248
McKinley, William, Jr. (1843-1901)p. 249
Medical Department, U.S. Armyp. 253
Merrimacp. 255
Merritt, Wesley (1834-1910)p. 256
Miles, Nelson Appleton (1839-1925)p. 258
Miley, John David (1862-1899)p. 260
Military Intelligence, U.S.p. 261
Militia Act of 1903p. 262
Militia, Navalp. 263
Mindanao (Philippine Islands)p. 263
Monroe Doctrinep. 264
Montero Rios, Don Eugenio (1832-1914)p. 265
Montojo y Psaron, Patricio (1839-1917)p. 266
Moret y Prendergast, Segismundo (1838-1913)p. 266
Morgan-Cameron Resolution (April 1896)p. 267
Morosp. 268
Morro Heights (Cuba)p. 269
Naval Blockade (U.S.) of Cubap. 271
Naval Strategy, Spanishp. 273
Naval Strategy, U.S.p. 275
Naval Vessels, U.S., Auxiliaryp. 277
Naval War Board, U.S.p. 277
Navy, Spanishp. 278
Navy, U.S.p. 279
Nipe Bay (Cuba)p. 281
North Atlantic Squadron, U.S. Navyp. 282
Northern Patrol Squadron, U.S. Navyp. 283
Nuevitas (Cuba)p. 283
O'Brien, "Dynamite" Johnny (1837-1917)p. 285
O'Donnell y Abreu, Carlos (1834-1903)p. 286
Olney, Richard (1835-1917)p. 287
O'Neill, William Owen "Buckey" (1860-1898)p. 287
Open Door Policyp. 288
Oregon (Battleship)p. 289
Otis, Elwell Stephen (1838-1909)p. 292
Pacification Program (Philippine Islands)p. 295
Papal Mediationp. 297
Paterno, Pedro Alejandro (1858-1911)p. 297
Peace Commissionp. 298
Peanut Clubp. 299
Pershing, John Joseph (1860-1948)p. 299
Philippine-American War, U.S. Public Reaction top. 300
Philippine Archipelagop. 301
Philippine Commissionp. 303
Philippine Constabularyp. 304
Philippine Expeditionary Forcep. 305
Philippine Islands, Acquisition of, by the United Statesp. 307
Philippine Islands, Blockade ofp. 309
Philippine Scoutsp. 309
Pilar, Gregorio del (1877-1899)p. 310
Pilar, Pio del (1860-1931)p. 311
Plant Railroad and Steamship Companyp. 312
Platt, Orville Hitchcock (1827-1905)p. 313
Post, Charles Johnson (1873-1956)p. 313
Powelson, Wilfred Van Nest (1872-1960)p. 314
Pratt, E. Spencerp. 314
Primo de Rivera, Fernando (1831-1921)p. 315
Prisoners of Warp. 316
Proctor, Redfield (1831-1908)p. 316
Protocol of Peacep. 317
Puerto Rican Campaign (21 July-12 August, 1898)p. 318
Pulitzer, Joseph (1847-1911)p. 321
Punta Gorda (Cuba)p. 322
Rationsp. 323
Rea, George Bronson (1869-1936)p. 324
Reconcentrado (Reconcentration) Systemp. 325
Reed, Walter (1851-1902)p. 326
Reid, Whitelaw (1837-1912)p. 326
"Remember the Maine"p. 327
Remey, George Collier (1841-1928)p. 327
Remington, Frederic Sackrider (1861-1909)p. 328
Revenue Cutter Service, U.S.p. 328
Rizal, Jose (1861-1896)p. 329
Roosevelt, Theodore (1858-1919)p. 330
Root, Elihu (1845-1937)p. 334
Rough Ridersp. 334
"Round Robin" Letter (3 August 1898)p. 336
Rowan, Andrew Summers (1857-1943)p. 337
Sagasta, Praxedes Mateo (1827-1903)p. 341
Samar Campaigns (Philippines)p. 342
Sampson, William Thomas (1840-1902)p. 344
Sampson-Schley Controversyp. 346
San Juan Hill, Charge up (1 July 1898)p. 348
Santiago, Campaign and Siege of (22 June-17 July 1898)p. 350
Santiago de Cuba, Naval Battle of (3 July 1898)p. 355
Schley, Winfield Scott (1839-1909)p. 361
Schofield, John McAllister (1831-1906)p. 362
Schwan, Theodore (1841-1926)p. 363
Scovel, Henry (Harry) Sylvester (1869-1905)p. 364
Shafter, William Rufus (1835-1906)p. 364
Sherman, John (1823-1900)p. 366
Signal "250,"p. 367
Sigsbee, Charles Dwight (1845-1923)p. 367
Sims, William Sowden (1858-1936)p. 369
Smith, Jacob Hurd (1840-1918)p. 369
Socapa Point (Cuba)p. 370
Spainp. 371
Spanish-American War, International Reaction top. 372
Spanish-American War, U.S. Public Reaction top. 372
Sternberg, George Miller (1838-1915)p. 373
Storey, Moorfield (1845-1929)p. 374
Subig (Subic) Bay (Philippines)p. 374
Sumner, Samuel Storrow (1842-1937)p. 375
Taft, William Howard (1857-1930)p. 377
Tagalogs (Philippines)p. 378
Taylor, Henry Clay (1845-1904)p. 378
Technologyp. 379
Teller, Henry Moore (1830-1914)p. 380
Ten Years' War (1868-1878)p. 381
Tinio, Manuel (1877-1924)p. 382
Toral y Vazquez, Jose (1834-1904)p. 382
Treaty of Paris (10 December 1898)p. 383
Trochap. 384
Uniformsp. 387
Virginius Affair (31 October 1873)p. 389
Visayan Campaigns (Philippines)p. 390
von Bulow, Prince Bernhard (1849-1929)p. 393
Wade, James Franklin (1843-1921)p. 395
Wagner, Arthur Lockwood (1853-1905)p. 395
Wainright, Richard (1849-1926)p. 396
War Department Investigating Commissionp. 397
War Department, U.S.p. 398
War, Spanish-American, U.S. Financing ofp. 400
Watkins, Kathleen Blake (1866-?)p. 401
Watson, John C. (1842-1923)p. 401
Weaponsp. 402
Weyler y Nicolau, Valeriano "Butcher" (1838-1930)p. 405
Wheaton, Lloyd (1838-1918)p. 406
Wheeler, Joseph "Fighting Joe" (1836-1906)p. 407
Wikoff, Charles Augustus (?-1898)p. 408
Wilson, James Harrison (1837-1925)p. 408
Wood, Leonard (1860-1927)p. 409
Woodford, Stewart Lyndon (1835-1913)p. 410
Young, Samuel Baldwin Marks (1840-1924)p. 413
Zogbaum, Rufus Fairchild (1849-1925)p. 415
Bibliographyp. 417
Indexp. 449
About the Authorp. 467