Cover image for Female sex offenders : what therapists, law enforcement and child protective services need to know
Female sex offenders : what therapists, law enforcement and child protective services need to know
Hislop, Julia.
Personal Author:
Publication Information:
Ravensdale, WA : Issues Press, [2001]

Physical Description:
vii, 247 pages ; 23 cm
Format :


Call Number
Material Type
Home Location
Item Holds
HV6657 .H57 2001 Adult Non-Fiction Non-Fiction Area

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Female Sex Offenders have victimized an estimated three million people in the United States. Our children and youth are not protected, not believed and not treated for the associated trauma because society doesn't believe females are capable of committing sexual abuse. If we are going to protect the victims, we need to look at facts and not be guided by emotions based on mistaken beliefs. In this book, Dr. Julia Hislop explores the backgrounds of offenders, their methods of abuse and the impact on victims. Research-based information, including precursors to abuse and methods to stop offending, will help therapists establish and prioritize treatment goals. Her opening chapter paints a chilling portrait of life events that have led girls to become female sex offenders. Book jacket.

Author Notes

Julia Hislop, Ph.D., has worked with physically and sexually abused children and adults, as well as child abusers and sex offenders. She is currently affiliated with the Child Abuse Program at the Children's Hospital of The King's Daughters in Norfolk, Virginia, and is in private practice in Virginia Beach, Virginia

Table of Contents

Introductionp. 1
1. Development of a Female Sex Offenderp. 3
Debbie as an Infantp. 3
Debbie as a Preschoolerp. 4
Debbie at Sevenp. 5
Debbie in Junior Highp. 6
Debbie as a Teenagerp. 7
The First Offensep. 8
Early Adulthoodp. 9
2. What Harm Can Be Done Without a Penis?p. 11
Sexual Acts Committed Independently by Femalesp. 11
Direct Sexual Contact Disguised as Caretakingp. 14
Sexual Acts Committed with a Co-Offenderp. 16
Females who Indirectly Participatep. 19
Indirect Sexualized Acts Noted in the Literaturep. 21
Ritual Sexual Abuse that Includes Female Perpetratorsp. 22
Summaryp. 23
3. Why Don't People Talk About Female Sex Offenders?p. 29
Reluctance of Victims to Report Female Child Molestersp. 30
Reluctance of Male Victims to Report Female Child Molestersp. 32
Laws are Less Likely to Recognize Males as Potential Victims of Sexual Abusep. 36
Reluctance of Female Victims to Report Sexual Abuse by a Femalep. 37
Reluctance of Female Sexual Abusers to Acknowledge Having Committed Sexually Abusive Actsp. 40
Societal Views Concerning Women Mask Female Perpetrated Child Sexual Abusep. 41
Female Sexual Abusers May Not Become Known to Researchersp. 45
Professionals Are Not Trained to Recognize the Female Sexual Abuserp. 46
Summaryp. 49
4. Rates of Offending by Female Sex Offendersp. 53
The Problem of Defining Child Sexual Abusep. 53
The Problem of Gathering Information Concerning Female Sex Offenders from Different Sourcesp. 56
Studies of Offender Populationsp. 57
Studies of Victim Populationsp. 63
Other Sources of Information on Female Sex Offendersp. 73
Summaryp. 74
5. Effects of Sexual Molestation by a Female on the Childp. 75
Impact Specific to Victims of Female Perpetrated Sexual Abusep. 75
Evidence Concerning the Harm to Males from Female Perpetrated Child Sexual Abusep. 77
Effects of Female Perpetrated Child Sexual Abuse upon Female Victimsp. 84
Effects of Female Perpetrated Sexual Abuse on a Child: Consistency of Findingsp. 91
Summaryp. 97
6. Childhood Sexual Victimization Histories of Female Sex Offendersp. 101
Sexual Abuse in the Backgrounds of Female Sexual Abusersp. 102
Cautions Concerning Study Comparisonsp. 108
Summaryp. 109
7. Nonsexual Abuse and Trauma Histories of Female Sex Offendersp. 111
Childhood Physical Abuse and Other Forms of (Nonsexual) Childhood Victimization Among Female Sex Offendersp. 112
Husbands and Mates of Female Child Molestersp. 119
Summaryp. 124
8. Diagnoses and Co-morbid Problems Common to Female Sex Offendersp. 127
Psychological Difficulties of the Female Offenderp. 127
Schizophrenia and Psychotic Disordersp. 129
Depression and Other Mood Disordersp. 131
Post-Traumatic Stress Disorderp. 133
Drug and Alcohol Abusep. 133
Eating Disordersp. 136
Sexual Behavior/Sexual Dysfunction/Paraphiliasp. 137
Dissociative Disordersp. 139
Personality Disorders/Traitsp. 139
Multiple Disordersp. 141
Problems of Limited Intelligence, Learning Problems, School Problems, Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Problemsp. 141
Other Disordersp. 143
Violencep. 144
Harm to Selfp. 154
Delinquency/Behavior Problemsp. 156
General Inadequacy of Functioning (Educational, Occupational Problems)p. 157
General Inadequacy of Functioning (Relationship Problems)p. 158
Other Co-morbid Problemsp. 160
Diagnostic/Assessment Considerationsp. 162
Summaryp. 166
9. Handling Client Difficulties with Participation in Therapyp. 173
Client Difficulties Participating in the Therapeutic Relationshipp. 173
Therapeutic Stance of the Therapistp. 180
Role Modelingp. 187
Therapy Techniques for Facilitating Learning in the Early Stages of Therapyp. 189
Summaryp. 191
10. The Early Tasks of Therapyp. 195
Establishing Safetyp. 196
Improving Self-Esteemp. 198
Consolidating Identityp. 200
Teaching Coping Skillsp. 201
Summaryp. 204
11. Exploring Victimization and Patterns of Offendingp. 207
Gradual Approach to More Personal, Specific and Emotional Concernsp. 207
Exploring Victimization and Its Relationship to Offendingp. 212
Lack of a Sense of Appropriate Boundariesp. 213
Relationship Skillsp. 214
Emotional Releasep. 216
Struggle for Identity and Belongingp. 217
Distorted Sense of Normalcyp. 218
Survivalp. 219
Sexual Preoccupation and Sexual Aversion to Adultsp. 219
Lack of Self-Worthp. 220
External Locus of Controlp. 221
Exploring Precursors and Alternatives to Victimizingp. 221
Practical Concerns Related to Treatmentp. 229
Summaryp. 232
Referencesp. 235
Indexp. 255