Cover image for Challenges and choices for crime-fighting technology : federal support of state and local law enforcement
Challenges and choices for crime-fighting technology : federal support of state and local law enforcement
Schwabe, William, 1942-
Publication Information:
Santa Monica, Calif. : Rand, 2001.
Physical Description:
xl, 199 pages : illustrations ; 23 cm
Reading Level:
1540 Lexile.
Format :


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HV8141 .S369 2001 Adult Non-Fiction Central Closed Stacks

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Under the American federal system, most law is cast as state statutes and local ordinances; accordingly, most law enforcement is the responsibility of state and local agencies. Federal law and federal law enforcement come into play only where there is rationale for it, consistent with the Constitution. Within this framework, a clear role has been identified for federal support of state and local agencies. This report provides findings of a study of technology in use or needed by law enforcement agencies at the state and local level, for the purpose of informing federal policymakers as they consider technology-related support for these agencies. In addition, it seeks to characterize the obstacles that exist to technology adoption by law enforcement agencies and to characterize the perceived effects of federal assistance programs intended to facilitate the process. The study findings are based on a nationwide Law Enforcement Technology Survey and a similar Forensics Technology Survey (FTS) conducted in late spring and early summer2000, interviews conducted throughout the year, focus groups conducted in autumn 2000, and review of an extensive, largely nonacademic literature. Companion reports: Schwabe, William, Needs and Prospects for Crime-Fighting Technology: The Federal Role in Assisting State and Local Law Enforcement, Santa Monica, Calif.: RAND, 1999. Davis, Lois M., William Schwabe, and Ronald Fricker, Challenges and Choices for Crime-Fighting Technology: Results from Two Nationwide Surveys, Santa Monica, Calif.: RAND, 2001.

Table of Contents

Prefacep. iii
Figuresp. xi
Tablesp. xiii
Executive Summaryp. xv
Acknowledgmentsp. xxxvii
List of Abbreviationsp. xxxix
Chapter 1 Introductionp. 1
Background and Purposep. 1
Factors Affecting the Use of Technology by Law Enforcementp. 3
How the Report Is Organizedp. 5
Usage of Termsp. 6
Methodologyp. 8
Part I Law Enforcement's Use of Technologyp. 11
Chapter 2 Crime Preventionp. 13
Surveillancep. 14
Fixed-Site and Mobile Video Surveillancep. 15
Night Vision and Electro-Optical Surveillancep. 18
School Safetyp. 18
Crime Analysisp. 21
Offender Trackingp. 23
Chapter 3 First Responsep. 25
Situation Reportingp. 26
Emergency Reporting Systemsp. 26
Non-Emergency Reporting Systemsp. 27
Mass Notification Systemsp. 28
Tactical Communicationsp. 28
Communications Within Agenciesp. 28
Interoperability Among Agenciesp. 30
Officer Deploymentp. 31
Officer Protectionp. 31
Weapons and Personal Protection Devicesp. 31
Drug and Weapons Detectionp. 39
Pursuit Managementp. 40
Counter-Terrorismp. 42
Chapter 4 Investigation and Apprehensionp. 45
Criminal Investigationp. 46
Digital Crime Scene Photographyp. 46
Fingerprint Identificationp. 46
Suspect Compositesp. 48
Cybercrimep. 48
Suspect Apprehensionp. 52
Summonses and Warrantsp. 52
Mug Shotsp. 53
Remote Case Filingp. 53
Chapter 5 Forensic Analysisp. 55
Types of Crimep. 56
Types of Evidencep. 58
Controlled Substancesp. 59
Latent Printsp. 60
Toxicology and Blood Alcoholp. 60
Forensic Biology Screeningp. 60
Computer Crime Evidencep. 60
Firearms, Tool Marks, Footwear, and Tire Printsp. 61
Trace Evidence, Fire Debris, and Explosive Residuep. 63
Questioned Document Analysisp. 64
Types of Equipmentp. 64
General Lab Equipmentp. 66
Laboratory Information Management (LIM) Systemsp. 67
DNA Analysisp. 67
Overall Stated Prioritiesp. 73
Clearing Backlogsp. 74
Trends Impacting Forensic Sciencesp. 77
Broader Visions for Forensic Science Technologyp. 79
Chapter 6 Administration and Managementp. 83
Information Processingp. 84
Computer Hardwarep. 84
Computerized Data and Networksp. 85
Priorities of Computer-Related Needsp. 87
Closing the "Digital Divide"p. 89
Broader Visions for Information Technologyp. 90
Planningp. 94
Tele- and Video-Conferencingp. 94
Risk Managementp. 95
Technology Acquisitionp. 96
Trainingp. 97
Current Availability of Training Technology and Technology Trainingp. 98
Future Needs Related to Trainingp. 99
Accountabilityp. 104
Accountability to Police Leadershipp. 105
Video Cameras in Patrol Carsp. 107
Internet Usep. 108
Civil Rightsp. 109
Public Opinion and Privacy Issuesp. 111
Part II Federal Challenges and Choicesp. 115
Policy Backgroundp. 115
Early Federal Initiativesp. 116
More Recent Initiativesp. 117
Chapter 7 Sources of Technology Information and Supportp. 123
Sources of Technology Informationp. 124
Sources of Technology-Related Supportp. 124
Partnering for Technology-Related Supportp. 127
Chapter 8 Research, Development, and Deploymentp. 129
RandD and Commercializationp. 131
Technology Deploymentp. 134
Direct Fundingp. 135
Direct Supplyp. 136
Accessp. 137
Testing, Evaluation, and Standardsp. 138
Coordinationp. 140
Chapter 9 Technology Applicationp. 143
Technology Assistancep. 145
Newsp. 146
Advicep. 148
Conferencesp. 150
Trainingp. 151
Chapter 10 Challenges and Choicesp. 153
Numerical Lessons from the Surveysp. 154
Conceptual Lessons from the Surveysp. 157
Lowering the Barriers to Technology Adoptionp. 159
Policy Considerationsp. 159
Overarching Technology Challengesp. 161
Concluding Thoughtsp. 163
Recommendationsp. 164
A. Rand Survey Methodologyp. 167
B. Examples of Nlectc Technology Assistance Activitiesp. 175
Referencesp. 193