Cover image for Armenians and the Iranian constitutional revolution of 1905-1911 : the love for freedom has no fatherland
Armenians and the Iranian constitutional revolution of 1905-1911 : the love for freedom has no fatherland
Berberian, Houri.
Personal Author:
Publication Information:
Boulder, Colo. : Westview Press, 2001.
Physical Description:
xii, 226 pages : illustrations, map ; 23 cm
Reading Level:
1670 Lexile.
Format :


Call Number
Material Type
Home Location
Item Holds
DS269.A75 B47 2001 Adult Non-Fiction Non-Fiction Area

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Drawing upon original sources, this study provides the most comprehensive treatment to date of the issue of Armenian politicization and participation in the Iranian Constitutional Revolution (1905-1911). Houri Berberian traces the political, economic, and social situation of Armenians in the nineteenth century with a special emphasis on the Armenian provinces of the Ottoman Empire, which became the focus of the Armenian revolutionary movement in the late nineteenth century, and on the Russian-ruled Caucasus, which became the source of the nationalist and socialist revolutionary movement. Discussion of the Iranian Armenian community includes, for the first time, a look into the roles and activism of Iranian Armenian women. Berberian explores the ideological, political, and pragmatic motivations of Armenians, and examines the collaboration of Armenian and Iranian constitutionalists, drawing attention to the ideological and military contributions of Armenians to the revolution as well as to the internal and external conflicts among Armenian activists and between Armenian and Iranian constitutionalist elements. Berberian concludes with a discussion of the causes and consequences of the retreat of Armenians from Iranian politics.

Author Notes

Houri Berberian is assistant professor of history at California State University, Long Beach

Reviews 1

Choice Review

A new generation of scholars with roots or connections with the Middle East is exploring areas of the region's historiography that generally have been either ignored or forgotten. Berberian (history, California State, Long Beach) thoroughly analyzes how and why Armenians became involved in the Iranian Revolution. Against a brief background of Armenian social and cultural history, the author concentrates on the conditions in the Ottoman Empire, Russia, and Iran in the late 19th through the early 20th centuries. The brutal treatment of Ottoman Armenians became the focus of the Armenian revolutionary movement. Conditions in the Russian-ruled Caucasus were the sources of the nationalist and socialist revolutionary movement among the Armenian intelligentsia. In Iran, Armenians experienced major transitions in education and politics. The Dashnaktsutiun and the Hnchakian parties joined the Iranian constitutionalists and the Caucasian Muslim revolutionaries in Iran, and until 1911, they made significant ideological and military contributions to the Iranian Revolution, "despite their own prejudices and limitations and those of others." With a solidly objective presentation, the book is extensively researched and heavily footnoted. Berberian provides a refreshingly new light and perspective on the role and activism of Armenian women. The Iranian constitutional movement has been studied by many historians, but until Berberian, none has paid adequate attention to the role of Iranian Armenians and the consequences of their retreat from Iranian politics. All collections. N. Rassekh Lewis and Clark College

Table of Contents

Acknowledgmentsp. ix
Prefacep. xi
Note on Transliterationp. xii
Map of Iranp. xiii
Photographsp. xiv
Introductionp. 1
The Caucasus and Iranp. 5
Caucasian Communal Violencep. 6
Blurred Identitiesp. 8
Overviewp. 10
Notesp. 11
1 Armenians in the Nineteenth Centuryp. 15
The Ottoman Armenian Communityp. 17
The Russian Armenian Communityp. 21
Notesp. 29
2 The Iranian Armenian Communityp. 34
Armenians in Iran Before the Nineteenth Centuryp. 35
Iranian Armenian Communities in the Nineteenth and Early Twentieth Centuriesp. 37
Educationp. 42
Prerevolutionary Political Activitiesp. 48
Conclusionp. 54
Notesp. 55
3 Ideological, Political, and Pragmatic Motivationsp. 67
The Ottoman Empire: Peril and Hopep. 68
The Russian Empire: Imperilment and Inspirationp. 73
Socialism and Solidarityp. 86
Iran: New Realities and New Possibilitiesp. 94
Conclusionp. 99
Notesp. 100
4 Collaboration, Contribution, and Contentionp. 116
Dashnakist Dilemmas and Decisionsp. 116
Dashnakist Collaboration: From Sweets to Armsp. 129
Other Avenues of Contributionp. 139
Social Democratic Collaboration: The Pen and the Swordp. 142
Battles on Different Fronts: "We came, we saw, and we conquered?"p. 149
Conclusion: Still Troubles Aheadp. 156
Notesp. 156
5 Retreat and Shift of Focusp. 173
Russian Terror and the Threat of Dissolution: "Finito Persia,"p. 174
Partial Retreat: Doubts and Demandsp. 175
Complete Retreat: Disillusion and Resignationp. 181
Majles Boycottp. 183
Conclusion: The End of the Endp. 184
Notesp. 188
Bibliographyp. 195
Indexp. 215