Cover image for Aquatic effects of acidic deposition
Title:
Aquatic effects of acidic deposition
Author:
Sullivan, Timothy J., 1950-
Personal Author:
Publication Information:
Boca Raton, Fla. : Lewis Publishers, [2000]

©2000
Physical Description:
373 pages : illustrations, maps ; 24 cm
Language:
English
Contents:
Background and approach -- Chronic acidification -- Extent and magnitude of surface water acidification -- Chemical dose-response relationships and critical loads -- Episodic acidification -- Nitrogen dynamics --- Experimental manipulation studies -- Predictive capabilities -- Case study: Adirondack Park, NY -- Case study: class I areas in the mountainous west.
ISBN:
9781566704168
Format :
Book

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Status
Central Library TD427.A27 S85 2000 Adult Non-Fiction Non-Fiction Area
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Summary

Summary

The completion of the initial phase of the U.S. National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program (NAPAP) in 1990 marked the end of the largest environmental research and assessment effort to that time. The resulting series of 27 State of Science and Technology (SOS/T) Reports and the NAPAP Integrated Assessment represent a decade of work by hundreds of scientists, engineers, and economists. Since then, many new, significant, more refined studies on acid deposition have been completed and published, considerably broadening knowledge in this area.

Aquatic Effects of Acidic Deposition summarizes and synthesizes these major advancements, particularly those topics that are directly relevant to policy making. It offers complete coverage of recent findings that have substantiated, deepened, modified, or in some cases, revolutionized scientific understanding in environmental research.

This resource addresses the quantification of effects and recent developments in predictive modeling capabilities. It covers virtually all aspects of nitrogen effects research, the importance of natural sources of acidity, the influence of land use and landscape change on drainage water chemistry, and the role of short-term episodic events.

This comprehensive update thoroughly illustrates the progression and refinement in the field. Aquatic Effects of Acidic Deposition helps you make educated decisions based on the most recent, reliable data for air pollution sensitivities, effects, remediation, and future research.


Reviews 1

Choice Review

The US National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program (NAPAP), completed in 1990, was the largest (more than $500 million) environmental research program in its time. Sullivan summarizes the ensuing ten years of investigations about the acid rain problem, including work funded by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, National Park Service, US EPA, US Department of Energy, and USDA Forest Service. Important results from long-term monitoring of water chemistry, ecological experiments, and paleolimnology produced model predictions and provide a basis for change in regulation. The main results: Sulfate concentrations have decreased during the past one or two decades, but acidic neutralization capacity and pH have not recovered. Nitrogen deposition is more important than believed in 1990. Toxicity to fish is a partial consequence of increased dissolved aluminum in waters, an indirect consequence of acidification. The role of soils as buffers is critical but underinvestigated. A clearly written, succinct and authoritative work, with well-chosen figures and tables, excellent glossaries and tabulated definitions, and 42 pages of references. For upper-division undergraduate and graduate students of environmental science and engineering, and applied environmental practitioners, including federal and state land managers. F. T. Manheim SUNY at Stony Brook


Table of Contents

1 Introductionp. 1
1.1 1990 NAPAP Reports and Integrated Assessmentp. 1
1.2 Scopep. 3
1.3 Goals and Objectivesp. 4
1.4 Outline of State of Science Updatep. 5
2 Background and Approachp. 7
2.1 Overviewp. 7
2.1.1 Atmospheric Inputsp. 7
2.1.2 Sensitivity to Acidificationp. 10
2.2 Chemical Response Variables of Concernp. 11
2.2.1 Sulfurp. 11
2.2.2 Nitrogenp. 12
2.2.3 Acid Neutralizing Capacityp. 13
2.2.4 pHp. 15
2.2.5 Base Cationsp. 15
2.2.6 aluminump. 17
2.2.7 Biological Effectsp. 18
2.3 Monitoringp. 20
2.4 Historical Water Quality Assessment Techniquesp. 22
2.4.1 Historical Measurementsp. 22
2.4.2 Paleolimnological Reconstructionsp. 23
2.4.3 Empirical Relationships and Ion Ratiosp. 26
2.5 Modelsp. 29
2.5.1 Empirical Modelsp. 29
2.5.2 Dynamic Modelsp. 32
3 Chronic Acidificationp. 35
3.1 Characteristics of Sensitive Systemsp. 36
3.2 Causes of Acidificationp. 38
3.2.1 Sulfurp. 38
3.2.2 Organic Acidityp. 38
3.2.3 Nitrogenp. 47
3.2.4 Base Cation Depletionp. 50
3.2.5 Land Usep. 53
3.2.6 Climatep. 58
3.2.7 Firep. 58
3.2.8 Hydrologyp. 59
3.3 Effects of Acidificationp. 60
3.3.1 Aluminump. 60
3.3.2 Effects on Aquatic Biotap. 62
3.3.3 Effects on Amphibiansp. 67
4 Extent and Magnitude of Surface Water Acidificationp. 69
4.1 Northeastp. 70
4.1.1 Monitoring Studiesp. 70
4.1.2 Paleolimnological Studiesp. 78
4.1.3 Experimental Manipulationp. 81
4.1.4 Model Simulationsp. 82
4.2 Appalachian Mountainsp. 83
4.2.1 Monitoring Studiesp. 85
4.2.2 Model Simulationsp. 89
4.3 Floridap. 89
4.3.1 Monitoring Studiesp. 92
4.3.2 Paleolimnological Studiesp. 93
4.3.3 Model Simulationsp. 94
4.4 Upper Midwestp. 94
4.4.1 Monitoring Studiesp. 100
4.4.2 Paleolimnological Studiesp. 101
4.4.3 Experimental Manipulationp. 102
4.4.4 Model Simulationsp. 103
4.5 Westp. 103
4.5.1 Monitoring Studiesp. 111
4.5.2 Paleolimnological Studiesp. 112
4.5.3 Model Simulationsp. 112
5 Chemical Dose-Response Relationships and Critical Loadsp. 115
5.1 Quantification of Chemical Dose-Response Relationshipsp. 115
5.1.1 Measured Changes in Acid-Base Chemistryp. 116
5.1.2 Space-for-Time Substitutionp. 119
5.1.3 Paleolimnological Inferences of Dose-Responsep. 120
5.1.4 Model Estimates of Dose-Responsep. 123
5.2 Critical Loadsp. 124
5.2.1 Backgroundp. 124
5.2.2 Progress in Europep. 125
5.2.3 Progress in the U.S. and Canadap. 129
5.2.4 Establishment of Standards for Sulfur and Nitrogenp. 132
6 Episodic Acidificationp. 139
6.1 Background and Characteristics of Sensitive Systemsp. 139
6.2 Causesp. 143
6.2.1 Natural Processesp. 143
6.2.2 Anthropogenic Effectsp. 144
6.3 Extent and Magnitudep. 146
6.4 Biological Impactsp. 151
7 Nitrogen Dynamicsp. 155
7.1 Nitrogen Cyclep. 155
7.2 Environmental Effectsp. 159
7.3 Nitrogen in Surface Watersp. 171
8 Experimental Manipulation Studiesp. 175
8.1 Whole-System Nitrogen and/or Sulfur Enrichment Experimental Manipulationsp. 179
8.1.1 Gardsjon, Swedenp. 179
8.1.2 Sogndal, Norwayp. 181
8.1.3 Lake Skjervatjern, Norwayp. 182
8.1.4 Aber, Walesp. 184
8.1.5 Klosterhede, Denmarkp. 185
8.1.6 Bear Brook, MEp. 186
8.2 Whole-System Nitrogen Exclusion (Roof) Studiesp. 187
8.2.1 Gardsjon, Swedenp. 188
8.2.2 Ysselsteyn and Speuld, Netherlandsp. 189
8.2.3 Klosterhede, Denmarkp. 190
8.2.4 Solling, Germanyp. 191
8.2.5 Risdalsheia, Norwayp. 192
8.3 Climatic Interactionsp. 193
8.4 Results and Implicationsp. 194
9 Predictive Capabilitiesp. 197
9.1 Model of Acidification of Groundwater in Catchments (MAGIC)p. 198
9.1.1 Background and General Structure as Used for the NAPAP 1990 Integrated Assessmentp. 198
9.1.2 Recent Modifications to the MAGIC Modelp. 201
9.1.2.1 Regional Aggregation and Background Sulfatep. 201
9.1.2.2 Organic Acidsp. 202
9.1.2.3 Aluminump. 210
9.1.2.4 Nitrogenp. 212
9.1.3 Cumulative Impacts of Changes to the MAGIC Modelp. 215
9.1.4 MAGIC Model Testing and Confirmation Studiesp. 217
9.1.4.1 Lake Skjervatjern (HUMEX)p. 218
9.1.4.2 Risdalsheia (RAIN)p. 220
9.1.4.3 Bear Brook (WMP)p. 222
9.1.5 Evaluation of MAGIC Projectionsp. 229
9.2 Nitrogen Modelsp. 232
10 Case Study: Adirondack Park, NYp. 237
10.1 Background and Available Datap. 237
10.1.1 ELS-Ip. 239
10.1.2 ALSCp. 239
10.1.3 ELS-IIp. 240
10.1.4 DDRPp. 240
10.1.5 PIRLAp. 240
10.1.6 ALTMp. 240
10.1.7 ERPp. 241
10.2 Watershed Historyp. 241
10.3 Lake-Water Chemistryp. 244
10.4 Organic Acidityp. 246
10.5 Role of Nitrogen in Acidification Processesp. 248
10.6 Role of Landscape and Disturbance in Acidification Processesp. 252
10.7 Overall Assessmentp. 256
11 Case Study: Class I Areas in the Mountainous Westp. 259
11.1 Backgroundp. 259
11.2 Sierra Nevadap. 265
11.2.1 Atmospheric Depositionp. 265
11.2.2 Surface Water Chemistryp. 266
11.2.3 Seasonality and Episodic Processesp. 267
11.2.4 Weathering and Cation Exchangep. 272
11.3 Rocky Mountainsp. 273
11.3.1 Glacier National Parkp. 275
11.3.2 Yellowstone National Parkp. 278
11.3.3 Grand Teton National Parkp. 280
11.3.4 Rocky Mountain National Parkp. 284
12 Conclusions and Future Research Needsp. 301
Definitionsp. 309
Referencesp. 321
Indexp. 363

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