Cover image for Snow ecology : an interdisciplinary examination of snow-covered ecosystems
Title:
Snow ecology : an interdisciplinary examination of snow-covered ecosystems
Author:
Jones, H. G. (H. Gerald), 1936-
Publication Information:
Cambridge, UK ; New York, NY : Cambridge University Press, [2001]

©2001
Physical Description:
xx, 378 pages : illustrations (some color), maps ; 27 cm
General Note:
Based on papers from a conference held in Quèbec City, Canada in 1993.
Language:
English
Contents:
Snow cover and the climate system -- Physical properties of snow -- The chemistry of snow: processes and nutrient cycling -- Microbial ecology of snow and freshwater ice with emphasis on snow algae -- The effect of snow cover on small animals -- Snow-vegetation interactions in tundra environments -- Tree-ring dating of past snow regimes.
ISBN:
9780521584838

9780521188890
Format :
Book

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QH541.5.S57 S66 2001 Adult Non-Fiction Non-Fiction Area
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QH541.5.S57 S66 2001 Adult Non-Fiction Non-Fiction Area
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Summary

Summary

Originally published in 2001, Snow Ecology was the first book to integrate the study of snow and ice in the physical, chemical and biological sciences into a multidisciplinary overview of life in, on and under snow. The book opens up a perspective on snow cover as a habitat for organisms under extreme environmental conditions and as a key factor in the ecology of much of the earth's surface. Acknowledged experts in the disciplines that constitute snow science provide an understanding of the interrelationships between snow structure and life. It will form a useful textbook for advanced courses in biology, ecology, geography, environmental science and earth science where an important component is devoted to the study of the cryosphere. It will also be useful as a reference text for graduate students, researchers and professionals at academic institutions and in government and non-governmental agencies with environmental concerns.


Author Notes

H. G. Jones is a professor at the Institut national de la recherche scientifique, Universite de Quebec
J. W. Pomeroy is a researcher at the National Water Research Institute, Saskatoon
D. A. Walker is a researcher at the Institute of Arctic and Alpine Research, University of Colorado, Boulder
R. W. Hoham is a professor in the Department of Biology, Colgate University


Table of Contents

List of Authors and Affiliationsp. xiii
Prefacep. xv
1 Snow Cover and the Climate Systemp. 1
1.1 Introductionp. 1
1.2 Snow Cover Observations and Data Sourcesp. 4
1.3 Snow Cover Climatologyp. 10
1.3.1 Spatial and Temporal Distributions of Snow Cover Extentp. 10
1.3.2 Spatial and Temporal Distributions of Snow Depthp. 14
1.3.3 Information about SWEp. 16
1.3.4 Seasonal Snow Cover Classificationsp. 16
1.4 Snow-Climate Interactions and Sensitivityp. 18
1.4.1 Interactions Between Snow Cover and Other Climatic Variablesp. 18
1.4.2 Relationships with Synoptic Circulationsp. 22
1.4.3 Large-Scale Interactionsp. 24
1.4.4 Modeling Snow Cover-Atmosphere Interactions and Feedback Processesp. 27
1.5 The Impact of Possible Future Climatic Changes on Snow Cover and its Ecologyp. 30
1.6 Conclusionsp. 33
1.7 Future Research Needsp. 33
1.8 Referencesp. 34
2 Physical Properties of Snowp. 45
2.1 Introduction: Snow Physics and Ecologyp. 45
2.1.1 Unique Physical Properties of Snowp. 46
2.2 Accumulationp. 48
2.2.1 Snowfallp. 48
2.2.2 Distribution of Snowfall and Snow Coverp. 49
2.2.3 Wind Redistributionp. 52
2.2.4 Interception by Vegetationp. 64
2.3 Energetics of Snowpacksp. 73
2.3.1 Atmospheric Boundaryp. 73
2.3.2 Soil Boundaryp. 80
2.3.3 Internal Energeticsp. 81
2.3.4 Snowmeltp. 92
2.4 Snow Cover Structurep. 95
2.4.1 Dry Snowp. 96
2.4.2 Wet Snowp. 102
2.4.3 Snow Cover Classificationp. 110
2.5 Impact of Snow on Soil and Aquatic Ecosystemsp. 113
2.5.1 Infiltration of Meltwater into Frozen and Unfrozen Soilsp. 113
2.5.2 Runoff and Streamflow Generationp. 114
2.6 Conclusionsp. 117
2.6.1 Future Researchp. 117
2.7 Referencesp. 118
3 The Chemistry of Snow: Processes and Nutrient Cyclingp. 127
3.1 Introduction: Snow Chemistry and Ecologyp. 127
3.2 The Chemistry of Snowfallp. 128
3.2.1 Formation of Snow Crystals and the Scavenging of Atmospheric Speciesp. 128
3.2.2 Spatial and Temporal Variability of Snowfall Compositionp. 132
3.3 Chemistry of Cold, Dry Snow Coverp. 134
3.3.1 Processes at the Atmosphere--Snow Surface Interfacep. 135
3.3.2 In-Pack Processesp. 140
3.3.3 Basal Gas Exchange Between Snow and Soilp. 142
3.4 Chemistry of Wet Snow and Snow--Meltwater Systemsp. 144
3.4.1 Leaching of Solute from Snow Crystalsp. 145
3.4.2 Snowmelt--Particulate Interactionsp. 149
3.4.3 Microbial Activityp. 150
3.4.4 Basal Processes: Soil--Meltwater Interactionsp. 152
3.5 Snow Cover Nutrient Fluxes and Ecosystem Budgetsp. 152
3.6 Summary and Future Research Needsp. 155
3.7 Referencesp. 156
4 Microbial Ecology of Snow and Freshwater Ice with Emphasis on Snow Algaep. 168
4.1 Overviewp. 168
4.2 Introductionp. 169
4.2.1 Historical Perspectivep. 169
4.2.2 Locations of Snow and Ice Microorganismsp. 169
4.3 Populationsp. 170
4.3.1 Population Diversity and Densityp. 170
4.3.2 Snow Microbe Associationsp. 174
4.3.3 Food Chains and Food Websp. 176
4.4 Cell Structure and Cell Physiologyp. 177
4.4.1 Cell Structurep. 177
4.4.2 Cell Physiology and Special Adaptationsp. 180
4.5 Life Cycles, Laboratory Mating Experiments, and Culturesp. 186
4.5.1 Life Cycles and Speciationp. 186
4.5.2 Laboratory Mating Experimentsp. 190
4.5.3 Culture Collections and Growth Mediap. 191
4.6 Evolution and Originsp. 193
4.6.1 Snow and Ice Microorganismsp. 193
4.7 Interrelationships of Physical Factors with Snow and Ice Microorganismsp. 195
4.7.1 Temperaturep. 195
4.7.2 Meltwater Flow and Water Contentp. 197
4.7.3 Light, Cryoconite Holes, and Suncupsp. 198
4.8 Productivity and Biogeochemical Cycles in Snow and Icep. 201
4.8.1 Primary Productivity and Respirationp. 201
4.8.2 Dissolved Gases and pHp. 203
4.8.3 Nutrients, Nutrient Cycling, and Conductivityp. 204
4.8.4 Bioaccumulation of Heavy Metalsp. 209
4.9 Human Aspects, Interests, and Considerationsp. 210
4.9.1 Biotechnologyp. 210
4.9.2 Human Foodp. 211
4.9.3 Exobiologyp. 212
4.10 Other Future Researchp. 212
4.10.1 Genetics, Molecular Biology, and Ultrastructurep. 212
4.10.2 Ecology and Physiologyp. 213
4.11 Acknowledgmentsp. 215
4.12 Referencesp. 215
5 The Effect of Snow Cover on Small Animalsp. 229
5.1 Introductionp. 229
5.2 Invertebratesp. 231
5.2.1 Nival and Aeolian Faunap. 231
5.2.2 Subnivean, Intranivean, and Supranivean Faunap. 233
5.2.3 Physiological and Morphological Mechanismsp. 243
5.2.4 Food Websp. 245
5.2.5 Life Cycles and Developmentp. 247
5.3 Vertebratesp. 247
5.3.1 Subnivean Vertebratesp. 247
5.3.2 Physiological and Morphological Mechanismsp. 250
5.3.3 Subnivean Food Websp. 251
5.4 Recommendations for Future Researchp. 254
5.5 Acknowledgmentsp. 256
5.6 Referencesp. 256
6 Snow--Vegetation Interactions in Tundra Environmentsp. 266
6.1 Overviewp. 266
6.2 Introductionp. 266
6.3 Snow Gradientsp. 267
6.3.1 Plant Speciesp. 267
6.3.2 Plant Communitiesp. 268
6.3.3 Snow Flush Areas, Ribbon Forests, and Krummholzp. 272
6.3.4 Soilsp. 276
6.3.5 Subnivean Animalsp. 278
6.3.6 Other Factors Affecting Plant Composition of Snowbedsp. 279
6.3.7 Landscape and Regional Vegetation Patternsp. 280
6.4 Plant Physiological Responsesp. 283
6.4.1 Characteristics of Arctic and Alpine Snow Coverp. 284
6.4.2 Phenologyp. 287
6.4.3 Productionp. 288
6.4.4 Growth Strategies of Snowbed Plantsp. 289
6.4.5 Windp. 290
6.4.6 Radiationp. 291
6.4.7 Temperaturep. 293
6.4.8 Soil Moisture and Drought Stressp. 297
6.5 Experimental Studiesp. 299
6.6 Conclusionp. 302
6.7 Acknowledgmentsp. 306
6.8 Referencesp. 306
7 Tree-Ring Dating of Past Snow Regimesp. 325
7.1 Introductionp. 325
7.2 Dendrochronological Approaches and Basic Recognition of Past Snow Levelsp. 327
7.3 The Role of Snow in Tree Survivalp. 328
7.4 The Critical Period of the Snow Cover Breakthroughp. 330
7.5 The Effect of Snow Accumulation on Treesp. 335
7.6 Snow Levels and Past Climatep. 337
7.7 Conclusionp. 341
7.8 Acknowledgmentsp. 343
7.9 Referencesp. 343
Epiloguep. 347
Book Glossaryp. 349
Indexp. 371