Cover image for Food irradiation : principles and applications
Title:
Food irradiation : principles and applications
Author:
Molins, Ricardo A., 1948-
Publication Information:
New York : Wiley, c2001.
Physical Description:
xiii, 469 pages : illustrations ; 25 cm
Language:
English
Electronic Access:
Table of Contents http://www.loc.gov/catdir/toc/onix05/2001017629.html
ISBN:
9780471356349
Format :
Manuscript

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Summary

Summary

In 1997 the FDA approved the use of low-dose ionizing radiation toeliminate pathogens in red meat. This food processing technologycan improve the safety of food and extend the shelf life of certainfoods by eliminating pathogenic bacteria, parasites, and othermicroorganisms that cause food-borne disease. Currently, forty-twocountries practice some form of food irradiation. Food Irradiation:Principles and Applications provides a comprehensive, up-to-dateaccount of food irradiation principles, effects, applications, andlimitations, including global regulatory issues and the economicsof food irradiation.
Written by an international panel of scientists, this book focuseson science and technology and offers thorough coverage of thecurrent use of food irradiation around the world. The contributorsin this book present irradiation as a truly critical control pointfor raw, solid foods of animal origin. Food Irradiation:Principles and Applications discusses such topics as:

-Radiation inactivation of microorganisms
-Disinfestation of stored grains, pulses, dried fruits, andnuts
-Irradiation as a quarantine treatment
-Irradiation of meat and poultry, fish and shellfish, fruits andvegetables, and tuber and bulb crops
-Radiation decontamination of spices, herbs, condiments, and otherdried food ingredients
-Process control and dosimetry in food irradiation

Food professionals in both academia and industry, as well asfood safety experts, food scientists, research scientists, and foodprocessing managers, will find Food Irradiation: Principles andApplications a reliable and valuable reference.


Author Notes

RICARDO MOLINS, PhD, is Senior Program Officer, Food and Nutrition Board, at the National Academies' Institute of Medicine in Washington, D.C.


Table of Contents

Ricardo A. MolinsJames S. DicksonEileen M. StewartMainuddin AhmedGuy J. HallmanRicardo A. MolinsMarilyn B. KilgenPaul ThomasPaul ThomasJoszef FarkasJoszef FarkasMargaret PattersonDonald W. ThayerEileen M. StewartDieter EhlermannPeter KunstadtRicardo A. Molins
Prefacep. xiii
1. Introductionp. 1
1.1. Historical Notes on Food Irradiationp. 1
1.2. Potential Social and Economic Benefits of Food Irradiationp. 14
2. Radiation Inactivation of Microorganismsp. 23
2.1. Introductionp. 23
2.2. Mechanisms of Inactivationp. 23
2.3. Mechanisms of Microbial Survival and Repairp. 24
2.4. Radiation Sensitivity of Specific Microorganismsp. 25
2.5. Environmental Factors Affecting Radiation Sensitivityp. 31
2.6. Other Issuesp. 32
2.7. Conclusionsp. 32
3. Food Irradiation Chemistryp. 37
3.1. Introductionp. 37
3.2. Basic Effects of Ionizing Radiationp. 39
3.3. Water Radiolysisp. 43
3.4. Effects of Ionizing Radiation on Major Food Componentsp. 46
3.5. Conclusionsp. 68
4. Disinfestation of Stored Grains, Pulses, Dried Fruits and Nuts, and Other Dried Foodsp. 77
4.1. Introductionp. 77
4.2. Radiation Effects on Insectsp. 80
4.3. Current Dinfestation Methods and Their Drawbacksp. 85
4.4. Irradiation Disinfestationp. 88
4.5. Preventing Reinfestationp. 97
4.6. Regulatory Approval and Potential Commercial Application of Radiation Disinfestation of Stored Dried Foodsp. 101
5. Irradiation as a Quarantine Treatmentp. 113
5.1. Need for Quarantine Treatmentp. 113
5.2. Types of Quarantine Treatmentp. 113
5.3. Comparison Between Irradiation and Other Quarantine Treatmentp. 114
5.4. History of Irradiation Quarantine Treatmentp. 117
5.5. Radiation Quarantine Treatmentp. 118
5.6. Radiation Quarantine Treatment Researchp. 119
5.7. Future Outlook for Irradiation as a Quarantine Treatmentp. 127
6. Irradiation of Meats and Poultryp. 131
6.1. Introductionp. 131
6.2. Irradiation of Meats and Poultryp. 135
7. Irradiation Processing of Fish and Shellfish Productsp. 193
7.1. Introductionp. 193
7.2. Irradiation for Shelf-Life Extension of Seafood Productsp. 195
7.3. Potential Human Pathogens of Public Health Concern in Seafood Productsp. 200
7.4. Low- and Medium-Dose Irradiation for Pathogen Control in Seafood Productsp. 205
7.5. Research Needs in Seafood Irradiationp. 208
7.6. The Future of Seafood Irradiationp. 208
8. Irradiation of Fruits and Vegetablesp. 213
8.1. Introductionp. 213
8.2. Physiology and Biochemistry of Fruit Ripeningp. 214
8.3. Effects of Ionizing Radiation on Ripening, Senescence, and Shelf Life of Fruitsp. 215
8.4. Control of Postharvest Fungal Rot in Fruits by Irradiation Alone or in Combination with Other Treatmentsp. 227
8.5. Potential for Radiation Treatment of Vegetablesp. 230
9. Irradiation of Tuber and Bulb Cropsp. 241
9.1. Introductionp. 241
9.2. Radiation Treatment for Control of Sprouting and Shelf-Life Extension of Tuber and Bulb Cropsp. 245
9.3. Effects of Irradiation on Nutritional Componentsp. 249
9.4. Effect of Ionizing Radiation on Technological Properties of Tubers and Bulbsp. 254
9.5. Effect of Irradiation for Sprout Inhibition on the Potato Tuber Mothp. 259
9.6. Commercial Irradiation for Sprouting Inhibition: Current Status and Future Outlookp. 259
10. Irradiation of Minimally Processed Foodsp. 273
10.1. Introductionp. 273
10.2. Irradiation of Minimally Processed Fresh Producep. 275
10.3. Irradiation of Cook-Chill Foodsp. 277
10.4. Research Needs on the Potential Use of Irradiation on Minimally Processed Foodsp. 284
11. Radiation Decontamination of Spices, Herbs, Condiments, and Other Dried Food Ingredientsp. 291
11.1. Introductionp. 291
11.2. Radiation Decontamination of Dried Food Ingredientsp. 294
11.3. Economic Feasibility and Industrial Use of Radiation Decontamination of Dried Food Ingredientsp. 303
11.4. Acceptance and Commercialization of Radiation Decontamination of Dried Ingredientsp. 303
12. Combination Treatments Involving Food Irradiationp. 313
12.1. Introductionp. 313
12.2. Combination Treatments Involving Food Irradiationp. 316
13. Development of Irradiated Shelf-Stable Meat and Poultry Productsp. 329
13.1. Introductionp. 329
13.2. Historyp. 329
13.3. Atoms for Peacep. 330
13.4. Early Supporting Researchp. 330
13.5. Beefp. 331
13.6. Porkp. 332
13.7. Hamp. 333
13.8. Baconp. 333
13.9. Frankfurtersp. 334
13.10. Fishp. 334
13.11. Chickenp. 335
13.12. Production of Radiation-Sterilized Foodp. 337
13.13. U.S. Enzyme-Inactivated, Radiation-Sterilized Productsp. 337
13.14. The South African Programp. 338
13.15. Future of Irradiated Shelf-Stable Meat and Poultry Productsp. 339
14. Detection Methods for Irradiated Foodsp. 347
14.1. Introductionp. 347
14.2. Criteria for a Reliable Detection Methodp. 348
14.3. Physical Methodsp. 350
14.4. Chemical Methodsp. 358
14.5. DNA Methodsp. 364
14.6. Biological Methodsp. 368
14.7. Conclusionsp. 372
15. Process Control and Dosimetry in Food Irradiationp. 387
15.1. Introductionp. 387
15.2. General Control Considerationsp. 391
15.3. Commissioning a Facilityp. 395
15.4. Process Qualificationp. 401
15.5. Dosimetry Used in Process Controlp. 404
15.6. Documentation and Recordkeepingp. 408
16. Economic and Technical Considerations in Food Irradiationp. 415
16.1. Introductionp. 415
16.2. Food Irradiation Parametersp. 415
16.3. Food Irradiation Equipmentp. 416
16.4. Costsp. 422
16.5. Effect of Throughput on Costsp. 433
16.6. Effect of Dose on Costsp. 437
16.7. Effect of Packing Density on Cobalt-60 Utilization Efficiency in Gamma Irradiatorsp. 439
16.8. Summaryp. 441
16.9. Bibliographic Notesp. 442
17. Global Status of Food Irradiation in 2000p. 443
17.1. Global Developments Affecting the Introduction or Expansion of Food Irradiationp. 443
17.2. Current Commercial Application of Radiation Processing to Foods and Future Outlookp. 450
17.3. Notes on Consumer Acceptance of Irradiated Foods: The Myths and the Factsp. 451
Indexp. 457