Cover image for Ecology and classification of North American freshwater invertebrates
Ecology and classification of North American freshwater invertebrates
Thorp, James H.
Second edition.
Publication Information:
San Diego : Academic Press, [2001]

Physical Description:
xvi, 1056 pages : illustrations ; 29 cm
General Note:
Previous ed.: c1991.
Introduction to freshwater invertebrates / James H. Thorp and Alan P. Covich -- An overview of freshwater habitats / James H. Thorp and Alan P. Covich -- Protozoa / William D. Taylor and Robert W. Sanders -- Porifera / Thomas M. Frost, Henry M. Reiswig, and Anthony Ricciardi -- Cnidaria / Lawrence B. Slobodkin and Patricia E. Bossert -- Flatworms : Turbellaria and Nemertea / Jurek Kolasa -- Gastrotricha / David Strayer and William D. Hummon -- Phylum Rotifera / Robert Lee Wallace and Terry W. Snell -- Nematoda and Nematomorpha / George O. Poinar -- Mollusca : Gastropoda / Kenneth M. Brown --Mollusca : Bivalvia / Robert F. McMahon and Arthur E. Bogan -- Annelida : Oligochaeta, including Branchiobdellidae / Ralph O. Brinkhurst and Stuart R. Gelder -- Annelida : Euhirudinea and Acanthobdellidae / Ronald W. Davies and Fredric R. Govedich -- Bryozoans / Timothy S. Wood -- Tardigrada / Diane R. Nelson -- Water mites (Hydrachnida) and other arachnids / Ian M. Smith, Bruce P. Smith, and David R. Cook -- Diversity and classification of insects and Collembola / William L. Hilsenhoff -- Aquatic insect ecology / Anne E. Hershey and Gary A. Lamberti -- Introduction to the subphylum Crustacea / Alan P. Covich and James H. Thorp -- Ostracoda / L. Denis Delorme -- Cladocera and other Branchiopoda / Stanley I. Dodson and David G. Frey -- Copepoda / Craig E. Williamson and Janet W. Reid -- Decapoda / H.H. Hobbs III.
Format :


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QL151 .E36 2001 Adult Non-Fiction Central Closed Stacks-Oversize

On Order



The First Edition of Ecology and Classification of North American Freshwater Invertebrates has been immensely popular with students and researchers interested in freshwater biology and ecology, limnology, environmental science, invertebrate zoology, and related fields. The First Edition has been widely used as a textbook and this Second Edition should continue to serve students in advanced classes. The Second Edition features expanded and updated chapters, especially with respect to the cited references and the classification of North American freshwater invertebrates. New chapters or substantially revised chapters include those on freshwater ecosystems, snails, aquatic spiders, aquatic insects, and crustaceans.

Author Notes

Dr. James H. Thorp has been a Professor in the Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology at the University of Kansas (Lawrence, KS, USA) and a Senior Scientist in the Kansas Biological Survey since 2001. Prior to returning to his alma mater, Prof. Thorp was a Distinguished Professor and Dean at Clarkson University, Department Chair and Professor at the University of Louisville, Associate Professor and Director of the Calder Ecology Center of Fordham University, Visiting Associate Professor at Cornell, and Research Ecologist at the University of Georgia's Savannah River Ecology Laboratory. He received his Baccalaureate from the University of Kansas (KU) and both Masters and Ph.D. degrees from North Carolina State. Those degrees focused on zoology, ecology, and marine biology, with an emphasis on the ecology of freshwater and marine invertebrates. Dr. Thorp is currently on the editorial board of two journals (River Research and Applications and River Systems) and is a former President of the International Society for River Science. He teaches freshwater, marine, and general ecological courses at KU, and his Masters and doctoral graduate students work on various aspects of the ecology of organisms, communities, and ecosystems in rivers, reservoirs, and wetlands. Prof. Thorp's research interests and background are highly diverse and span the gamut from organismal biology to community, ecosystem, and macrosystem ecology. He works on both fundamental and applied research topics using descriptive, experimental, and modeling approaches in the field and lab. While his research emphasizes aquatic invertebrates, he also studies fish ecology, especially as related to food webs. He has published more than one hundred refereed journal articles, books, and chapters, including three single-volume editions of Ecology and Classification of North American Freshwater Invertebrates (edited by J.H. Thorp and A.P. Covich) and the first volume (Ecology and General Biology) in the current fourth edition.

Reviews 1

Choice Review

This third edition (2nd ed., CH, Sep'01, 39-0312; 1st ed., 1991) ensures that this work will remain the most up-to-date and comprehensive information source on freshwater invertebrate animals in the US and Canada. Numerous color photographs and some diagrams now brighten more than half of the 22 chapters. Fifty coauthors contributed, a 35 percent increase from the second edition. Some tabular keys to identifying invertebrates are also more extensive than in previous versions. Except for a half-page list of selected sources at each chapter's end, the literature-cited sections are now relegated to the publisher's Web site (access requires registration). That saves considerable paper: the bibliography would have occupied 170 more pages, and the third edition is no larger than the second. Also new in this volume are introductory discussions of species concepts and their relevance to taxonomy, classification, and phylogeny and the importance of the last to understanding comparative biology of freshwater invertebrates, particularly those demonstrating remarkable reproductive and genetic traits. Only the chapter on their bryozoan hosts briefly discusses the Myxozoa, and the book omits some major advances (from 2007) in knowledge of the life history and phylogenetic status of these perhaps most bizarre of all freshwater invertebrates. Summing Up: Highly recommended. Upper-division undergraduates through professionals. A. J. Kohn emeritus, University of Washington

Table of Contents

Contributorsp. xiii
Prefacep. xv
1 Introduction to Freshwater InvertebratesJames H. Thorp and Alan P. Covich
I. Introductionp. 1
II. Approches to Taxonomic Classificationp. 1
III. Synopses of the North American Freshwater Invertebratesp. 4
IV. Taxonomic Key to Major Taxa of Freshwater Invertebratesp. 16
Literature Citedp. 18
2 An Overview of Freshwater HabitatsJames H. Thorp and Alan P. Covich
I. Introductionp. 19
II. Lotic Environmentsp. 19
III. Underground Aquatic Habitatsp. 30
IV. Lentic Ecosystemsp. 33
Literature Citedp. 39
3 ProtozoaWilliam D. Taylor and Robert W. Sanders
I. Introductionp. 43
II. Anatomy and Physiologyp. 45
III. Ecology and Evolutionp. 58
IV. Collecting, Rearing, and Preparation for Identificationp. 69
V. Identification of Protozoap. 70
Literature Citedp. 89
4 PoriferaThomas M. Frost and Henry M. Reiswig and Anthony Ricciardi
I. Introductionp. 97
II. Structure and Physiologyp. 97
III. Ecology and Evolutionp. 105
IV. Collecting, Rearing, and Preparing Sponges for Identificationp. 115
V. Classificationp. 116
Literature Citedp. 130
5 CnidariaLawrence B. Slobodkin and Patricia E. Bossert
I. Introductionp. 135
II. General Biology of Cnidariap. 136
III. Descriptive Ecology of Freshwater Cnidariap. 140
IV. Collection and Maintenance of Freshwater Cnidariap. 150
V. Classification of Freshwater Cnidariap. 151
Literature Citedp. 153
6 Flatworms: Turbellaria and NemerteaJurek Kolasa
I. Introduction: Status in the Animal Kingdomp. 156
II. Anatomy and Physiologyp. 156
III. Ecologyp. 158
IV. Current and Future Research Problemsp. 162
V. Collecting, Rearing, and Identification Techniquesp. 163
VI. Identification of North American Genera of Freshwater Turbellariap. 163
VII. General Characteristics, External and Internal Anatomical Featuresp. 173
VIII. Ecologyp. 174
IX. Current and Future Research Problemsp. 176
X. Collection, Culturing, and Preservationp. 176
XI. Taxonomic Key to Species of Freshwater Nemertea in North Americap. 176
Literature Citedp. 176
7 GastrotrichaDavid Strayer and William D. Hummon
I. Introductionp. 181
II. Anatomy and Physiologyp. 182
III. Ecology and Evolutionp. 183
IV. Collecting, Rearing, and Preparation for Identificationp. 188
V. Taxonomic Keyp. 189
Literature Citedp. 192
8 Phylum RotiferaRobert Lee Wallace and Terry W. Snell
I. Introductionp. 195
II. Anatomy and Physiologyp. 197
III. Ecology and Evolutionp. 207
IV. Collecting, Rearing, and Preparation for Identificationp. 230
V. Classification and Systematicsp. 233
Literature Citedp. 248
9 Nematoda and NematomorphaGeorge O. Poinar
I. Introductionp. 255
II. Morphology and Physiologyp. 256
III. Development and Life Historyp. 260
IV. Ecologyp. 261
V. Collecting and Rearing Techniquesp. 265
VI. Identificationp. 269
VII. Introductionp. 280
VIII. Morphology and Physiologyp. 282
IX. Development and Life Historyp. 288
X. Samplingp. 290
XI. Identificationp. 291
Literature Citedp. 292
10 Mollusca: GastropodaKenneth M. Brown
I. Introductionp. 297
II. Anatomy and Physiologyp. 298
III. Ecology and Evolutionp. 302
IV. Collecting and Culturing Freshwater Gastropodsp. 315
V. Identification of Freshwater Gastropods of North Americap. 315
Literature Citedp. 325
11 Mollusca: BivalviaRobert F. McMahon and Arthur E. Bogan
I. Introductionp. 331
II. Anatomy and Physiologyp. 333
III. Ecology and Evolutionp. 354
IV. Collecting, Preparation for Identification, and Rearingp. 393
V. Identification of the Freshwater Bivalves of North Americap. 397
Literature Citedp. 416
12 Annelida: Oligochaeta, Including BranchiobdellidaeRalph O. Brinkhurst and Stuart R. Gelder
I. Introduction to Oligochaetap. 431
II. Oligochaete Anatomy and Physiologyp. 432
III. Ecology and Evolution of Oligochaetap. 438
IV. Collecting, Rearing, and Preparation of Oligochaetes for Identificationp. 444
V. Taxonomic Keys for Oligochaetap. 446
VI. Introduction to Branchiobdellidaep. 456
VII. Anatomy and Physiology of Branchiobdellidansp. 456
VIII. Ecology and Evolutionp. 458
IX. Identification of Branchiobdellidansp. 459
Literature Citedp. 461
13 Annelida: Euhirudinea and AcanthobdellidaeRonald W. Davies and Fredric R. Govedich
I. Introduction to Euhirudinea and Acanthobdellidaep. 465
II. Taxonomic Status and Characteristicsp. 466
III. Euhirudinea and Acanthobdellidaep. 468
IV. Ecologyp. 474
V. Collection and Rearingp. 486
VI. Identificationp. 486
VII. Taxonomic Keysp. 489
Literature Citedp. 497
14 BryozoansTimothy S. Wood
I. Introductionp. 505
II. Anatomy and Physiologyp. 505
III. Ecology and Evolutionp. 511
IV. Entoproctap. 515
V. Study Methodsp. 516
VI. Taxonomic Keyp. 517
Literature Citedp. 523
15 TardigradaDiane R. Nelson
I. Introductionp. 527
II. Anatomyp. 528
III. Physiology (Latent States)p. 535
IV. Reproduction and Developmentp. 536
V. Ecologyp. 539
VI. Techniques for Collection, Extraction, and Microscopyp. 543
VII. Identificationp. 544
Literature Citedp. 546
16 Water Mites (Hydrachnida) and other ArachnidsIan M. Smith and Bruce P. Smith and David R. Cook
I. Introduction to Arachnidsp. 551
II. Water Mites (Hydrachnida)p. 552
III. Other Arachnids in Freshwater Habitatsp. 651
Literature Citedp. 653
17 Diversity and Classification of Insects and CollembolaWilliam L. Hilsenhoff
I. Introductionp. 661
II. Aquatic Orders of Insectsp. 664
III. Partially Aquatic Orders of Insectsp. 681
IV. Semiaquatic Collembola--Springtailsp. 699
V. Identification of the Freshwater Insects and Collembolap. 700
Literature Citedp. 721
18 Aquatic Insect EcologyAnne E. Hershey and Gary A. Lamberti
I. Introductionp. 733
II. Aquatic Insect Communitiesp. 733
III. Aquatic Insect Life Historiesp. 747
IV. Insect-Mediated Processesp. 751
V. Secondary Productionp. 761
VI. Effects of Land Use on Aquatic Insect Communitiesp. 763
VII. Role of Disturbancep. 765
VIII. Aquatic Insects in Biomonitoring Studiesp. 767
IX. Summaryp. 768
Literature Citedp. 768
19 Introduction to the Subphylum CrustaceaAlan P. Covich and James H. Thorp
I. Introductionp. 777
II. Anatomy and Physiology of Crustaceap. 780
III. Ecology and Evolution of Selected Crustaceap. 787
IV. Collecting, Rearing, and Preparation for Identificationp. 798
V. Classification of Peracarida and Brachiurap. 799
Literature Citedp. 800
20 OstracodaL. Denis Delorme
I. Introductionp. 811
II. Anatomy and Physiologyp. 812
III. Life Historyp. 817
IV. Distributionp. 820
V. Chemical Habitatp. 821
VI. Physical Habitatp. 823
VII. Physiological and Morphological Adaptationsp. 826
VIII. Behavioral Ecologyp. 827
IX. Foraging Relationshipsp. 827
X. Population Regulationp. 828
XI. Collecting and Rearing Techniquesp. 829
XII. Uses of Freshwater Ostracodap. 831
XIII. Current and Future Research Problemsp. 832
XIV. Classification of Freshwater Ostracodesp. 832
Literature Citedp. 842
21 Cladocera and other BranchiopodaStanley I. Dodson and David G. Frey
I. Introductionp. 850
II. Anatomy and Physiologyp. 851
III. Distributionp. 860
IV. Behaviorp. 862
V. What Cladocerans Eat and What Eats Cladoceransp. 866
VI. Population Regulationp. 867
VII. Functional Role in the Ecosystemp. 868
VIII. Paleolimnology and Molecular Phylogenyp. 868
IX. Toxicologyp. 871
X. Current and Future Researchp. 873
XI. Collecting and Rearingp. 873
XII. Taxonomic Keys for Cladoceran Generap. 875
Other Branchiopods
XIII. Anatomy and Physiology of the Other Branchiopodsp. 891
XIV. Ecology of the Other Branchiopodsp. 893
XV. Current and Future Research Problemsp. 899
XVI. Collecting and Rearing Techniquesp. 899
XVII. Taxonomic Keys for Non-Cladoceran Genera of Branchiopodsp. 899
Literature Citedp. 904
22 CopepodaCraig E. Williamson and Janet W. Reid
I. Introductionp. 915
II. Anatomy and Physiologyp. 916
III. Ecology and Evolutionp. 920
IV. Current and Future Research Problemsp. 933
V. Collecting and Rearing Techniquesp. 934
VI. Identification Techniquesp. 935
Literature Citedp. 942
23 DecapodaH. H. Hobbs III
I. Introductionp. 955
II. Anatomy and Physiologyp. 955
III. Ecology and Evolutionp. 964
IV. Current and Future Research Problemsp. 986
V. Collecting and Rearing Techniquesp. 989
VI. Identificationp. 991
Literature Citedp. 993
Glossaryp. 1003
Subject Indexp. 1021
Taxonomic Indexp. 1037