Cover image for The Civil War archive : the history of the Civil War in documents
The Civil War archive : the history of the Civil War in documents
Commager, Henry Steele, 1902-1998.
Publication Information:
New York : Black Dog & Leventhal : Distributed by Workman Pub. Co., [2000]

Physical Description:
854 pages : maps ; 29 cm
General Note:
Rev. ed. of: The Blue and the Gray. 1950.
Added Uniform Title:
Blue and the Gray.
Format :


Call Number
Material Type
Home Location
Item Holds
E464 .C6 2000 Adult Non-Fiction Central Closed Stacks-Oversize

On Order



In the same successful format as Our Nation's Archive (1-57912-067-9), The Civil War Archive presents the full story of the war between the states in documents direct from the minds, pens and hearts of the men and women who experienced it.

Hundreds of papers, letters, memoirs -- culled from family records, private correspondences, public archives and a variety of other sources -- trace the war from the nomination of Abraham Lincoln, through violent battles at Bull Run, to the surrender of Lee at Appomattox, Reconstruction and beyond. Messages from lonely mothers at home, stories from soldiers on the front lines, lyrics to rousing battle hymns, confidential communications among officers - these primary documents render history in its rawest form and depict the war's impact on every spectrum of American society.

Expanding upon Henry Steele Commager's critically-acclaimed two-volume The Blue and the Gray , editor Erik Bruun brings to light new material that presents the Civil War through a contemporary lens, taking into account previously under-represented perspectives of blacks in the Civil War and including new sections on the war's aftermath and Reconstruction.

Entries are arranged chronologically, allowing The Civil War Archive to be read as a start-to-finish narrative of the war and its aftermath. In addition, each document is indexed by author and title, so history buffs can reference each piece by source or subject.

Author Notes

Erik Bruun has been a reporter, editor, and freelance writer for more than twenty years. His books include Our Nation's Archive and American Values and Virtues . In his home community, he has taken a leadership role in several organizations that advocate for social change. He has three children. Henry Steele Commager has had a long and distinguished career as a teacher and historian. His academic credentials include posts at New York University, Duke, Harvard, the University of Chicago, the University of California, Columbia and Amherst. Simultaneously, he has had a remarkable literary output since his first widely acclaimed book in 1930, The Growth of the American Republic, written in collaboration with Samuel Elliot Morison.

Table of Contents

Erik BruunDouglas Southall FreemanHenry Steele CommagerMurat HalsteadOliver Wendell HolmesAbraham LincolnFernando WoodWilliam H. HerndonAbraham LincolnThurlow WeedW. H. SewardAbraham LincolnT. C. DeLeonJ. B. JonesSam HoustonJefferson DavisMary Boykin ChesnutAbner DoubledayTheodore UpsonHorace BinneyJane Stuart WoolseyJohn Tyler and Julia TylerJonathan WorthJ. L. O'SullivanJohn Lothrop MotleyRobert GrierHenry William RavenelMary A. WardEdward DiceyWarren Lee GossJosiah M. FavillMichael FitchFrederic EmoryFrank WilkesonE. P. AlexanderWilliam AllanJudah P. BenjaminComte de ParisJ. C. NottWilliam Howard RussellThomas J. JacksonEdwin M. StantonGeorge B. McClellanEgbert L. VieleSallie PutnamEvander M. LawJohn Esten CookeOliver W. NortonThomas L. LivermoreThomas L. LivermoreRichard AuchmutyRichard TaylorRichard TaylorLord WolseleyHenry Kyd DouglasRobert L. DabneyJohn H. ChamberlayneDavid M. StrotherAlexander HunterGideon WellesWilliam T. ShermanOliver W. NortonGeorge B. McClellanGeorge B. McClellanDavid M. StrotherDavid M. StrotherRufus R. DawesJames A. GrahamThomas L. LivermoreJohn B. GordonDavid I. ThompsonAbraham LincolnWilliam H. OwenJ. P. PolleyJohn R. McGrillisJohn Esten CookeJ. L. ChamberlainAbraham LincolnCharles F. MorseAlfred PleasontonHeros von BorckeJames Power SmithTheodore WinthropAbner SmallCharles E. DavisCarlton McCarthyJohn D. BillingsJohn D. BillingsRandolph Abbott ShotwellJames A. LeonardAbraham LincolnSamuel FiskeRandolph Abbott ShotwellBenjamin W. JonesJohn DooleyFrank HolsingerGeorge A. TownsendHeros von BorckeGeorge B. McClellanRobert StilesAlexander HunterJohn W. MunsonJ. Harvie DewSarah Rosetta WakemanPeoria Daily TranscriptEugene LawrenceU.S. GrantSir Henry Morton StanleyLeander StillwellL. D. YoungSamuel Phillips DayWilliam MonksFranz SigelWilliam WatsonGurdon GrovenorDavid D. PorterWiley BrittonJohn Chipman GrayChauncey H. CookeJenkin Lloyd JonesT. J. StokesGeorge Ward NicholsTheodore UpsonWilliam WatsonCharles B. JohnsonBromfield RidleyMark TwainJames ConnollyWilliam PittengerChauncey H. CookeW. De ForestJames H. WilsonThomas W. HigginsonCharles F. JohnsonRobert C. Murphy and William S. Rosecrans and Ulysses S. GrantGeorge A. TownsendCharles W. WillsRobert Gould ShawFrancis Edwin PierceSarah Morgan DawsonElizabeth Jane BeachHenrietta LeeFrank WilkesonJohn DooleyWashington GardnerSpencer Glascow WelchRobert E. LeeRobert E. LeeHenry William RavenelGeorge TicknorD. Macneill FairfaxRussell LowellLord John Russell and Viscount PalmerstonWilliam E. GladstoneManchester WorkingmenAbraham LincolnRichard CobdenCharles Francis AdamsDan D. EmmettHarry McCarthyThomas B. Bishop (?)Ethel Lynn BeersWilliam Batchelder BradburyJames R. RandallJulia Ward HoweJulia Ward HoweLaura E. Richards and Maud Howe ElliotJames Sloan GibbonsGeorge P. RootGeorge P. RootGeorge F. RootWalter KittredgeHenry Clay WorkJ. W. NaffA. PenderHenry Clay WorkH. D. L. Webster (?)Patrick S. Gilmore (?)Henry TimrodWilliam Cullen BryantJohn Greenleaf WhittierWill "Shakespeare" HaysFrancis Orrery TicknorHenry Wadsworth LongfellowWalt WhitmanWalt WhitmanGeorge Henry BokerJohn Reuben ThompsonJulia Ward HoweWalt WhitmanKate Putnam OsgoodWalt WhitmanAbram Joseph RyanFrancis Miles FinchRobert E. LeeWilliam S. ChristianHenry J. HuntJoseph G. RosengartenAugustus BuellPorter FarleyWilliam C. OatesTheodore GerrishE.P. AlexanderJames LongstreetFrank A. HaskellA.J. FremantleRobert E. Lee and Jefferson DavisWilliam Thompson LuskGeorge E. PickettAbraham LincolnCharles E. WilcoxU.S. GrantAnonymousAbraham LincolnColonel AlstonJames B. McCrearyAbner SmallEliza F. AndrewsFrank E. MoranRandolph Abbott ShotwellMarcus B. ToneyNoah BrooksWalt WhitmanAnna E. DickinsonRegis de TrobriandCharles A. DanaL.C. BakerMark TwainH.B. BrownJohn W. HeadleyJohn W. HeadleyNathaniel HawthorneCamp of the Eleventh New-Jersey VolunteersHenry Brook AdamsJ.B. JonesGeorge C. EgglestonRabbi Maximilian MichelbacherParthenia A. HagueSarah Morgan DawsonMary A. WardJulia LeGrandWilliam T. ShermanLoulie GilmerJ.B. JonesJoseph E. BrownJonathan WorthPetigru MonumentGeorge A. TownsendKatharine WormeleyClara BartonSusan BlackfordCornelia HancockSamuel Edmund NicholsAugustus C. BrownLouisa May AlcottCharles B. JohnsonCharles Colcock JonesOctave JohnsonSamuel E. HopeFrederick DouglassElias D. StrunkeJames S. BrisbinThomas W. HigginsonJames Henry Gooding and James W. GraceHannah JohnsonRichard Etheredge and Wm. BensonSamuel Sawyer and Pearl P. Ingall and J. G. FormanS. R. CurtisSpotswood RiceMartha GloverGeneral Edward A. WildEdward A. WildCharlotte FortenAlexander StephensLydia Maria ChildBenjamin F. ButlerJ.C. FremontAbraham LincolnAbraham LincolnHorace GreeleyAbraham LincolnSalmon P. ChaseAbraham LincolnFrederick DouglassIllinois State LegislatureMarcellus MundyJefferson DavisDavid PorterJohn Wilkes BoothFrederick DouglassCaptain Van BruntS.D. GreenGeorge H. PerkinsJulea LeGrandBenjamin F. ButlerViscount PalmerstonBenjamin MoranAlfred W. ElletJohn C. KinneyW.B. CushingWilliam LambAugustus BuellHoratio L. WaitJohn WilkinsonWilliam WatsonW.F.G. PeckM. RepardCaptain FitfieldJames M. MorganJohn McIntosh KellJames R. CarnahanDaniel H. HillGates P. ThrustonW.F.G. ShanksJoseph G. FullertonWilliam A. MorganJames ConnollyBraxton BraggHenry S. BurrageJohn Chipman GrayWilliam T. ShermanJoseph E. JohnstonJefferson DavisJoseph E. JohnstonRichard S. TuthillWilliam T. ShermanCarrie BerryWilliam T. ShermanHenry O. DwightDaniel OakeyDolly Summer LuntEliza F. AndrewsGeorge Ward NicholsHenry HitchcockWilliam T. ShermanU.S. GrantHorace PorterWarren Lee GossRobert StilesHorace PorterJohn B. GordonWilliam C. OatesU.S. GrantG.T. BeauregardAugustus C. BrownJohn S. WiseRichard W. CorbinLuther Rice MillsJohn S. WiseJohn D. ImbodenS.D. RamseurS.E. HowardP.H. SheridanP.H. SheridanRobert E. LeeRobert E. LeeLord WolseleyW.N. PendletonLeighton ParksJohn B. ImbodenRobert E. Lee, Jr.William C. OatesJ. Catlett GibsonRobert E. LeeNathaniel HawthorneJohn HayAbraham LincolnAbraham LincolnJohn HayAbraham LincolnHorace PorterAbraham LincolnGideon WellesJames H. WilsonAlexander C. McClurgGeorge A. TownsendWilliam Gordon McCabeConstance C. HarrisonR.B. PrescottFrances Caldern de la Barca HuntJ.L. ChamberlainCharles MarshallJ.L. ChamberlainJohn WiseMary Cadwalader JonesJames Russell LowellMyrta Lockett AvarySidney AndrewsJames S. PikeAndrew JohnsonBen JohnsonDaniel ChamberlainRutherford B. HayesW.H. SewardW.H. SewardRoger B. TaneyDavid Davis
Prefacep. 23
Forewordp. 25
Introductionp. 29
I. Darkening Cloudsp. 39
1. Abraham Lincoln Is Nominated in the Wigwamp. 39
2. "First Gallant South Carolina Nobly Made the Stand"p. 42
A. South Carolina Ordinance of Secessionp. 42
B. South Carolina Declaration of Causes of Secessionp. 42
3. "She Has Left Us in Passion and Pride"p. 43
4. Lincoln Refuses to Compromise on Slaveryp. 44
A. Letter to E. B. Washburnep. 44
B. Letter to James T. Halep. 45
C. Letter to W. H. Sewardp. 45
5. Mayor Fernando Wood Recommends the Secession of New Yorkp. 45
6. Lincoln Is Inauguratedp. 47
A. Herndon Describes the Inaugurationp. 47
B. The Public Man Attends the Inaugurationp. 48
7. "We Are Not Enemies But Friends"p. 50
8. Mr. Lincoln Hammers Out a Cabinetp. 51
9. Seward Tries to Take Charge of the Lincoln Administrationp. 52
A. Memorandum from Secretary Sewardp. 53
B. Reply to Secretary Seward's Memorandump. 53
10. The Confederacy Organizes at Montgomeryp. 54
11. Constitution of the Confederate States of Americap. 56
12. A War Clerk Describes Davis and His Cabinetp. 58
13. Sam Houston Refuses to Go with His Statep. 59
14. Inaugural Address of Jefferson Davisp. 61
II. The Conflict Precipitatedp. 65
1. Mrs. Chesnut Watches the Attack on Fort Sumterp. 65
2. Abner Doubleday Defends Fort Sumterp. 69
3. "The Heather Is on Fire"p. 71
A. An Indiana Farm Boy Hears the Newsp. 72
B. "There Is But One Thought--The Stars and Stripes"p. 72
C. "One Great Eagle Scream"p. 74
4. "The Spirit of Virginia Cannot Be Crushed"p. 75
5. "I Am Filled with Horror at the Condition of Our Country"p. 77
6. A Northern Democrat Urges Peaceful Separationp. 78
7. "The Race of Philip Sidneys Is Not Extinct"p. 79
8. The Supreme Court Upholds the Constitutionp. 80
III. The Gathering of the Hostsp. 83
1. "Our People Are All United"p. 84
2. Southern Ladies Send Their Men Off to Warp. 85
3. The North Builds a Vast Army Overnightp. 87
4. Northern Boys Join the Ranksp. 89
A. Warren Goss Enlists in the Union Armyp. 89
B. Lieutenant Favill Raises a Company and Gets a Commissionp. 90
C. "We Thought the Rebellion Would Be Over Before Our Chance Would Come"p. 92
5. Baltimore Mobs Attack the Sixth Massachusettsp. 93
6. Frank Wilkeson Goes South with Blackguards, Thieves, and Bounty Jumpersp. 96
7. Supplying the Confederacy with Arms and Ammunitionp. 98
8. How the Army of Northern Virginia Got Its Ordnancep. 99
9. Secretary Benjamin Recalls the Mistakes of the Confederate Congressp. 101
10. Northern Ordnancep. 102
IV. Bull Run and the Peninsular Campaignp. 105
1. A Confederate Doctor Describes the Victory at First Bull Runp. 106
2. "Bull Run Russell" Reports the Rout of the Federalsp. 108
3. Stonewall Jackson Credits God with the Victoryp. 112
4. "The Capture of Washington Seems Inevitable"p. 113
5. McClellan Opens the Peninsular Campaignp. 113
6. General Wool Takes Norfolkp. 115
7. The Army of the Potomac Marches to Meet McClellanp. 117
8. R. E. Lee Takes Commandp. 117
9. "Beauty" Stuart Rides Around McClellan's Armyp. 119
10. Oliver Norton Fights Like a Madman at Gaines' Millp. 123
11. The End of Seven Daysp. 125
A. The Federals Are Forced Back at White Oak Swampp. 125
B. Captain Livermore Fights at Malvern Hillp. 126
12. Richard Auchmuty Reviews the Peninsular Campaignp. 128
V. Stonewall Jackson and the Valley Campaignp. 131
1. Dick Taylor Campaigns with Jackson in the Valleyp. 132
2. Taylor's Irishmen Capture a Battery at Port Republicp. 138
3. Colonel Wolseley Visits Stonewall Jacksonp. 140
4. Henry Kyd Douglas Remembers Stonewall Jacksonp. 141
VI. Second Bull Run and Antietamp. 145
1. "Who Could Not Conquer with Such Troops as These?"p. 146
2. Jackson Outsmarts and Outfights Pope at Manassasp. 147
3. Pope Wastes His Strength on Jacksonp. 149
4. Longstreet Overwhelms Pope at Manassasp. 152
5. "Little Mac" Is Reappointed to Commandp. 157
A. "To Fight Is Not His Forte"p. 157
B. General Sherman Explains Why He Cannot Like McClellanp. 158
C. "Little Mac's A-Coming"p. 158
6. McClellan "Saves His Country" Twicep. 159
7. McClellan Finds the Lost Orderp. 163
8. McClellan Forces Turner's Gap and Crampton's Gapp. 164
9. The Bloodiest Day of the Warp. 166
10. Hooker Hammers the Confederate Left--in Vainp. 170
A. Wisconsin Boys Are Slaughtered in the Cornfieldp. 171
B. McLaws to the Rescue of Hoodp. 173
11. The Desperate Fighting along Bloody Lanep. 175
A. Thomas Livermore Puts on His War Paintp. 175
B. General Gordon Is Wounded Five Times at Antietamp. 177
12. "The Whole Landscape Turns Red" at Antietamp. 179
VII. Fredericksburg and Chancellorsvillep. 183
1. Lincoln Urges McClellan to Advancep. 184
2. Burnside Blunders at Fredericksburgp. 185
A. The Yankees Attack Marye's Heightsp. 185
B. The Irish Brigade Is Repulsed on Marye's Hillp. 188
C. The 5th New Hampshire to the Rescuep. 189
3. The Gallant Pelham at Fredericksburgp. 190
4. Night on the Field of Fredericksburgp. 192
5. Lincoln Appoints Hooker to the Command of the Armyp. 194
6. Lee Whips Hooker at Chancellorsvillep. 195
7. Pleasonton Stops the Confederates at Hazel Grovep. 198
8. Stuart and Anderson Link Up at Chancellorsvillep. 200
9. Lee Loses His Right Armp. 202
VIII. How the Soldiers Lived: Eastern Frontp. 205
1. Theodore Winthrop Recalls a Typical Day at Camp Cameronp. 205
2. Abner Small Paints a Portrait of a Private in the Army of the Potomacp. 207
3. Life with the Thirteenth Massachusettsp. 209
4. Minutiae of Soldier Life in the Army of Northern Virginiap. 212
5. Inventions and Gadgets Used by the Soldiersp. 216
6. Hardtack and Coffeep. 217
7. "Starvation, Rags, Dirt, and Vermin"p. 220
8. Voting in the Fieldp. 222
A. Electioneering in the Campsp. 222
B. President Lincoln Needs the Soldier Votep. 222
9. Red Tape, North and Southp. 223
A. Dunn Browne Has Trouble with the War Departmentp. 223
B. A Confederate Lieutenant Complains That Red-Tapeism Will Lose the Warp. 224
10. The Confederates Get Religionp. 225
A. Religion in the Confederate Armyp. 225
B. John Dooley Describes Prayer Meetingsp. 226
IX. Incidents of Army Life: Eastern Frontp. 227
1. How It Feels to Be under Firep. 227
2. Fitz John Porter Views the Confederates from a Balloonp. 229
3. Stuart's Ball Is Interrupted by the Yankeesp. 231
4. Foreigners Fight in the Northern Armyp. 233
5. With "Extra Billy" Smith at Yorkp. 235
6. Blue and Gray Fraternize on the Picket Linep. 237
7. Life with the Mosby Guerrillasp. 238
8. Rebel and Yankee Yellsp. 240
9. Women Among the Ranksp. 241
A. Letters of Sarah Rosetta Wakeman, Alias Private Lyons Wakemanp. 242
B. Exploits of Mrs. Major Belle Reynoldsp. 243
X. From Fort Donelson to Stones Riverp. 245
1. Grant Wins his Spurs at Belmontp. 245
2. U. S. Grant Becomes Unconditional Surrender Grantp. 247
3. With the Dixie Grays at Shilohp. 252
4. An Illinois Private Fights at the Hornet's Nestp. 257
5. The Orphan Brigade Is Shattered at Stones Riverp. 262
XI. The Struggle for Missouri and the Westp. 265
1. Cotton Is King at the Battle of Lexingtonp. 265
2. Guerrilla Warfare in Missourip. 268
3. The Tide Turns at Pea Ridgep. 270
4. The Confederates Scatter after Pea Ridgep. 272
5. Quantrill and His Guerrillas Sack Lawrencep. 275
6. Colonel Bailey Dams the Red Riverp. 277
7. Price Invades the North and Is Defeated at Westportp. 280
XII. How the Soldiers Lived: Western Frontp. 283
1. John Chipman Gray Views the Western Soldierp. 283
2. A Wisconsin Boy Complains of the Hardships of Trainingp. 284
3. Religion and Play in the Army of the Tennesseep. 285
4. The Great Revival in the Army of Tennesseep. 288
5. From Reveille to Tapsp. 289
6. An Indiana Boy Reassures His Mother about Morals in the Armyp. 293
7. Graft and Corruption in the Confederate Commissaryp. 294
8. The Soldiers Get Paid and the Sutler Gets the Moneyp. 295
9. Song and Play in the Army of Tennesseep. 297
A. Theatricals in the Armyp. 297
B. Good Cheer in the Ranksp. 298
XIII. Incidents of Army Life: Western Frontp. 301
1. Mark Twain Recalls a Campaign That Failedp. 301
2. Major Connolly Loses Faith in the Chivalry of the Southp. 309
3. The Great Locomotive Chase in Georgiap. 312
4. A Badger Boy Meets the Originals of Uncle Tom's Cabinp. 319
5. The Confederates Escape in the Teche Countryp. 320
6. General Wilson Raises His Cavalry the Hard Wayp. 324
XIV. The Problem of Disciplinep. 325
1. Thomas Wentworth Higginson Explains the Value of Trained Officersp. 326
2. "It Does Not Suit Our Fellows to Be Commanded Much"p. 330
3. Conduct Unbecoming an Officerp. 331
4. A Camp of Skulkers at Cedar Mountainp. 333
5. "The Army Is Becoming Awfully Depraved"p. 333
6. Robert Gould Shaw Complains that War Is a Dirty Businessp. 335
7. The Yankee Invaders Pillage and Burnp. 336
A. "The Soldiers Delight in Destroying Everything"p. 337
B. The Yankees Sack Sarah Morgan's Homep. 337
C. Grierson's Raiders on a Rampagep. 340
D. "Oh, Earth, Behold the Monster!"p. 342
8. Punishments in the Union and Confederate Armiesp. 343
A. Punishments in the Army of the Potomacp. 344
B. Punishments in the Army of Northern Virginiap. 345
9. Executing Desertersp. 346
A. General Sheridan Executes Two Deserters at Chattanoogap. 346
B. Executing Deserters from the Confederate Armyp. 347
10. General Lee Discusses the Problem of Disciplinep. 347
A. The Need for Punishment as a Deterrantp. 348
B. "We Cannot Escape the Disgrace that Attends these Evildoers"p. 349
11. Sex in the Civil Warp. 350
XV. Great Britain and the American Civil Warp. 351
1. Henry Ravenel Expects Foreign Interventionp. 352
2. Blackwood's Edinburgh Magazine Rejoices in the Break-Up of the Unionp. 352
3. George Ticknor Explains the War to His English Friendsp. 354
4. Captain Wilkes Seizes Mason and Slidellp. 356
5. "Shall It Be Love, Or Hate, John?"p. 358
6. Palmerston and Russell Discuss Interventionp. 360
7. "An Error, the Most Singular and Palpable"p. 362
8. The English Press Condemns the Emancipation Proclamationp. 363
9. Manchester Workingmen Stand by the Unionp. 365
A. "We Are Truly One People"p. 365
B. "An Instance of Sublime Christian Heroism"p. 366
10. Richard Cobden Rejoices in the Emancipation Proclamationp. 367
11. English Aristocrats Organize for Southern Independencep. 368
12. "The Reasons Why Great Britain is Averse to Recognise Us"p. 370
13. Minister Adams Points Out That This Is Warp. 371
XVI. Songs the Soldiers Sangp. 373
1. Dixiep. 373
2. The Bonnie Blue Flagp. 374
3. John Brown's Bodyp. 375
4. All Quiet along the Potomacp. 375
5. Marching Alongp. 376
6. Maryland! My Maryland!p. 377
7. The Battle Hymn of the Republicp. 377
A. Writing "The Battle Hymn of the Republic"p. 378
B. The Battle Hymn of the Republicp. 378
C. "The Battle Hymn of the Republic" in Libby Prisonp. 379
8. We Are Coming, Father Abrahamp. 379
9. The Battle-Cry of Freedomp. 380
10. Tramp, Tramp, Trampp. 381
11. Just Before the Battle, Motherp. 381
12. Tenting Tonightp. 382
13. Marching Through Georgiap. 382
14. Mister, Here's Your Mulep. 383
A. Mister, Here's Your Mulep. 383
B. Do They Miss Me in the Trenchesp. 384
C. We Are the Boys of Potomac's Ranksp. 384
D. Goober Peasp. 385
E. Grafted into the Armyp. 385
15. Lorenap. 386
16. When Johnny Comes Marching Homep. 387
XVII. Poems of the Civil Warp. 389
1. Poet Laureate of the Southp. 389
A. Ethnogenesisp. 389
B. Carolinap. 391
C. Odep. 391
2. The Death of Slaveryp. 392
3. Barbara Frietchiep. 393
4. "Oh, Mother, look down from Heav'n on me"p. 394
A. The Drummer Boy of Shilohp. 394
B. Little Giffenp. 395
C. Killed at the Fordp. 395
D. Vigil Strange I Kept on the Field One Nightp. 396
E. Come Up From the Fields Fatherp. 396
F. Dirge for a Soldierp. 397
5. The Honored Generalp. 398
A. Lee to the Rearp. 398
B. Robert E. Leep. 399
6. O Captain! My Captain!p. 399
7. Driving Home the Cowsp. 400
8. The Artilleryman's Visionp. 401
9. The Conquered Bannerp. 402
10. The Blue and the Grayp. 402
XVIII. Gettysburgp. 405
1. General Lee Decides to Take the Offensivep. 406
2. General Lee Invades Pennsylvaniap. 407
3. The Armies Converge on Gettysburgp. 408
4. Buford and Reynolds Hold up the Confederate Advancep. 411
5. A Boy Cannoneer Describes Hard Fighting on the First Dayp. 413
6. The Struggle for Little Round Topp. 417
A. General Warren Seizes Little Round Topp. 417
B. Colonel Oates Almost Captures Little Round Topp. 419
C. The 20th Maine Saves Little Round Topp. 422
7. High Tide at Gettysburgp. 424
A. Alexander Gives the Signal to Startp. 425
B. Armistead Falls Beside the Enemy's Batteryp. 428
C. "The Crest Is Safe"p. 429
D. "All This Will Come Right in the End"p. 433
8. General Lee Offers to Resign after Gettysburgp. 435
9. "Bells Are Ringing Wildly"p. 437
10. A Far From Glorious Fourthp. 437
11. "A New Birth of Freedom"p. 438
XIX. Vicksburg and Port Hudsonp. 439
1. "Onward to Vicksburg"p. 440
2. A Union Woman Suffers Through the Siege of Vicksburgp. 445
3. Hotel de Vicksburgp. 449
4. Vicksburg Surrendersp. 450
5. General Banks Takes Port Hudsonp. 454
A. Eating Mules at Port Hudsonp. 454
B. Blue and Gray Fraternize after the Surrender of Port Hudsonp. 455
6. "The father of Waters Again Goes Unvexed to the Sea"p. 455
7. General Morgan Invades the Northp. 456
A. Morgan's Cavalrymen Sweep Through Kentuckyp. 456
B. Morgan's Raid Comes to an Inglorious Endp. 459
XX. Prisons, North and Southp. 461
1. Abner Small Suffers in Danville Prisonp. 461
2. Suffering in Andersonville Prisonp. 463
3. The Bright Side of Libby Prisonp. 464
4. The Awful Conditions at Fort Delawarep. 466
5. The Privations of Life in Elmira Prisonp. 469
XXI. Behind the Lines: the Northp. 473
1. Washington as a Campp. 473
2. Walt Whitman Looks Around in Wartime Washingtonp. 475
3. Matthew Brady's "The Dead at Antietam"p. 477
4. Anna Dickinson Sees the Draft Riots in New York Cityp. 480
5. The Army of Lobbyists and Speculatorsp. 483
6. Charles A. Dana Helps Stop Frauds in the War Departmentp. 484
7. Colonel Barker Outwits Bounty Jumpers and Brokersp. 486
8. Doings in Nevadap. 489
9. Confederate Plots Against the Northp. 490
A. A Confederate Plan to Seize Johnson's Island Is Frustratedp. 490
B. Confederates Raid Vermontp. 491
C. The Confederates Attempt to Burn New Yorkp. 493
10. War Wearinessp. 495
A. A Sense of Infinite Wearinessp. 495
B. New-Jersey Peace Resolutionsp. 496
C. Protest of the New-Jersey Soldiersp. 497
11. Election of 1864p. 498
XXII. Behind the Lines: the Southp. 499
1. A War Clerk Suffers Scarcities in Richmondp. 499
2. Mr. Eggleston Recalls When Money Was Plentifulp. 503
3. Jews in the Confederacyp. 505
4. Parthenia Hague Tells How Women Outwitted the Blockadep. 507
5. The Confederates Burn Their Cottonp. 509
6. "The Yankees Are Coming"p. 510
7. "The Lives Which Women Have Lead Since Troy Fell"p. 512
8. "They Must Reap the Whirlwind"p. 513
9. "I Do Want to See You So Much"p. 513
10. "They Are Intelligent on All Subjects but that of Negro Slavery, on This They Are Mad."p. 514
11. Resistance at Homep. 515
A. President Davis Quells a Food Riot in Richmondp. 515
B. Deaths From Starvation Have Absolutely Occurredp. 516
12. Georgia's Governor Laments Davis' Despotismp. 517
13. Peace at Any Pricep. 518
14. "The Man Who Held His Conscience Higher Than Their Praise"p. 519
XXIII. Hospitals, Surgeons, and Nursesp. 521
1. George Townsend Describes the Wounded on the Peninsulap. 521
2. The Sanitary Commission to the Rescuep. 524
3. Clara Barton Surmounts the Faithlessness of Union Officersp. 526
4. Susan Blackford Nurses the Wounded at Lynchburgp. 527
5. Cornelia Hancock Nurses Soldiers and Contrabandsp. 528
6. The Ghastly Work of the Field Surgeonsp. 531
A. The Heartlessness of the Surgeonsp. 531
B. The Horrors of the Wildernessp. 532
7. Hospital Sketchesp. 533
8. The Regimental Hospitalp. 536
XXIV. The African-American Experiencep. 539
1. "You Debauched a Young Negro Girl"p. 540
2. No Choice But Escapep. 541
A. "The Alligators Preferred Dog Flesh to Personal Flesh"p. 541
B. Confederate Officer Tracks Down Runaway Slavesp. 541
3. The Proclamation and the Negro Armyp. 542
4. Black Soldiers Serve Bravelyp. 543
A. "Unequaled Coolness and Bravery"p. 544
B. Silencing the "Jeers and Taunts"p. 544
5. Thomas Wentworth Higginson Celebrates Life in a Black Regimentp. 546
6. Standing Up for the Rights of Black Soldiersp. 549
A. "Are We Soldiers, or Are We Labourors?"p. 550
B. Hannah Johnson to Abraham Lincolnp. 551
C. Black Regiment Petitions Government for Redressp. 552
7. Hardships of an Unequal Freedomp. 553
A. Contrabands Experience Hardshipsp. 553
B. "A Sense of Disgust Must Be Awakened"p. 554
8. The Fate of Black Soldier--And Those Left Behindp. 554
A. "The Whole Government Gives Cheer to Me"p. 555
B. "I Am in Too Much Trouble"p. 556
C. "I Wish That His Back Had Been as Deeply Scarred"p. 556
9. "If We Are Regarded as Evil Here"p. 557
10. "A Great Desire for Knowledge"p. 558
11. Tennessee Petitionp. 559
XXV. A War for Emancipationp. 565
1. Slavery, the Cornerstone of the Confederacyp. 566
2. "This Imbecile Pro-Slavery Government Does Try Me So"p. 567
3. The Problem of Contrabandsp. 568
A. General Butler's "Contrabands"p. 568
B. Fremont's Proclamation on Slavesp. 569
4. Messages to Congress on Compensated Emancipationp. 570
A. The Gradual Abolishment of Slaveryp. 570
B. "We Cannot Escape History"p. 571
5. "My Paramount Object is to Save the Union"p. 573
A. "The Prayer of Twenty Millions"p. 574
B. "I Would Save the Union"p. 574
6. Lincoln Becomes the Great Emancipatorp. 575
A. Secretary Chase Recalls a Famous Cabinet Meetingp. 575
B. "Forever Free"p. 577
7. Reactions to the Emancipation Proclamationp. 577
A. The Day of Jubilee Comesp. 578
B. Illinois State Legislature Opposes Emancipation Proclamationp. 579
C. Kentucky Union Officer Objects to Emancipationp. 579
D. Jefferson Davis Replies to the Emancipation Proclamationp. 580
E. A Note on the Emancipation Proclamationp. 581
8. A War for Libertyp. 581
9. Arming Slaves for the Confederate Armyp. 582
10. "Abolitionists Were the Only Traitors"p. 582
A. "The Country Was Formed for the White, Not for the Black Man"p. 582
B. Emancipation Arrives in Texasp. 583
11. "The Work of the Abolitionists Is Not Done"p. 584
XXVI. The Coast and Inland Watersp. 587
1. The Merrimac and the Monitorp. 588
A. The Minnesota Fights for Her Life in Hampton Roadsp. 588
B. The Monitor Repels the Merrimacp. 590
2. Commodore Farragut Captures New Orleansp. 592
3. New Orleans Falls to the Yankeesp. 594
A. Julia LeGrand Describes the Surrender of New Orleansp. 594
B. General Butler Outrages the Moral Sentiment of the Worldp. 595
C. Palmerston Protests Butler's Proclamationsp. 595
D. "A More Impudent Proceeding Cannot Be Discovered"p. 596
4. Ellet's Steam Rams Smash the Confederate Fleet at Memphisp. 597
5. Attack and Repulse at Battery Wagnerp. 600
6. Farragut Damns the Torpedoes at Mobile Bayp. 602
7. Lieutenant Cushing Torpedoes the Albermarlep. 608
8. The Confederates Repulse an Attack on Fort Fisherp. 610
9. "It Beat Anything in History"p. 613
XXVII. The Blockade and the Cruisersp. 617
1. The United States Navy Blockades the Confederacyp. 618
2. The Robert E. Lee Runs the Blockadep. 622
3. The Rob Roy Runs the Blockade out of Havanap. 624
4. Blockade-Runners Supply Charlestonp. 627
5. Confederate Privateers Harry Northern Merchantmenp. 628
A. The Ivy Prowls Outside New Orleansp. 628
B. The Jefferson Davis Takes a Prize off Delawarep. 629
6. The Georgia Fires the Bold Hunterp. 629
7. The Kearsarge Sinks the Alabama off Cherbourgp. 631
XXVIII. Chickamauga and Chattanoogap. 635
1. The Federals Oppose Hood with Desperationp. 636
2. Thomas Stands Like a Rock at Chickamaugap. 638
A. Longstreet Breaks the Federal Linep. 639
B. Thomas Holds the Horseshoe Ridgep. 640
3. Chattanooga under Siegep. 642
4. Hooker Wins the "Battle Above the Clouds"p. 645
5. The Army of the Cumberland Carries Missionary Ridgep. 647
A. "First One Flag, Then Another, Leads"p. 647
B. "Amid the Din of Battle 'Chickamauga' Could Be Heard"p. 649
6. "The Disaster Admits of No Palliation"p. 652
7. Burnside Holds Out at Knoxvillep. 653
XXIX. Atlanta and the March to the Seap. 657
1. General Sherman Takes Commandp. 658
2. Sherman Marches from Chattanooga to Atlantap. 659
3. Johnston Halts Sherman at New Hope Churchp. 661
4. Joe Johnston Gives Way to Hoodp. 663
A. President Davis Removes General Johnston before Atlantap. 663
B. General Johnston Justifies Himselfp. 664
5. Hardee Wins and Loses the Battle of Atlantap. 665
6. "You Might as Well Appeal Against the Thunder-Storm"p. 668
7. Child's Diary of the Atlanta Siegep. 669
8. Sherman Marches from Atlanta to the Seap. 671
9. Sherman's "Bummers"p. 674
A. A Good Word for the Bummersp. 674
B. "We Were Proud of Our Foragers"p. 674
10. "The Heavens Were Lit Up with Flames from Burning Buildings"p. 675
11. Eliza Andrews Comes Home Through the Burnt Countryp. 677
12. The Burning of Columbiap. 679
A. "A Scene of Shameful Confusion"p. 679
B. Major Hitchcock Explains the Burning of Columbiap. 680
13. General Sherman Thinks His Name May Livep. 681
XXX. The Wildernessp. 683
1. U.S. Grant Plans His Spring Campaignp. 684
2. Colonel Porter Draws a Portrait of General Grantp. 685
3. Private Goss Describes the Battle of the Wildernessp. 687
4. "Texans Always Move Them"p. 691
5. "Their Dead and Dying Piled Higher Than the Works"p. 692
6. Spotsylvania and the Bloody Anglep. 694
7. "These Men Have Never Failed You on Any Field"p. 696
8. Grant Hurls His men to Death at Cold Harborp. 699
XXXI. The Siege of Petersburgp. 701
1. Grant's Army Crosses the Jamesp. 702
2. Beauregard Holds the Lines at Petersburgp. 703
3. "A Hurricane of Shot and Shell"p. 706
4. The Mine and the Battle of the Craterp. 708
5. Lee Stops Hancock at the Gates of Richmondp. 711
6. The Iron Lines of Petersburgp. 712
XII. The Valley in 1864p. 715
1. V.M.I. Boys Fight at New Marketp. 715
2. General Hunter Devastates the Valleyp. 719
3. General Ramseur Fights and Dies for His Countryp. 721
4. Early Surprises the Federals at Cedar Creekp. 726
5. Sheridan Rides Down the Valley Pike to Victory and Famep. 728
6. "The Valley Will Have Little in It for Man or Beast"p. 731
XXXIII. Lee and Lincolnp. 733
1. Robert E. Lee Goes with His Statep. 734
A. "My Relatives, My Children, My Home"p. 734
B. "I Never Desire Again to Draw My Sword"p. 734
2. "A Splendid Specimen of an English Gentleman"p. 735
3. "It Is Well War Is So Terrible, Or We Should Get Too Fond of It"p. 736
4. Dr. Parks's Boy visits Lee's Headquartersp. 737
5. "A Sadness I Had never Before Seen upon His Face"p. 740
6. Lee and Traveller Review the Army of Northern Virginiap. 741
7. "He Looked as Though He Was the Monarch of the World"p. 742
8. "The Field Resounded with Wild Shouts of Lee, Lee, Lee"p. 742
9. Lee Bids Farewell to the Army of Northern Virginiap. 744
10. Nathaniel Hawthorne Calls on President Lincolnp. 744
11. John Hay Lives with "The Tycoon" in the White Housep. 746
12. "We Shall Nobly Save or Meanly Lose the Last, Best Hope of Earth"p. 747
13. Lincoln's Condolence Lettersp. 748
14. Lincoln and Hay Follow the Election Returnsp. 749
15. Lincoln Replies to a Serenadep. 751
16. Lincoln Visits the Colored Soldiers at City Pointp. 752
17. "With Malice Toward None"p. 753
18. Lincoln Is Assassinatedp. 754
XXXIV. The Sunset of the Confederacyp. 757
1. Thomas Annihilates Hood at Nashvillep. 758
2. "The Last Chance of the Confederacy"p. 762
3. "Now Richmond Rocked in Her High Towers to Watch the Impending Issue"p. 766
4. "The Most Superb Soldier in All the World" Falls at Five Forksp. 769
5. The Confederates Abandon Richmondp. 770
A. "A Great Burst of Sobbing All Over the Church"p. 770
B. "The Poor Colored People Thanked God that Their Sufferings Were Ended"p. 772
C. Night Came and with It Came Sorrow and Sadnessp. 774
6. The White Flag at Appomattoxp. 775
7. General Lee Surrenders at Appomattoxp. 779
8. "The Whole Column Seemed Crowned with Red"p. 782
9. The Last Will and Testament of J. Rebp. 784
10. The Stars and Stripes Are Raised over Fort Sumterp. 785
11. "Bow Down, Dear Land, for Thou Hast Found Release"p. 786
Appendix A Reconstructing the Nationp. 787
1. The Destruction of the Southp. 788
A. Prominent Citizens Became Piesellersp. 788
B. "In the Heart of Destruction"p. 790
2. "Education Must Become Universal"p. 791
3. First Reconstruction Actp. 795
4. Constitutional Amendmentsp. 796
A. Thirteenth Amendmentp. 797
B. Fourteenth Amendmentp. 797
C. Fifteenth Amendmentp. 798
5. "The End of the White Man's Government"p. 798
6. Black Parliament in South Carolinap. 799
7. "A Full Pardon"p. 802
8. The Ku Klux Klanp. 802
A. "I Shook Hands with Bob 'fore They Hung Him"p. 802
B. Frankfort, Kentucky, Congessional Petitionp. 803
9. "We Had Only Our Ignorance"p. 806
10. "The Uneducated Negro Was Too Weak"p. 809
11. "A General Reestablishment of Order"p. 810
Appendix B Documents of Lasting Influencep. 813
1. Homestead Actp. 813
2. Pacific Railway Actp. 814
3. Morrill Actp. 816
4. West Virginia Becomes A Statep. 817
5. Ousting the French from Mexicop. 818
A. Seward to Adamsp. 819
B. House Resolution on French Intervention In Mexicop. 820
C. Seward to Motleyp. 820
6. Ex Parte Merrymanp. 821
7. Ex Parte Milliganp. 824
Bibliographyp. 829
Indexp. 847