Cover image for Introduction to space : the science of spaceflight
Title:
Introduction to space : the science of spaceflight
Author:
Damon, Thomas.
Personal Author:
Edition:
Third edition.
Publication Information:
Malabar, Fla. : Krieger, [2001]

©2001
Physical Description:
xviii, 276 pages 32 unnumbered pages of plates : illustrations (some color), maps ; 29 cm.
Language:
English
Subject Term:
ISBN:
9780894640650

9780894640667
Format :
Book

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Call Number
Material Type
Home Location
Status
Central Library TL791 .D36 2001 Adult Non-Fiction Non-Fiction Area-Oversize
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Summary

Summary

This third edition tells readers why astronauts are weightless, why satellites don't fall from the sky, how we will live on Mars, and whether or not there is life elsewhere in the universe. This book has been updated with recent information on the science and technology involved in the new frontier of space. It is written as a textbook for an undergraduate liberal arts course, with or without mathematics. Subjects covered include: orbital decay; concepts for removing debris from LEO; LEO vs GEO for communications satellites; cell phones via satellite; radar satellites; Hubble space telescope servicing missions; orbiter modifications; new observations of the sun; GPS applications; videoconferencing; and magnetic levitation.


Summary

This third edition tells readers why astronauts are weightless, why satellites don't fall from the sky, how we will live on Mars, and whether or not there is life elsewhere in the universe. This book has been updated with recent information on the science and technology involved in the new frontier of space. It is written as a textbook for an undergraduate liberal arts course, with or without mathematics. Subjects covered include: orbital decay; concepts for removing debris from LEO; LEO vs GEO for communications satellites; cell phones via satellite; radar satellites; Hubble space telescope servicing missions; orbiter modifications; new observations of the sun; GPS applications; videoconferencing; and magnetic levitation.


Reviews 2

Choice Review

This is an introductory treatment of the concepts necessary for understanding many current space activities. The level is appropriate to high school students and lower-division undergraduates, with only elementary algebra being used, and even this algebra is set off in special boxes so as not to interfere with the math-phobic reader. There are chapters dealing with history, propulsion, orbital mechanics, satellites, the shuttle, human factors, and future missions. Damon, who "felt the need for a general science, general education course primarily for liberal arts students who would like to know, among other things, how spacecraft get into orbit, why astronauts float, what satellites are doing up there, and if permanent colonies can be built in space," has largely fulfilled his goal. A. M. Strauss Vanderbilt University


Choice Review

This is an introductory treatment of the concepts necessary for understanding many current space activities. The level is appropriate to high school students and lower-division undergraduates, with only elementary algebra being used, and even this algebra is set off in special boxes so as not to interfere with the math-phobic reader. There are chapters dealing with history, propulsion, orbital mechanics, satellites, the shuttle, human factors, and future missions. Damon, who "felt the need for a general science, general education course primarily for liberal arts students who would like to know, among other things, how spacecraft get into orbit, why astronauts float, what satellites are doing up there, and if permanent colonies can be built in space," has largely fulfilled his goal. A. M. Strauss Vanderbilt University


Table of Contents

Preface to the Third Editionp. xi
Preface to the Second Editionp. xiii
Preface to the First Editionp. xv
Forewordp. xvii
Chapter 1 History of Spaceflightp. 1
Rocketry: The Means of Getting Therep. 1
Sputnik: Dawn of the Space Agep. 2
Man in Space: A Russianp. 3
Mercury: Man in a Canp. 3
Gemini: Twins in Orbitp. 5
Apollo: To the Moonp. 5
Soyuz-Salyut: Soviet Space Stationsp. 10
Skylab: U.S. Space Stationp. 13
Apollo-Soyuzp. 13
Unmanned Spacecraftp. 13
Space Shuttlep. 14
Discussion Questionsp. 14
Additional Readingp. 14
Chapter 2 Propulsionp. 17
Basic Principles of Rocketryp. 17
Mass and Weightp. 17
Mathbox 2.1 Change of Weight with Altitudep. 18
Accelerationp. 18
Forcesp. 19
Isaac Newtonp. 19
Freefallp. 19
Liftoff!p. 20
Mathbox 2.2 Newton's Second Law of Motion Appliedp. 22
Reaction Enginesp. 21
Chemical Rocketsp. 23
Solid Propellant Rocketsp. 25
Solid Propellant Boostersp. 27
Liquid Propellant Rocketsp. 28
Hybrid Enginesp. 31
Unconventional Reaction Enginesp. 31
Ion Enginep. 31
Nuclear Thermal Rocketp. 32
Radioisotope Heat Cycle Enginep. 33
Thermal Electric Propulsionp. 33
Solar Thermal Enginep. 34
Laser Propulsionp. 34
Far-out Propulsion Conceptsp. 34
Plasma Pulse Enginep. 35
Gun Launchers, or Shades of Jules Verne!p. 35
Mathbox 2.3 Jules Verne's Gunp. 36
Solar Sailsp. 35
Orion Nuclear Rocketp. 37
Antimatter Propellantsp. 37
Discussion Questionsp. 38
Additional Readingp. 38
Chapter 3 Orbitsp. 39
Getting into Orbitp. 39
Ellipsesp. 40
Mathbox 3.1 Eccentricityp. 42
Satellite Orbitsp. 41
Mathbox 3.2 Speed in Circular Orbitp. 43
Mathbox 3.3 Period of a Circular Orbitp. 44
Useful Orbitsp. 43
Orbital Perturbationsp. 46
Orbital Maneuveringp. 48
Changing Eccentricityp. 49
Hohmann Transferp. 49
Rendezvousp. 51
Other Maneuversp. 52
Deorbitp. 52
The Lagrangian Pointsp. 52
Trajectory to the Moonp. 53
Mathbox 3.4 Escape Speedp. 55
To Another Planetp. 55
Discussion Questionsp. 57
Additional Readingp. 57
Chapter 4 The Space Environmentp. 59
The Sunp. 59
Atomsp. 59
A Nuclear Furnacep. 60
Mathbox 4.1 Nuclear Fusionp. 61
Surface Featuresp. 61
Sunspotsp. 63
The Sunspot Cyclep. 64
The Chromospherep. 65
Solar Energy Outputp. 65
The Solar Constantp. 65
Electromagnetic Wavesp. 66
Mathbox 4.2 Waves: Speed, Wavelength, and Frequencyp. 67
Solar Wind, Coronal Holes, Coronal Mass Ejectionsp. 66
Solar Flaresp. 67
Cosmic Raysp. 67
Sun-Earth Relationships: Space Weatherp. 68
Electromagnetic Radiationp. 68
Particle Radiationp. 69
Trapped Particles: The Van Allen Beltsp. 70
Aurorasp. 70
Geomagnetic Stormsp. 71
Atmospheric Densityp. 71
Effects of Space Weather on Equipmentp. 71
Space Weather Forecastingp. 72
Flare Forecastingp. 72
Forecasting Proton Eventsp. 73
Predicting Coronal Mass Ejections/Geomagnetic Stormsp. 73
Observing and Forecasting Networkp. 73
Meteoroids, Meteors, Meteorites, Asteroidsp. 73
Hazards to Spaceflightp. 75
Contamination by Spacecraftp. 76
Space Debrisp. 76
Discussion Questionsp. 79
Additional Readingp. 79
Chapter 5 Satellitesp. 81
Communications Satellitesp. 81
Geosynchronous Satellitesp. 82
Direct-to-Home Satellitesp. 83
Molniya Satellitesp. 84
Direct-to-People Satellitesp. 84
Military Communications Satellitesp. 85
Navigation Satellitesp. 86
Errors in Position Findingp. 87
Mathbox 5.1 Range Errorp. 88
Mathbox 5.2 Navstar GPS Equationsp. 89
The Navstar Global Positioning Systemp. 90
Glonassp. 91
GPS Usersp. 91
Energy Satellitesp. 92
Photovoltaic Cellsp. 93
Solar Cells for Spacecraftp. 94
Power Stations in Spacep. 94
Mathbox 5.3 Solar Energyp. 97
Space Defensep. 97
Defense Against Ballistic Missilesp. 98
Strategic Defense Initiativep. 98
Laser Weaponsp. 99
Particle Beamsp. 99
Kinetic Energy Weaponsp. 99
Countermeasuresp. 100
Antisatellite Weaponsp. 100
Conclusionp. 100
Discussion Questionsp. 101
Additional Readingp. 101
Periodicalsp. 101
Chapter 6 Remote Sensingp. 103
Electromagnetic Wavesp. 103
Mathbox 6.1 Wavelength of Maximum Emissionp. 104
Remote Sensing from Spacep. 105
Spectral Bandsp. 106
Resolutionp. 108
Image Processingp. 111
Weather Satellitesp. 113
Radar Mappingp. 114
Reconnaissancep. 115
Early Warningp. 116
Mission to Planet Earthp. 116
International Participationp. 117
Discussion Questionsp. 118
Additional Readingp. 118
Chapter 7 Astronomy from Spacep. 119
Exploring the Solar Systemp. 119
Missions to the Moonp. 119
Pre-Apollo Lunar Explorationp. 119
Clementinep. 120
Lunar Prospectorp. 121
Missions to Marsp. 122
Pathfinder and Sojournerp. 122
Mars Polar Landerp. 124
Global Surveyorp. 124
Voyagerp. 126
Voyager at Jupiterp. 126
Voyager at Saturnp. 127
Voyager at Uranusp. 128
Voyager at Neptunep. 129
Pioneer and Voyager Beyond the Solar Systemp. 129
Galileo to Jupiterp. 130
Cassini to Saturnp. 132
Magellan to Venusp. 133
Ulysses to the Sunp. 134
Pluto-Kuiper Expressp. 135
Beyond the Solar Systemp. 135
X-ray Telescopesp. 136
Gamma Ray Observatoryp. 137
Infrared Astronomy from Orbitp. 137
Radio Wave Astronomy from Orbitp. 139
Hubble Space Telescope (HST)p. 139
Mathbox 7.1 Light Intensityp. 140
Mathbox 7.2 Volumes of Spheresp. 141
Discussion Questionsp. 142
Additional Readingp. 142
Periodicalsp. 142
Chapter 8 Space Shuttlep. 143
Solid Rocket Boostersp. 144
The Orbiterp. 145
Enginesp. 147
Orbiter Thermal Protectionp. 148
Electric Powerp. 150
External Tankp. 150
Mathbox 8.1 Hydrogen-Oxygen Combustionp. 152
Assemblyp. 152
Typical Mission Profilep. 152
Ignition and Liftoffp. 152
Mathbox 8.2 Space Shuttle Accelerationp. 156
Solid Booster Rocket Operationp. 154
Main Engine and External Tank Operationp. 154
Orbit Insertionp. 156
Attitude Control Thrustersp. 158
Reentry and Landingp. 158
Mathbox 8.3 Reentry Decelerationp. 159
Safetyp. 160
Other Winged Vehiclesp. 160
DC-Xp. 162
X-34p. 162
X-33 and Venture Starp. 163
Mathbox 8.4 Propellant Weight vs. Dry Weightp. 164
X-37p. 164
X-38, Crew Return Vehiclep. 165
X-43, Hyper-Xp. 165
Discussion Questionsp. 165
Additional Readingp. 165
Chapter 9 Living in Spacep. 167
Cabin Atmospherep. 167
Mathbox 9.1 Space Station Atmospheresp. 169
Loss of Atmospheric Pressurep. 168
Decompression Sickness--The Bendsp. 169
Foodp. 169
Food Preparationp. 170
Menusp. 170
Sleepp. 172
Hygienep. 172
Radiationp. 174
Solar Proton Stormsp. 175
Low Level Radiationp. 175
Gravity and Weightlessnessp. 176
High gp. 176
Weightlessnessp. 177
Space Adaptation Syndromep. 179
Exercisep. 180
Discussion Questionsp. 181
Additional Readingp. 181
Chapter 10 Working in Spacep. 183
Tools of the Tradep. 183
Remote Manipulator Armp. 183
Space Suitsp. 185
Through the Airlockp. 187
Manned Maneuvering Unitp. 187
Care and Feeding of Satellitesp. 189
Launching Satellitesp. 189
Retrieving Satellitesp. 190
Repairing Satellitesp. 190
Repairing the Hubble Space Telescopep. 191
Construction of Large Structuresp. 192
Microgravity Researchp. 192
Spacelabp. 193
Life Sciencesp. 194
Mathbox 10.1 Weighing a Weightless Astronautp. 195
Protein Crystal Growthp. 194
Biological Science Experimentsp. 194
Meteorologyp. 196
Industrial Researchp. 196
Electrophoresisp. 197
SPACEHABp. 198
Discussion Questionsp. 198
Additional Readingp. 198
Chapter 11 Space Stationsp. 199
Why a Space Stationp. 199
Mir-Shuttle Programp. 200
The International Space Station (ISS)p. 201
Designp. 201
Constructionp. 201
Robotic Armsp. 203
EVAp. 203
Orbitp. 204
Life Supportp. 205
Bus Services to Orbitp. 205
Future Innovationsp. 205
City-Sized Space Coloniesp. 205
Locationp. 207
Energyp. 208
Materialsp. 208
Artificial Gravityp. 208
Mathbox 11.1 Artificial Gravityp. 210
Meteoroid and Radiation Protectionp. 209
Life Supportp. 211
Atmospherep. 211
Food and Waterp. 211
Space Agriculturep. 212
Closing the Loopp. 214
Medical and Psychological Well-Beingp. 214
Biosphere IIp. 216
Discussion Questionsp. 217
Additional Readingp. 217
Periodicalsp. 218
Chapter 12 Colonies on Other Worldsp. 219
Permanent Colonies on the Moonp. 219
Moon's Natural Resourcesp. 220
Lunar Waterp. 220
Lunar Oxygen and Hydrogenp. 220
Mining the Moon's Heliump. 220
Mining the Moon's Metalsp. 221
Mathbox 12.1 Molecular Weightsp. 222
Mining the Moon's Oxygenp. 221
The Mass Driverp. 223
Astronomy on the Moonp. 225
Luna Cityp. 225
Site Selectionp. 226
Mars, the Red Planetp. 229
Martian Landscapesp. 230
Martian Atmospherep. 231
Water on Marsp. 232
Unmanned Explorationp. 233
Humans on Marsp. 234
Interplanetary Transportationp. 234
Mars Directp. 235
Trajectoriesp. 235
The First Settlementp. 236
Cycling to Marsp. 236
Terraformingp. 237
On to the Starsp. 239
Planets Around Other Starsp. 239
Discussion Questionsp. 240
Additional Readingp. 240
Periodicalsp. 241
Chapter 13 Life in the Universep. 243
The Chemistry of Lifep. 243
Sources of Organic Moleculesp. 245
Life on Earthp. 245
Searches for Living Organisms in Our Solar Systemp. 246
The Mars Viking Experimentsp. 246
The Martian Meteoritep. 248
Future Mars Experimentsp. 249
Europap. 250
Titanp. 250
The Drake Equationp. 250
Mathbox 13.1 The Drake Equationp. 251
Planets Around Other Starsp. 250
Life on Other Planetsp. 250
Intelligent Lifep. 252
Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence (SETI)p. 252
SETI Surveysp. 253
Optical SETIp. 254
What Do You Say to an Extraterrestrial?p. 254
Discussion Questionsp. 257
Additional Readingp. 257
Periodicalsp. 258
Appendix Space Shuttle Flightsp. 259
Glossaryp. 263
Indexp. 269
Preface to the Third Editionp. xi
Preface to the Second Editionp. xiii
Preface to the First Editionp. xv
Forewordp. xvii
Chapter 1 History of Spaceflightp. 1
Rocketry: The Means of Getting Therep. 1
Sputnik: Dawn of the Space Agep. 2
Man in Space: A Russianp. 3
Mercury: Man in a Canp. 3
Gemini: Twins in Orbitp. 5
Apollo: To the Moonp. 5
Soyuz-Salyut: Soviet Space Stationsp. 10
Skylab: U.S. Space Stationp. 13
Apollo-Soyuzp. 13
Unmanned Spacecraftp. 13
Space Shuttlep. 14
Discussion Questionsp. 14
Additional Readingp. 14
Chapter 2 Propulsionp. 17
Basic Principles of Rocketryp. 17
Mass and Weightp. 17
Mathbox 2.1 Change of Weight with Altitudep. 18
Accelerationp. 18
Forcesp. 19
Isaac Newtonp. 19
Freefallp. 19
Liftoff!p. 20
Mathbox 2.2 Newton's Second Law of Motion Appliedp. 22
Reaction Enginesp. 21
Chemical Rocketsp. 23
Solid Propellant Rocketsp. 25
Solid Propellant Boostersp. 27
Liquid Propellant Rocketsp. 28
Hybrid Enginesp. 31
Unconventional Reaction Enginesp. 31
Ion Enginep. 31
Nuclear Thermal Rocketp. 32
Radioisotope Heat Cycle Enginep. 33
Thermal Electric Propulsionp. 33
Solar Thermal Enginep. 34
Laser Propulsionp. 34
Far-out Propulsion Conceptsp. 34
Plasma Pulse Enginep. 35
Gun Launchers, or Shades of Jules Verne!p. 35
Mathbox 2.3 Jules Verne's Gunp. 36
Solar Sailsp. 35
Orion Nuclear Rocketp. 37
Antimatter Propellantsp. 37
Discussion Questionsp. 38
Additional Readingp. 38
Chapter 3 Orbitsp. 39
Getting into Orbitp. 39
Ellipsesp. 40
Mathbox 3.1 Eccentricityp. 42
Satellite Orbitsp. 41
Mathbox 3.2 Speed in Circular Orbitp. 43
Mathbox 3.3 Period of a Circular Orbitp. 44
Useful Orbitsp. 43
Orbital Perturbationsp. 46
Orbital Maneuveringp. 48
Changing Eccentricityp. 49
Hohmann Transferp. 49
Rendezvousp. 51
Other Maneuversp. 52
Deorbitp. 52
The Lagrangian Pointsp. 52
Trajectory to the Moonp. 53
Mathbox 3.4 Escape Speedp. 55
To Another Planetp. 55
Discussion Questionsp. 57
Additional Readingp. 57
Chapter 4 The Space Environmentp. 59
The Sunp. 59
Atomsp. 59
A Nuclear Furnacep. 60
Mathbox 4.1 Nuclear Fusionp. 61
Surface Featuresp. 61
Sunspotsp. 63
The Sunspot Cyclep. 64
The Chromospherep. 65
Solar Energy Outputp. 65
The Solar Constantp. 65
Electromagnetic Wavesp. 66
Mathbox 4.2 Waves: Speed, Wavelength, and Frequencyp. 67
Solar Wind, Coronal Holes, Coronal Mass Ejectionsp. 66
Solar Flaresp. 67
Cosmic Raysp. 67
Sun-Earth Relationships: Space Weatherp. 68
Electromagnetic Radiationp. 68
Particle Radiationp. 69
Trapped Particles: The Van Allen Beltsp. 70
Aurorasp. 70
Geomagnetic Stormsp. 71
Atmospheric Densityp. 71
Effects of Space Weather on Equipmentp. 71
Space Weather Forecastingp. 72
Flare Forecastingp. 72
Forecasting Proton Eventsp. 73
Predicting Coronal Mass Ejections/Geomagnetic Stormsp. 73
Observing and Forecasting Networkp. 73
Meteoroids, Meteors, Meteorites, Asteroidsp. 73
Hazards to Spaceflightp. 75
Contamination by Spacecraftp. 76
Space Debrisp. 76
Discussion Questionsp. 79
Additional Readingp. 79
Chapter 5 Satellitesp. 81
Communications Satellitesp. 81
Geosynchronous Satellitesp. 82
Direct-to-Home Satellitesp. 83
Molniya Satellitesp. 84
Direct-to-People Satellitesp. 84
Military Communications Satellitesp. 85
Navigation Satellitesp. 86
Errors in Position Findingp. 87
Mathbox 5.1 Range Errorp. 88
Mathbox 5.2 Navstar GPS Equationsp. 89
The Navstar Global Positioning Systemp. 90
Glonassp. 91
GPS Usersp. 91
Energy Satellitesp. 92
Photovoltaic Cellsp. 93
Solar Cells for Spacecraftp. 94
Power Stations in Spacep. 94
Mathbox 5.3 Solar Energyp. 97
Space Defensep. 97
Defense Against Ballistic Missilesp. 98
Strategic Defense Initiativep. 98
Laser Weaponsp. 99
Particle Beamsp. 99
Kinetic Energy Weaponsp. 99
Countermeasuresp. 100
Antisatellite Weaponsp. 100
Conclusionp. 100
Discussion Questionsp. 101
Additional Readingp. 101
Periodicalsp. 101
Chapter 6 Remote Sensingp. 103
Electromagnetic Wavesp. 103
Mathbox 6.1 Wavelength of Maximum Emissionp. 104
Remote Sensing from Spacep. 105
Spectral Bandsp. 106
Resolutionp. 108
Image Processingp. 111
Weather Satellitesp. 113
Radar Mappingp. 114
Reconnaissancep. 115
Early Warningp. 116
Mission to Planet Earthp. 116
International Participationp. 117
Discussion Questionsp. 118
Additional Readingp. 118
Chapter 7 Astronomy from Spacep. 119
Exploring the Solar Systemp. 119
Missions to the Moonp. 119
Pre-Apollo Lunar Explorationp. 119
Clementinep. 120
Lunar Prospectorp. 121
Missions to Marsp. 122
Pathfinder and Sojournerp. 122
Mars Polar Landerp. 124
Global Surveyorp. 124
Voyagerp. 126
Voyager at Jupiterp. 126
Voyager at Saturnp. 127
Voyager at Uranusp. 128
Voyager at Neptunep. 129
Pioneer and Voyager Beyond the Solar Systemp. 129
Galileo to Jupiterp. 130
Cassini to Saturnp. 132
Magellan to Venusp. 133
Ulysses to the Sunp. 134
Pluto-Kuiper Expressp. 135
Beyond the Solar Systemp. 135
X-ray Telescopesp. 136
Gamma Ray Observatoryp. 137
Infrared Astronomy from Orbitp. 137
Radio Wave Astronomy from Orbitp. 139
Hubble Space Telescope (HST)p. 139
Mathbox 7.1 Light Intensityp. 140
Mathbox 7.2 Volumes of Spheresp. 141
Discussion Questionsp. 142
Additional Readingp. 142
Periodicalsp. 142
Chapter 8 Space Shuttlep. 143
Solid Rocket Boostersp. 144
The Orbiterp. 145
Enginesp. 147
Orbiter Thermal Protectionp. 148
Electric Powerp. 150
External Tankp. 150
Mathbox 8.1 Hydrogen-Oxygen Combustionp. 152
Assemblyp. 152
Typical Mission Profilep. 152
Ignition and Liftoffp. 152
Mathbox 8.2 Space Shuttle Accelerationp. 156
Solid Booster Rocket Operationp. 154
Main Engine and External Tank Operationp. 154
Orbit Insertionp. 156
Attitude Control Thrustersp. 158
Reentry and Landingp. 158
Mathbox 8.3 Reentry Decelerationp. 159
Safetyp. 160
Other Winged Vehiclesp. 160
DC-Xp. 162
X-34p. 162
X-33 and Venture Starp. 163
Mathbox 8.4 Propellant Weight vs. Dry Weightp. 164
X-37p. 164
X-38, Crew Return Vehiclep. 165
X-43, Hyper-Xp. 165
Discussion Questionsp. 165
Additional Readingp. 165
Chapter 9 Living in Spacep. 167
Cabin Atmospherep. 167
Mathbox 9.1 Space Station Atmospheresp. 169
Loss of Atmospheric Pressurep. 168
Decompression Sickness--The Bendsp. 169
Foodp. 169
Food Preparationp. 170
Menusp. 170
Sleepp. 172
Hygienep. 172
Radiationp. 174
Solar Proton Stormsp. 175
Low Level Radiationp. 175
Gravity and Weightlessnessp. 176
High gp. 176
Weightlessnessp. 177
Space Adaptation Syndromep. 179
Exercisep. 180
Discussion Questionsp. 181
Additional Readingp. 181
Chapter 10 Working in Spacep. 183
Tools of the Tradep. 183
Remote Manipulator Armp. 183
Space Suitsp. 185
Through the Airlockp. 187
Manned Maneuvering Unitp. 187
Care and Feeding of Satellitesp. 189
Launching Satellitesp. 189
Retrieving Satellitesp. 190
Repairing Satellitesp. 190
Repairing the Hubble Space Telescopep. 191
Construction of Large Structuresp. 192
Microgravity Researchp. 192
Spacelabp. 193
Life Sciencesp. 194
Mathbox 10.1 Weighing a Weightless Astronautp. 195
Protein Crystal Growthp. 194
Biological Science Experimentsp. 194
Meteorologyp. 196
Industrial Researchp. 196
Electrophoresisp. 197
SPACEHABp. 198
Discussion Questionsp. 198
Additional Readingp. 198
Chapter 11 Space Stationsp. 199
Why a Space Stationp. 199
Mir-Shuttle Programp. 200
The International Space Station (ISS)p. 201
Designp. 201
Constructionp. 201
Robotic Armsp. 203
EVAp. 203
Orbitp. 204
Life Supportp. 205
Bus Services to Orbitp. 205
Future Innovationsp. 205
City-Sized Space Coloniesp. 205
Locationp. 207
Energyp. 208
Materialsp. 208
Artificial Gravityp. 208
Mathbox 11.1 Artificial Gravityp. 210
Meteoroid and Radiation Protectionp. 209
Life Supportp. 211
Atmospherep. 211
Food and Waterp. 211
Space Agriculturep. 212
Closing the Loopp. 214
Medical and Psychological Well-Beingp. 214
Biosphere IIp. 216
Discussion Questionsp. 217
Additional Readingp. 217
Periodicalsp. 218
Chapter 12 Colonies on Other Worldsp. 219
Permanent Colonies on the Moonp. 219
Moon's Natural Resourcesp. 220
Lunar Waterp. 220
Lunar Oxygen and Hydrogenp. 220
Mining the Moon's Heliump. 220
Mining the Moon's Metalsp. 221
Mathbox 12.1 Molecular Weightsp. 222
Mining the Moon's Oxygenp. 221
The Mass Driverp. 223
Astronomy on the Moonp. 225
Luna Cityp. 225
Site Selectionp. 226
Mars, the Red Planetp. 229
Martian Landscapesp. 230
Martian Atmospherep. 231
Water on Marsp. 232
Unmanned Explorationp. 233
Humans on Marsp. 234
Interplanetary Transportationp. 234
Mars Directp. 235
Trajectoriesp. 235
The First Settlementp. 236
Cycling to Marsp. 236
Terraformingp. 237
On to the Starsp. 239
Planets Around Other Starsp. 239
Discussion Questionsp. 240
Additional Readingp. 240
Periodicalsp. 241
Chapter 13 Life in the Universep. 243
The Chemistry of Lifep. 243
Sources of Organic Moleculesp. 245
Life on Earthp. 245
Searches for Living Organisms in Our Solar Systemp. 246
The Mars Viking Experimentsp. 246
The Martian Meteoritep. 248
Future Mars Experimentsp. 249
Europap. 250
Titanp. 250
The Drake Equationp. 250
Mathbox 13.1 The Drake Equationp. 251
Planets Around Other Starsp. 250
Life on Other Planetsp. 250
Intelligent Lifep. 252
Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence (SETI)p. 252
SETI Surveysp. 253
Optical SETIp. 254
What Do You Say to an Extraterrestrial?p. 254
Discussion Questionsp. 257
Additional Readingp. 257
Periodicalsp. 258
Appendix Space Shuttle Flightsp. 259
Glossaryp. 263
Indexp. 269

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