Cover image for Video compression demystified
Title:
Video compression demystified
Author:
Symes, Peter (Peter D.)
Personal Author:
Publication Information:
New York : McGraw-Hill, 2001.
Physical Description:
xvi, 346 pages : illustrations ; 24 cm + 1 computer laser optical disc (4 3/4 in.)
Language:
English
ISBN:
9780071363242
Format :
Book

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Central Library TK6680.5 .S95 2001 Book and Software Set Non-Fiction Area
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Summary

Summary

The Complete Guide to Video CompressionVideo compression is the magic behind digital TV, videoconferencing, DVDs, and Internet video. In Video Compression Demystified, specialist Peter Symes paints the full video compression picture in a friendly, not-too-big, not-too-technical introduction that explains what happens in compression, why compression works, and what will stop it from working.Youll explore all the major compression standards--JPEG, MPEG-2, and more--starting with the basics and moving on to compression tools, performance considerations, transmission/storage quality, transport schemes, and audio considerations. You MUST read this guide if you're a Web site or multimedia developer&produce or sell video products, or are thinking of doing so&cover the entertainment, Internet, or technology beat as a reporter or financial analyst 0r you simply want to be up to speed on this fascinating new technology of key importance to the entertainment and communications industries.


Table of Contents

Prefacep. xiii
Acknowledgmentsp. xv
1 What Is Compression?p. 1
Introductionp. 2
Information and Datap. 2
Information Reductionp. 4
Lossless Compressionp. 5
Run-Length Encodingp. 5
Entropy Encodingp. 6
Lossy Compressionp. 8
Image Compression Standardsp. 10
Symmetric and Asymmetric Systemsp. 11
Why Do I Care?p. 12
Upcoming Topicsp. 12
2 An Introduction to Imagesp. 15
Introductionp. 16
Video or Computer Graphics?p. 16
Sampling and Quantizationp. 17
Sampling Rate and Aliasingp. 18
One-Dimensional Samplingp. 18
Two-Dimensional Samplingp. 26
Temporal Samplingp. 29
3 Entropy Codingp. 35
Introductionp. 36
Entropyp. 36
Huffman Codesp. 41
Dangers of Variable-length Codingp. 43
Modified Huffman Codesp. 44
Arithmetic Encodingp. 47
4 Predictive Codingp. 49
Markov Sourcesp. 50
Differential Pulse Code Modulationp. 54
Predicting Image Valuesp. 56
Adaptive Predictionp. 59
5 Transformsp. 67
Introductionp. 68
Time, Space, and Frequency Domainsp. 70
Frequency and Spatial Frequencyp. 72
The Discrete Cosine Transformp. 74
The Fourier Approach to DCTp. 76
DCT in Terms of Basis Functionsp. 81
DCT as Axis Rotationp. 85
DCT Examplesp. 87
DCT Failurep. 88
6 Quantizationp. 91
Introductionp. 92
Mean Square Errorp. 92
Types of Quantizerp. 93
Uniform Scalar Quantizerp. 94
Nonuniform Scalar Quantizersp. 95
The Lloyd-Max Quantizerp. 97
Entropy-constrained Quantizersp. 97
Vector Quantizationp. 98
Applications of Quantizationp. 100
Direct Image Quantizationp. 100
Quantization with Predictive Codingp. 103
7 JPEGp. 107
Introductionp. 108
Baseline JPEGp. 109
Image Data Encodingp. 109
JPEG Baseline Encoding and Decodingp. 110
DCT Transformp. 113
Quantizationp. 116
Scanning, Descriptors, and Entropy Codingp. 119
Assembling the Bit Streamp. 125
Parsing the Received Bit Streamp. 125
Recovering the Quantized Coefficientsp. 126
Dequantizationp. 127
Inverse DCTp. 127
Comparisonp. 129
Examples of Baseline JPEGp. 129
JPEG Extensionsp. 130
Motion JPEGp. 131
8 Motion Compensationp. 137
Introductionp. 138
Temporal Redundancyp. 138
Motion Aliasingp. 138
The Motion Compensation Approachp. 139
Static Backgroundsp. 139
Motion Vectorsp. 141
Block Matchingp. 143
Matching Criteriap. 143
Optimum Block Sizep. 143
Full-Search Block Matchingp. 145
Hierarchical Block Matchingp. 146
Residualsp. 147
Other Motion Estimatorsp. 148
Restricted Search Systemsp. 148
Phase Correlation Motion Estimationp. 149
9 MPEG-1p. 151
Introductionp. 152
What MPEG Definesp. 153
Hierarchy and Terminologyp. 154
Frame Types in MPEGp. 156
Intraframes (I-frames)p. 156
Non-intra Frames (P-frames and B-frames)p. 156
MPEG Group of Picturesp. 158
Coding of Macroblocksp. 160
Intracoding of Macroblocksp. 161
Non-intracoding of Macroblocksp. 162
Rate Controlp. 165
The MPEG Encoder and Decoderp. 169
10 MPEG-2p. 171
Introductionp. 172
MPEG-2 Enhancementsp. 173
Color Spacep. 173
Slice Structurep. 173
Quantizationp. 173
Concealment Motion Vectorsp. 174
3:2 Pulldownp. 175
Pan and Scanp. 175
MPEG-2 Profiles and Levelsp. 175
Interlace Toolsp. 178
Frame and Field Picturesp. 179
Frame and Field DCTp. 180
Frame and Field Predictionp. 182
Scalable Coding Profilesp. 183
MPEG-2 System Layerp. 184
Packetized Elementary Streamp. 185
Program Streamp. 185
Transport Streamp. 186
Practicing the Art of MPEGp. 189
Contributors to Poor Performancep. 189
MPEG Artifactsp. 190
Tips for Higher Qualityp. 191
11 MPEG-4p. 193
Introductionp. 194
Video in MPEG-4p. 198
MPEG-4 Video Hierarchyp. 198
Shape Codingp. 199
Texture Codingp. 201
Boundary Codingp. 203
Coding of Arbitrary-Shaped Video Objectsp. 203
Spritesp. 204
Static Texture Codingp. 206
Animationsp. 206
Scalabilityp. 207
Advanced Coding Extensions (ACE)p. 209
Visual Profilesp. 210
Scene Compositing and Interactionp. 214
Scene Modelingp. 214
Interactionp. 215
Work in Progressp. 215
Studio Profilesp. 215
Fine Grain Scalabilityp. 216
Future Workp. 218
Conclusionp. 219
12 MPEG-7 and MPEG-21p. 221
Introductionp. 222
MPEG-7p. 222
Concepts of MPEG-7p. 222
MPEG-7 Terminologyp. 225
MPEG-7 Structurep. 226
MPEG-7 Visualp. 227
Summaryp. 228
MPEG-21p. 230
13 Pro-MPEG and MPEG Operating Rangesp. 233
Introductionp. 234
Goals of Pro-MPEGp. 235
14 DV Compressionp. 241
Introductionp. 242
Basic Concepts of DV Compressionp. 243
Detailed Descriptionp. 244
25 Mbits/s Compressionp. 244
50 Mbits/s Compressionp. 252
15 Waveletsp. 255
Introductionp. 256
More about Fourier Transformsp. 256
Wavelets Conceptp. 260
Wavelets as Filtersp. 261
Wavelet Compressionp. 266
16 JPEG2000p. 271
Introductionp. 272
Limitations of the Original JPEG Systemp. 272
Goals of JPEG2000p. 273
17 Audio Compressionp. 275
Introductionp. 276
Masking in Human Hearingp. 277
Simple Audio Compression Schemesp. 278
Quadrature Mirror Filtersp. 280
Subband Codingp. 284
Bit Allocationp. 286
Transform Codingp. 286
Example Compression Systemsp. 287
Audio Compression in MPEGp. 287
Audio Compression for ATSCp. 288
18 Streaming Mediap. 293
Introductionp. 294
Applications for Streaming Mediap. 295
Standards for Streaming Mediap. 297
19 Closing Thoughtsp. 299
Introductionp. 300
Fractal Compressionp. 300
Statistical Multiplexingp. 300
Concatenated Compression Systemsp. 303
Switching MPEGp. 306
MPEG Applicationsp. 310
Some Solutionsp. 310
Mezzanine Compression Systemsp. 312
A Glimpse into the Futurep. 315
A Glossaryp. 317
B Bibliographyp. 329
C Internet Resourcesp. 333
D About the CD-ROMp. 337
Indexp. 339

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