Cover image for Reference and information services : an introduction
Title:
Reference and information services : an introduction
Author:
Bopp, Richard E.
Edition:
Third edition.
Publication Information:
Englewood, Colo. : Libraries Unlimited, 2001.
Physical Description:
xxiv, 617 pages : illustrations, maps ; 26 cm.
Language:
English
ISBN:
9781563086243

9781563086212
Format :
Book

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Library
Call Number
Material Type
Home Location
Status
Central Library Z711 .R443 2001 Adult Non-Fiction Non-Fiction Area
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Summary

Summary

Updated to reflect the latest trends in reference services and the newest sources commonly used for reference work, this long-awaited book offers you a state-of-the-art view of the concepts, theories, and practicalities of reference work today. A host of specialists have contributed to the collection. This new edition includes more detailed discussion of a wider range of reference-related services including interlibrary loan, document delivery, and readers' advisory services. There is also increased attention to ethical issues and a stronger focus on user-centered services, both face-to-face and mediated by technology. In addition, the authors discuss Web sites of significant value to reference services and the impact of the Internet and World Wide Web on reference services. This carefully designed and readable text explains the essential theory and provides the practical knowledge necessary for an initial reference course. Its broad scope and organizational clarity will benefit students and practitioners.


Author Notes

RICHARD E. BOPP, retired, was Associate Professor of Library Administration, University of Illinois, UrbanaChampaign.

LINDA C. SMITH is Professor and Associate Dean, Graduate School of Library and Information Science, University of Illinois, UrbanaChampaign. She serves on the editorial board of Library Quarterly. She received the Isadore Gilbert MudgeR. R. Bowker Award for distinguished contribution to reference librarianship and was named a Distinguished Teacher/Scholar. She is also the 2004 recipient of the Beta Phi Mu Award for distinguished service to education for librarianship.


Table of Contents

Charles A. Bunge and Richard E. BoppRichard E. RubinRichard E. BoppPrudence Ward DalrympleKathleen M. KluegelKathleen M. KluegelLynn WileyLisa Janicke Hinchliffe and Beth S. WoodardBeth S. WoodardBryce AllenJosephine Z. KibbeeFrances F. Jacobson and Ellen D. SuttonLinda C. SmithSusan MillerLaura R. Lucio and Sandra L. WolfConstance A. Fairchild and Richard E. BoppConstance A. FairchildHolly CrawfordDavid A. CobbCarol Bates PenkaLinda C. SmithMary Mallory and Eric Forte
Prefacep. xvii
Acknowledgementsp. xxi
List of Contributorsp. xxiii
Part I Concepts and Processes
1 History and Varieties of Reference Servicesp. 3
Definitions and Developmentp. 3
Reference Services and the Reference Librarianp. 3
Developments in the History of Reference Servicesp. 4
The Literature of Reference Servicesp. 5
Reference Services: Varieties and Approachesp. 6
Informationp. 7
Guidancep. 11
Instructionp. 14
Some Current Trends and Issuesp. 16
Library Systems and Networksp. 16
Electronic Reference Servicesp. 17
Stress and Burnoutp. 18
Staffing the Reference Deskp. 19
Evaluation and Performance Appraisalp. 20
The Future of Reference Servicesp. 20
Defining Reference Service: A Reprisep. 22
Notesp. 22
Additional Readingsp. 25
2 Ethical Aspects of Reference Servicep. 28
Introduction and Historical Backgroundp. 28
Ethical Guidance in the Contemporary Ethical Environmentp. 30
Ethical or Professional Codesp. 31
The First Amendmentp. 37
Some Major Ethical Issues Facing Reference Librarians and Other Information Professionalsp. 37
The Tension Between Protecting the Right of Access and Protecting Individuals or Society from Harmp. 37
Issues Related to Equality of Access to Informationp. 40
Copyright Issuesp. 43
Conclusionp. 43
Notesp. 44
Additional Readingsp. 45
3 The Reference Interviewp. 47
Introductionp. 47
Overview of the Successful Interviewp. 49
Attitudes and Characteristics of the Reference Librarianp. 49
Interviewing Principlesp. 51
Steps in the Reference Interviewp. 53
Opening the Interviewp. 53
Negotiating the Questionp. 54
The Search Processp. 57
Communicating the Information to the Userp. 57
Closing the Interviewp. 58
The Reference Environmentp. 59
Interviews for Specific Situationsp. 60
Readers' Advisory Interviewsp. 60
Remote Interviews: Telephonep. 61
Remote Interviews: Electronicp. 62
Imposed Queriesp. 63
Angry or Upset Usersp. 64
Conclusionp. 65
Notesp. 65
Additional Readingsp. 67
4 Bibliographic Control, Organization of Information, and Search Strategiesp. 69
Introductionp. 69
The Library Catalogp. 70
Indexesp. 73
Beyond Catalogs and Indexesp. 73
Principles of Bibliographic Controlp. 75
Arrangementp. 75
Collocation and Name Authority Controlp. 77
Subject Authority Controlp. 77
Depth and Comprehensiveness of Indexingp. 78
The Concept of Search Strategyp. 81
The Electronic Environmentp. 84
Strategies for Bibliographic Searchingp. 88
The Specific-to-General Approachp. 88
The General-to-Specific Approachp. 89
Context and Feedbackp. 91
Choice of Reference Toolp. 92
Summary and Conclusionp. 93
Notesp. 94
Additional Readingsp. 95
5 Electronic Resources for Referencep. 97
Introductionp. 97
History of Electronic Resourcesp. 97
Databasesp. 100
Searching Capabilitiesp. 101
Boolean Logicp. 101
Truncationp. 103
Displaying the Indexp. 104
Positional Searchingp. 107
Beyond Booleanp. 108
Search Strategyp. 109
Electronic Resources and the End-Userp. 110
Structures Invisible to the Casual Observerp. 111
The User and the Interfacep. 113
Integrating End-User Resources into User-Centered Reference Servicesp. 116
Reference Service Environmentp. 116
Managing Accessp. 117
Expanding Resourcesp. 118
Definition of the Reference Collectionp. 120
Conclusionp. 124
Notesp. 124
Additional Readingsp. 124
6 Understanding Electronic Information Systems for Referencep. 126
Introductionp. 126
History of the Internetp. 126
Internet Terms and Conceptsp. 127
Protocolsp. 127
Client-Server Computingp. 128
Hypertext Transfer Protocolp. 129
META Tagsp. 129
URLp. 130
Stateful or Stateless?p. 131
Other Significant Protocolsp. 133
Beyond HTMLp. 134
Future Developmentsp. 135
Proliferating Resourcesp. 135
Internet Solutionsp. 136
Search Enginesp. 136
Web Directoriesp. 139
Internet Challengesp. 140
Internet Resource Descriptionp. 140
Standardsp. 141
Technological Ripplesp. 142
Orphan Technologiesp. 143
Public Information Resources and the Reference Librarianp. 145
The Future of Reference Technologyp. 146
Notesp. 146
Additional Readingsp. 147
7 Access-Related Reference Servicesp. 149
Introduction: After the Searchp. 149
Access Needed: Now More Than Everp. 149
Library Responsesp. 152
Interlibrary Loanp. 152
Resource Sharingp. 156
Library Networksp. 157
Resource Sharing Issuesp. 160
Standardsp. 161
MARC: Records to Accessp. 161
Z39.50: Information Retrieval Protocolsp. 162
Interoperability and Communication: The ISO Protocolsp. 164
Circulation Interchange Protocolp. 166
Evolving Access Servicesp. 166
Patron-Initiated Orderingp. 166
Document Deliveryp. 167
Delivery to the Userp. 169
Electronic Deliveryp. 169
Copyrightp. 170
Summary: Access Anywhere, Anytimep. 172
Notesp. 173
Additional Readingsp. 175
8 Instructionp. 177
Introductionp. 177
What Is Instruction?p. 177
Theoretical Approaches to Instructionp. 178
Relationship to Reference Servicesp. 182
Developing and Implementing Instructionp. 183
Needs Assessmentp. 184
Structures of Instruction Programsp. 184
Goals and Objectivesp. 185
Learning Theory and Stylesp. 188
Instructional Methodsp. 190
Instructional Materialsp. 193
Instructional Technologyp. 195
Evaluationp. 196
Administration and Management of Instructionp. 197
Organizational Structuresp. 197
Personnelp. 198
Fundingp. 199
Facilitiesp. 199
Publicity and Public Relationsp. 200
Future Trends and Challengesp. 200
Notesp. 201
Additional Readingsp. 208
Guidelinesp. 209
9 Reference Service Improvement: Staff Orientation, Training, and Continuing Educationp. 210
Introductionp. 210
Orientationp. 211
Enculturationp. 213
Socializationp. 213
Expectationsp. 213
Conducive Learning Environmentsp. 215
Basic Training: Learning the Essentialsp. 215
Defining Competenciesp. 215
Assessing Training Needsp. 217
Training Needs of Staff Groupsp. 220
Writing Objectives for Trainingp. 221
Selecting Methodsp. 221
Facilitating Retention of Skillsp. 223
Assessing and Evaluating Trainingp. 225
Beyond the Basics: Continual Learningp. 229
Mastery or Expertisep. 229
Change Managementp. 229
Job Stressp. 230
Burnoutp. 232
Organizational Responsesp. 233
Personal Responses: Continuing Educationp. 235
Conclusionp. 235
Notesp. 236
Additional Readingsp. 241
Training Materialsp. 243
10 Evaluation of Reference Servicesp. 245
Introductionp. 245
Why Evaluate Reference?p. 246
What Can Be Evaluated?p. 247
Standards for Reference Servicesp. 248
Techniques of Evaluationp. 248
Level 1 Evaluation of Resourcesp. 249
Level 2 Evaluation of Reference Transactionsp. 253
Level 3 Evaluation of Reference Servicesp. 258
Related Issuesp. 259
Evaluation of Service to Specific Populationsp. 259
Organizing for Evaluationp. 260
Conclusionp. 261
Notesp. 261
Additional Readingsp. 263
11 Organizing, Delivering, and Managing Reference Servicesp. 265
Introductionp. 265
Traditional Organization of Reference Servicesp. 265
The Reference Department Within the Libraryp. 265
Organization of the Reference Departmentp. 266
Rethinking Referencep. 267
The Reference Desk: Critical Mass or Trivial Pursuit?p. 267
Tiered Servicep. 268
Research Consultationp. 268
Rovingp. 269
Differentiated Servicep. 269
Moving Beyond Library Wallsp. 270
E-Mail Reference Servicep. 270
Electronic Conferencingp. 270
Videoconferencingp. 271
New Roles, New Responsibilitiesp. 272
Information Organizer/Creatorp. 272
Facilitator of Technology and Information Accessp. 272
Changing Management to Manage Changep. 273
Flattening the Organizational Structurep. 273
Total Quality Managementp. 274
Summaryp. 274
Notesp. 275
Additional Readingsp. 276
12 Reference Services for Specific Populationsp. 279
Introductionp. 279
Reference Service in a Pluralistic Societyp. 281
Ethnic Diversityp. 281
Non-English Speakersp. 281
Illiterate/Low-Literate Adultsp. 283
Reference Service to Disabled Individualsp. 285
Persons with Physical Disabilitiesp. 285
Persons with Developmental Disabilitiesp. 287
Reference Services for Specific Age Groupsp. 288
Children and Young Adultsp. 289
Older Adultsp. 298
Conclusionp. 299
Notesp. 300
Additional Readingsp. 305
Part II Information Sources and Their Use
13 Selection and Evaluation of Reference Sourcesp. 309
Reference Sourcesp. 309
What Is a Reference Source?p. 309
Types of Sourcesp. 310
Reference Collection Development and Maintenancep. 310
Components of the Collectionp. 310
Reference Collection Developmentp. 311
Arrangement of the Collectionp. 311
Weeding the Collectionp. 312
Evaluation of Sourcesp. 312
Formatp. 313
Scopep. 314
Relation to Similar Worksp. 314
Authorityp. 314
Treatmentp. 315
Arrangementp. 315
Special Featuresp. 315
Costp. 315
Virtual Reference Collection Developmentp. 316
Selection Aidsp. 317
Reviewing Sourcesp. 317
Guides to Reference Sourcesp. 319
Sources, Collections, and Services in Transitionp. 324
Notesp. 325
List of Sourcesp. 327
Additional Readingsp. 329
14 Directoriesp. 331
Uses and Characteristicsp. 331
Evaluationp. 331
Selectionp. 332
Electronic Optionsp. 333
Important General Sourcesp. 333
Directories of Directoriesp. 334
Library Directoriesp. 334
Publishing and Book Trade Directoriesp. 336
Education/Research Directoriesp. 337
Foundation and Grants Directoriesp. 341
Business Directoriesp. 343
Association Directoriesp. 345
Government Directoriesp. 347
Telephone and Fax Directoriesp. 348
Specialized Directoriesp. 349
Search Strategiesp. 350
Notesp. 352
List of Sourcesp. 352
Additional Readingsp. 356
15 Almanacs, Yearbooks, and Handbooksp. 357
Uses and Characteristicsp. 357
Almanacsp. 357
Yearbooksp. 358
Handbooksp. 358
Evaluationp. 359
Accuracyp. 359
Indexingp. 359
Documentationp. 359
Comprehensivenessp. 359
Uniquenessp. 360
Formatp. 360
Currencyp. 360
Selectionp. 360
Electronic Optionsp. 361
Important General Sourcesp. 362
Almanacsp. 362
Yearbooksp. 367
Handbooksp. 370
Search Strategiesp. 373
Notesp. 375
List of Sourcesp. 375
Additional Readingsp. 378
16 Biographical Sourcesp. 381
Uses and Characteristicsp. 381
Evaluationp. 382
Scopep. 382
Comprehensivenessp. 383
Accuracyp. 383
Currencyp. 385
Referencesp. 385
Formatp. 385
Selectionp. 386
Needs of Usersp. 386
Costp. 386
Uniquenessp. 387
Important General Sourcesp. 387
Current Biographical Directoriesp. 387
Current Biographical Dictionariesp. 391
Retrospective Biographical Dictionaries--Universalp. 393
Retrospective Biographical Dictionaries--Nationalp. 395
Indirect Sourcesp. 398
Obituariesp. 400
Search Strategiesp. 401
Ready-Reference Questionsp. 401
General Background Questionsp. 402
Research Questionsp. 402
Notesp. 403
List of Sourcesp. 404
Additional Readingsp. 407
17 Dictionariesp. 409
Uses and Characteristicsp. 409
Kinds of Information Found in Dictionariesp. 410
Types of Dictionariesp. 410
Evaluationp. 411
Formatp. 411
Scopep. 412
Comparison with Others of Similar Coveragep. 412
Authorityp. 412
Accuracyp. 412
Currencyp. 413
Indexingp. 413
Selectionp. 413
Important General Sourcesp. 414
Unabridged Dictionariesp. 414
Etymological Dictionariesp. 416
Desk Dictionariesp. 417
High School- and Elementary School-Level Dictionariesp. 418
Foreign-Language/English-Language Dictionariesp. 419
Dictionaries of Slang and Dialectp. 420
Thesauri and Usage Guidesp. 422
Abbreviations and Acronyms Dictionariesp. 424
Electronic Dictionariesp. 425
Quotation Booksp. 425
Search Strategiesp. 426
Notesp. 428
List of Sourcesp. 429
Additional Readingsp. 431
18 Encyclopediasp. 433
Uses and Characteristicsp. 433
Kinds of Information Contained in Encyclopediasp. 434
Evaluationp. 436
Using Reviewing Toolsp. 436
Scopep. 436
Formatp. 437
Uniquenessp. 439
Authorityp. 439
Accuracyp. 439
Currencyp. 440
Indexing (Access)p. 440
Selectionp. 441
Electronic Optionsp. 442
Determining Need in Different Library Settingsp. 442
Costp. 444
Important General Sourcesp. 445
Encyclopedias for Children and Young Adultsp. 445
Encyclopedias for Adultsp. 448
Single-Volume Encyclopediasp. 452
Subject Encyclopediasp. 453
Search Strategiesp. 454
Which Encyclopedia Should I Use?p. 454
Notesp. 455
List of Sourcesp. 455
Additional Readingsp. 458
19 Geographical Sourcesp. 460
Uses and Characteristicsp. 460
Evaluationp. 462
Scale and Projectionp. 462
Color and Symbolsp. 464
Publisher/Authorityp. 465
Indexing/Place Namesp. 465
Currencyp. 466
Selectionp. 466
Formatp. 466
Important General Sourcesp. 467
Mapsp. 467
Electronic Map Productsp. 468
Atlasesp. 469
Gazetteersp. 472
Travel Guidesp. 473
Other Geographical Sourcesp. 474
Search Strategiesp. 475
Notesp. 476
List of Sourcesp. 477
Additional Readingsp. 479
20 Bibliographic Sourcesp. 480
Uses and Characteristicsp. 480
Types of Bibliographies and Catalogsp. 482
Kinds of Information Contained in Bibliographies and Library Catalogsp. 483
Evaluationp. 483
Authorityp. 483
Scopep. 484
Arrangementp. 484
Currencyp. 485
Selectionp. 485
Important General Sourcesp. 486
Shared Cataloging Networksp. 486
United States Bibliographyp. 487
Current Bibliographies from Great Britain, France, and Canadap. 490
Sources of Purchasing Informationp. 492
Library Catalogsp. 494
Serial and Newspaper Sourcesp. 498
Bibliographies of Bibliographiesp. 501
Recommended Listsp. 501
Search Strategiesp. 503
Notesp. 504
List of Sourcesp. 505
Additional Readingsp. 508
21 Indexes and Abstractsp. 509
Uses and Characteristicsp. 509
Evaluationp. 510
Formatp. 510
Scopep. 511
Authorityp. 511
Accuracyp. 511
Arrangementp. 512
Special Featuresp. 512
Selectionp. 512
Needs of Usersp. 513
Costp. 513
Uniquenessp. 514
Full Text Coveragep. 514
Important General Sourcesp. 515
General Periodical Indexesp. 515
Table of Contents Servicesp. 517
Newspaper Indexesp. 518
Broad Subject Periodical Indexesp. 519
Citation Indexesp. 520
Indexes for Special Types of Materialsp. 523
Indexes of Reviewsp. 524
Indexes for Different Literary Formsp. 527
Search Strategiesp. 528
Notesp. 530
List of Sourcesp. 532
Additional Readingsp. 535
22 Government Documents and Statistics Sourcesp. 537
Uses and Characteristicsp. 537
Organization of Documentsp. 538
Uses of Documentsp. 539
Evaluationp. 539
Selectionp. 540
Important General Sourcesp. 542
Guidesp. 542
Catalogs and Bibliographiesp. 544
Periodical Indexesp. 549
General Facts and Directoriesp. 550
Laws and Legislative Informationp. 553
Statistical Sourcesp. 561
Canadian Government Documentsp. 569
Important General Canadian Sourcesp. 571
Search Strategiesp. 574
Notesp. 576
List of Sourcesp. 580
Additional Readingsp. 591
Author/Title Indexp. 595
Subject Indexp. 611

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