Cover image for Hydraulics field manual
Title:
Hydraulics field manual
Author:
Parmley, Robert O.
Edition:
Second edition.
Publication Information:
New York : McGraw-Hill, [2001]

©2001
Physical Description:
1 volume (various pagings) : illustrations ; 22 cm
Language:
English
Added Author:
ISBN:
9780071348324
Format :
Book

Available:*

Library
Call Number
Material Type
Home Location
Status
Central Library TC160 .H924 2001 Adult Non-Fiction Central Closed Stacks
Searching...

On Order

Summary

Summary

Now enhanced with 25% new material, this easily portable, applications-based manual provides a focused, quick look-up reference on hydraulics encountered in day-to-day practice. Compiles material and data from a wide range of engineering sources of interest to those who process, pump, treat, contain, and distribute water. The second edition has more illustrations, including cut-away and cross-sectional views of pipe, pumps, and other flow mechanisms; increased coverage of agri-drainage and water management issues; and an expanded look at pump designs.


Table of Contents

Prefacep. xxi
Section 1 Hydrologyp. 1
1-1 Waterp. 2
1-2 Water Effectsp. 3
1-3 Hydrologic Cyclep. 4
Figure 1-1 Hydrologic Cyclep. 5
1-4 Hydrology in Engineeringp. 6
Referencesp. 8
Section 2 Hydraulicsp. 1
2-1 Hydraulic Engineeringp. 2
2-2 Historic Recordp. 2
2-3 Empirical Methodsp. 5
2-4 Modern Methodsp. 9
2-5 Present Usage of Waterp. 9
2-6 Future Concernsp. 10
2-7 Field Hydraulicsp. 10
Referencesp. 11
Section 3 Groundwaterp. 1
3-1 Origin and Occurrencep. 2
3-2 Modern Usagep. 2
Table 3-1 Estimating Guidelines for Daily Water Usagep. 3
3-3 Fundamentals of Flowp. 4
Figure 3-1 USDA Classification of Soil Based on Particle Size of 1 Millimeterp. 5
Figure 3-2 USDA Soil Textural Classesp. 6
3-4 Test Holes and Logsp. 7
Figure 3-3 Sample Test Hole Logp. 8
3-5 Piezometric Mappingp. 9
Figure 3-4 Generic Piezometric Mapp. 9
3-6 Well-Water Measuring Methodsp. 10
Figure 3-5 Air-Line Installation for Measuring Water Levelsp. 14
Figure 3-6 Using Electric Sounder to Measure Water Levelsp. 17
Figure 3-7 Curve for Determining Value of K in Formula for Circular-Orifice Weirp. 20
Figure 3-8 Relation of Drawdown to Yield in Water Table and Artesian Wellsp. 22
3-7 Springsp. 23
3-8 Geothermal Conditionsp. 24
3-9 Artificial Rechargep. 25
Figure 3-9 Geometry of a Wastewater Effluent Seepage Cellp. 26
Figure 3-10 Basic Geometry of a Typical Mounding Effectp. 28
3-10 Unconfined Aquiferp. 28
Figure 3-11 Cross-Sectional View Illustrating Unconfined and Confined Aquifersp. 29
Figure 3-12 Perched Water Tablep. 29
3-11 Construction Dewateringp. 30
Figure 3-13 Typical Construction Dewatering Arrangementp. 30
3-12 Cold-Region Construction Problemsp. 31
Referencesp. 32
Section 4 Pumpsp. 1
Table 4-1 Major Pump Types and Construction Stylesp. 2
Figure 4-1 Overhung Impeller, Close-Coupled, Single-Stage, End-Suction Pumpp. 3
Figure 4-2 Overhung Impeller, Close-Coupled, Single-Stage, End-Suction, Canned Motor Pumpp. 4
Figure 4-3 Overhung Impeller, Close-Coupled, Single-Stage, Submersible Pumpp. 5
Figure 4-4 Overhung Impeller, Close-Coupled, Single-Stage, Inline Pumpp. 6
Figure 4-5 Overhung Impeller, Separately Coupled, Single-Stage, Inline, Flexible Coupling Pumpp. 7
Figure 4-6 Overhung Impeller, Separately Coupled, Single-Stage, Inline, Rigid Coupling Pumpp. 8
Figure 4-7 Overhung Impeller, Separately Coupled, Single-Stage, Frame-Mounted Pumpp. 9
Figure 4-8 Overhung Impeller, Separately Coupled, Single-Stage Centerline Support, API 610 Pumpp. 10
Figure 4-9 Overhung Impeller, Separately Coupled, Single-Stage, Frame-Mounted, ANSI B73-1 Pumpp. 11
Figure 4-10 Overhung Impeller, Separately Coupled, Single-Stage, Wet Pit Volute Pumpp. 12
Figure 4-11 Axial-Flow Horizontal Pumpp. 13
Figure 4-12 Impeller between Bearings, Separately Coupled, Single-Stage Axial (Horizontal) Split Case Pump (Part One)p. 14
Figure 4-13 Impeller between Bearings, Separately Coupled, Single-Stage Axial (Horizontal) Split Case Pump (Part Two)p. 15
Figure 4-14 Impeller between Bearings, Separately Coupled, Single-Stage Axial (Horizontal) Split Case Pump (Part Three)p. 16
Figure 4-15 Impeller Between Bearings, Separately Coupled, Single-Stage Radial (Vertical) Split Case Pumpp. 17
Figure 4-16 Impeller between Bearings, Separately Coupled, Multistage Axial (Horizontal) Split Case Pumpp. 18
Figure 4-17 Impeller between Bearings, Separately Coupled, Multistage Radial (Vertical) Split Case Pumpp. 19
Figure 4-18 Turbine-Type, Vertical, Multistage, Deep-Well, Submersible Pumpp. 20
Figure 4-19 Turbine-Type, Vertical, Multistage, Deep-Well Pumpp. 21
Figure 4-20 Turbine-Type, Vertical, Multistage, Barrel or Can Pumpp. 22
Figure 4-21 Turbine-Type, Vertical, Multistage, Short Setting Pumpp. 23
Figure 4-22 Mixed-Flow Vertical Pumpp. 24
Figure 4-23 Overhung Impeller, Separately Coupled, Single-Stage, Mixed-Flow Impeller Volute-Type Horizontal Pumpp. 25
Figure 4-24 Vertical, Axial-flow Impeller (Propeller)-Type Pumpp. 26
Figure 4-25 Regenerative Turbine, Impeller Overhung, Single-Stage Pumpp. 27
Figure 4-26 Regenerative Turbine, Impeller between Bearings, Two-Stage Pumpp. 28
Figure 4-27 Overhung Impeller, Separately Coupled, Single-Stage, Frame-Mounted Pumpp. 29
Figure 4-28 Overhung Impeller, Separately Coupled, Single-Stage, Frame-Mounted Pump on Baseplatep. 30
Figure 4-29 Overhung Impeller, Separately Coupled, Single-Stage, Centerline-Mounted Pumpp. 31
Figure 4-30 Overhung Impeller, Separately Coupled, Single-Stage, Centerline-Mounted Pump on Baseplatep. 32
Figure 4-31 Overhung Impeller, Separately Coupled, Single-Stage, Centerline-Mounted (Top-Suction) Pumpp. 33
Figure 4-32 Overhung Impeller, Separately Coupled, Single-Stage, Centerline-Mounted Pump on Baseplate (Top Suction)p. 34
Figure 4-33 Basic Rotary Pumpsp. 35
Figure 4-34 Basic Components of Rotary Pumpsp. 37
Figure 4-35 Internal Gear Pump--Foot Mounting and Flange Mountingp. 39
Figure 4-36 Internal Gear Pump--Foot Mounting and Close-Coupledp. 40
Figure 4-37 External Gear Pump--Flanged Ports and Threaded Portsp. 41
Figure 4-38 External Gear Pump on Baseplatep. 42
Figure 4-39 External Gear and Bearing Screw Pump on Baseplatep. 43
Figure 4-40 Multiple-Screw Pumpp. 44
Figure 4-41 Lobe Pumpp. 45
Figure 4-42 Horizontal Single-Acting Plunger Power Pumpp. 46
Figure 4-43 Vertical Single-Acting Plunger Power Pumpp. 46
Figure 4-44 Horizontal Double-Acting Piston Power Pumpp. 46
Figure 4-45 Vertical Triplex Plunger Pump, on Base, Gear Reductionp. 47
Figure 4-46 Horizontal Triplex Plunger Pump, on Base, Belt Drivep. 47
Figure 4-47 Liquid End, Horizontal Plunger Power Pumpp. 48
Figure 4-48 Liquid End, Vertical Plunger Power Pumpp. 49
Figure 4-49 Power End, Horizontal Plunger Power Pumpp. 50
Figure 4-50 Power End, Vertical Plunger Power Pumpp. 51
Figure 4-51 Power End, Horizontal Duplex Power Pump with Integral Gearsp. 52
Table 4-2 Summary of Operating Performances of Pumpsp. 53
Section 5 Weirs, Flumes, and Orificesp. 1
Table 5-1 Discharge from Triangular Notch Weirs with End Contractionsp. 2
Table 5-2 Discharge from Rectangular Weir with End Contractionsp. 3
Table 5-3 Minimum and Maximum Recommended Flow Rates for Rectangular Weirs (a) with End Contractions and (b) without End Contractionsp. 4
Figure 5-1 Compound Weir (90[degree] V-Notch Weir with Contracted Rectangular Weir)p. 5
Figure 5-2 Inexpensive Weir Installation for Small-Stream Measurementp. 5
Figure 5-3 Typical Sharp-Crested Weirsp. 6
Figure 5-4 Sharp-Crested Weir with Staff Gaugep. 7
Figure 5-5 Trapezoidal (Cipolletti) Sharp-Crested Weirp. 7
5-1 Weirs Replace Gate Valvesp. 8
Table 5-4 Minimum and Maximum Recommended Flow Rates for Cipolletti Weirsp. 11
Figure 5-6 Various Other Sharp-Crested Weir Profilesp. 11
Figure 5-7 General Flume Configurationp. 12
Figure 5-8 Parshall Flume Designp. 12
Table 5-5 Dimensions for Various Throat Widths for Parshall Flumep. 13
Figure 5-9 Flume Inlet and Outlet Piping Detail for WWTFp. 14
Table 5-6 Minimum and Maximum Recommended Flow Rates for Free Flow-through Parshall Flumesp. 15
Figure 5-10 Various Cross-Sectional Shapes of Palmer-Bowlus Flumesp. 15
Figure 5-11 Dimensional Configuration of Standardized Palmer-Bowlus Flume Trapezoidal Throat Cross Sectionp. 16
Figure 5-12 Dimensions and Capacities of H-Type Flumesp. 16
Figure 5-13 Trapezoidal Flumes for 1- and 2-Foot Irrigation Channelsp. 19
Figure 5-14 Original San Dimas Flumep. 20
Figure 5-15 Weir versus Flume Typical Installation as Measuring Devicesp. 20
Table 5-7 Selection of a Primary Measuring Device: Weirs (a) versus Flumes (b)p. 21
Figure 5-16 Relative Head Losses for Water Flows in Different Types of Weirs and Flumesp. 22
Figure 5-17 Essential Details of the Circular-Orifice Method Used to Measure Pumping Rates of a Turbine Pumpp. 23
Table 5-8 Flow Rates through Circular Orificep. 24
5-2 Venturi Meter, Nozzles, and Orificesp. 24
Table 5-9 Theoretical discharge or Orifices, U.S. GPMp. 27
Figure 5-18 Flow Regulatorp. 29
Table 5-10 Open-Flow Nozzles - Dimensions and Approximate Capacitiesp. 30
Table 5-11 Channel Section Geometric Elementsp. 31
Section 6 Flow in Pipesp. 1
Figure 6-1 Manning Formula Pipe Flow Chart (English/Metric Units), n = 0.009p. 2
Figure 6-2 Manning Formula Pipe Flow Chart (English/Metric Units), n = 0.010p. 3
Figure 6-3 Manning Formula Pipe Flow Chart (English/Metric Units), n = 0.011p. 4
Figure 6-4 Manning Formula Pipe Flow Chart (English/Metric Units), n = 0.012p. 5
Figure 6-5 Manning Formula Pipe Flow Chart (English/Metric Units), n = 0.013p. 6
Figure 6-6 Manning Formula Pipe Flow Chart (English/Metric Units), n = 0.015p. 7
Figure 6-7 Manning Formula Pipe flow chart (English/Metric Units), n = 0.017p. 8
Figure 6-8 Manning Formula Pipe Flow Chart (English/Metric Units), n = 0.019p. 9
Figure 6-9 Manning Formula: Gravity Flow in Open Channel (Round Pipe)p. 10
Table 6-1 Values of the Manning Roughness Coefficient np. 11
Table 6-2 Area of Flow and Hydraulic Radius for Various Flow Depthsp. 14
Figure 6-10 Design Capacities for Clay Pipe Sewers, n = 0.010p. 15
Figure 6-11 Design Capacities for Clay Pipe Sewers, n = 0.013p. 16
Table 6-3 Hydraulic Properties of Clay Pipe at Design Depthp. 17
Figure 6-12 Hydraulic Properties of Circular Sewersp. 17
Figure 6-13 Discharge of Circular Pipes--Flowing Fullp. 18
Table 6-4 Hydraulic Properties of Clay Pipep. 19
Table 6-5 Relative Carrying Capacities of Clay Pipe at Any Given Slopep. 19
Table 6-6 Velocity and Discharge in Sewers and Drainage Pipes (Based on Kutter's Formula, Pipes Flowing Full)p. 20
Figure 6-14 Friction Loss in Water Pipingp. 24
Figure 6-15 Flow of Water in Ductile-Iron Pipep. 25
Figure 6-16 Relationship between Dracy's f and Manning's n for Flow in Pipesp. 26
Table 6-7 Equivalent Resistance of Bends, Fittings, and Valves (Length of Straight Pipe in Feet)p. 27
Figure 6-17 Resistance of Valves and Fittings to Flow of Fluidsp. 28
Table 6-8 Friction of Water: New Steel Pipe (Based on Darcy's Formula)p. 29
Section 7 Culverts and Storm Waterp. 1
Figure 7-1 Typical Shapes and Uses of Corrugated Conduitsp. 2
Figure 7-2 Sizes and Layout Details--CSP Pipe Archesp. 3
Figure 7-3 Sizes and Layout Details--Structural Plate Steel Pipe Arches, 18-Inch Corner Radiusp. 4
Figure 7-4 Sizes and Layout Details--Structural Plate Steel Pipe Arches, 31-Inch Corner Radiusp. 5
Figure 7-5 Structural Plate Steel Underpasses--Sizes and Layout Detailsp. 6
Figure 7-6 Representative Sizes of Structural Plate Steel Archesp. 7
Figure 7-7 Long-Span Pipe Arch Sizes and Layout Detailsp. 9
Figure 7-8 Long-span Horizontal Ellipse Pipe Sizes and Layout Detailsp. 10
Figure 7-9 Long-Span Low-Profile Arch Pipes Sizes and Layout Detailsp. 11
Figure 7-10 Long-Span High-Profile Arch Pipe Sizes and Layout Detailsp. 12
Figure 7-11 Long-Span Pear-Shaped Pipe Sizes and Layout Detailsp. 13
Figure 7-12 Layout Details for Corrugated Steel Box Culverts--Sizes and Layout Detailsp. 14
Figure 7-13 Details of End Sections for 2 2/3-inch [times] 1/2-inch, 3-inch [times] 1-inch, and 5-inch [times] 1-inch Round and Pipe Arch Shapesp. 16
Table 7-1 Dimensions of Galvanized Steel End Sections for (a) Round Pipe (2 2/3-inch [times] 1/2-inch, 3-inch [times] 1-inch, and 5-inch [times] 1-inch Corrugations) and (b) Pipe Arch (2 2/3-inch [times] 1/2-inch Corrugations) Shapesp. 17
7-1 Culvert Location Factorsp. 18
Figure 7-14 Proper Culvert Gradesp. 21
Figure 7-15 Culvert Lengthp. 23
Figure 7-16 Pipe Length for Skewed Culvertsp. 24
Figure 7-17 Headwater Depth for Corrugated Steel Culverts with Inlet Controlp. 25
Figure 7-18 Headwater Depth for Circular Culverts with Beveled Ring Inlet Controlp. 26
Figure 7-19 Headwater Depth for Corrugated Steel Pipe Arch Culverts with Inlet Controlp. 27
Figure 7-20 Headwater Depth for Inlet Control Structural Plate Pipe Arch Culvertsp. 28
Figure 7-21 Head for Standard Corrugated Steel Pipe Culverts--Flowing Full--Outlet Controlp. 30
Figure 7-22 Head for Standard Corrugated Steel Pipe Arch Culverts--Flowing full-Outlet Controlp. 31
Figure 7-23 Head for Structural Plate Corrugated Steel Pipe Culverts--Flowing Full--Outlet Controlp. 32
Figure 7-24 Head for Structural Plate Pipe Arch Culverts, 18-Inch Corner Radius--Flowing Full--Outlet Controlp. 33
Figure 7-25 Hydraulic Elements in Terms of Hydraulics for Full Section--Circular Corrugated Steel Pipep. 34
Table 7-2 Full-Flow Data for Round Pipep. 35
Figure 7-26 Hydraulic Properties of Corrugated Steel and Structural Plate Pipe Archesp. 36
Table 7-3 Full-Flow Data for Corrugated Steel Pipe Archesp. 36
Table 7-4 Full-Flow Data for Structural Steel Pipe Arches [Corrugations, 6 [times] 2 inches; Corner Plates, 9 pi; Radius (R[subscript c]), 18 inches]p. 37
Table 7-5 Full-Flow Data for Corrugated Steel Pipe Arches [Corrugations, 6 [times] 2 inches; Corner Plates, 15 pi; Radius (R[subscript c]), 31 inches]p. 38
Figure 7-27 Comparison of Waterway Cross-Sectional Areas at Equal Depths of Flow in Steel Pipe and Pipe Archp. 39
Table 7-6 Full-Flow Data for Structural Plate Archesp. 40
Table 7-7 Hydraulic Data for Long-Span Horizontal Ellipsep. 42
Figure 7-28 Hydraulic Properties of Long-Span Horizontal Ellipsep. 43
Table 7-8 Hydraulic Data for Long-Span Low-Profile Archp. 44
Figure 7-29 Hydraulic Properties of Long-Span Low Profile Archp. 45
Table 7-9 Hydraulic Data for Long Span High-Profile Archp. 46
Figure 7-30 Hydraulic Properties of Long-Span High-Profile Archp. 47
Table 7-10 Hydraulic Data for Structural Plate Box Culvertsp. 48
Figure 7-31 Hydraulic Properties of Structural Plate Box Culvertsp. 49
Figure 7-32 Formulas for Rectangular and Trapezoidal Channelsp. 49
Figure 7-33 Nomograph for Flow in Triangular Channelsp. 50
Figure 7-34 Time of Concentration for Large Watershedsp. 51
Figure 7-35 Velocities for Upland Method of Estimating Travel Times for Overland Flowp. 52
Table 7-11 Summary of Runoff Estimation Methodsp. 53
7-2 Chezy Equationp. 54
7-3 Manning's Equationp. 54
Figure 7-36 Nomograph for Solution of Manning's Equationp. 56
Figure 7-37 Nomograph for Headwater Depth of Box Culverts with Entrance Controlp. 57
Table 7-12 Manning's n for Natural Stream Channelsp. 58
Table 7-13 Comparison of Limiting Water Velocities and Tractive Force Values for the Design of Stable Channelsp. 58
Table 7-14 Maximum Permissible Velocities in Vegetal-Lined Channelsp. 59
7-4 Channel Protectionp. 60
Figure 7-38 Average Annual Precipitation in United Statesp. 61
Figure 7-39 Fifteen-Minute Rainfall (in Inches) Expected Once in (a) 2 Years and (b) 5 Yearsp. 62
Figure 7-40 Typical Cross Section of Street with Concrete Curb and Gutterp. 63
Figure 7-41 Typical Concrete Curb-and-Gutter Sectionp. 63
Figure 7-42 Typical Inlet Installation with Concrete Curb and Gutterp. 64
Figure 7-43 Standard Catch Basin for Storm Sewerp. 64
Figure 7-44 Flow-Thru Inletp. 65
Figure 7-45 Typical Standard Crosswalk "T" Intersectionp. 66
Figure 7-46 Ramp Detail at Radius of Concrete Curb and Gutterp. 66
Figure 7-47 Typical Driveway Approach in Concrete Curb and Gutterp. 67
Figure 7-48 Typical Driveway Approach without a Boulevardp. 67
Section 8 Infiltration and Inflowp. 1
8-1 General Description and Definition of Termsp. 2
Table 8-1 List of Investigative Methods for Infiltration/Inflowp. 4
Figure 8-1 Calculation of Infiltration Rate in Pipelinep. 5
8-2 Base Infiltration Calculationp. 6
Figure 8-2 Example of Diurnal Flow Pattern of Wastewater Collection Systemp. 7
Figure 8-3 Mini-System of Existing Sanitary Sewer Collection Systemp. 8
Figure 8-4 Example of Inflow during Storm Event as Recorded at Key Manholep. 9
Figure 8-5 Typical Televising Log of Sewer Main Inspectionp. 10
Figure 8-6 Sanitary Sewer Manhole Illustrating Possible Sources of Infiltration/Inflowp. 11
Figure 8-7 Typical Sanitary Sewer Lateral Illustrating Possible Sources of Infiltrationp. 12
Figure 8-8 Map of High and Low Groundwater Table Relative to Sanitary Sewer Mainsp. 13
Figure 8-9 Typical Cross-Section of Sanitary Sewer Service Lateral and Groundwater Tablep. 14
Table 8-2 General Methods to Reduce Infiltration/Inflowp. 15
Figure 8-10 Typical Manhole Pipe Seal to Prevent Infiltrationp. 16
Section 9 Storage and Fire Protectionp. 1
Figure 9-1 Principal Accessories for an Elevated Storage Tankp. 2
Figure 9-2 Double Ellipsoidal Elevated Tankp. 3
Figure 9-3 Pedestal Sphere Elevated Tankp. 4
Figure 9-4 Hydroped Elevated Tankp. 5
Figure 9-5 Torospherical Elevated Tankp. 6
Figure 9-6 Toropillar Elevated Tankp. 7
Figure 9-7 Hydropillar Elevated Tankp. 8
Figure 9-8 Hydropillar Elevated Tank (wineglass style)p. 9
Figure 9-9 Double-Cone Elevated Tankp. 10
Figure 9-10 Typical Private Fire Service Mainp. 11
Figure 9-11 Arrangement of Supply Piping and Valvesp. 12
Figure 9-12 Straight Pipe Riserp. 13
Figure 9-13 Wet Pipe Sprinkler Riser with Alarm Check Valvep. 14
Figure 9-14 Header for Dry Pipe Valvesp. 15
Figure 9-15 Pit for Gate Valve, Check Valve, and Fire Department Connectionp. 16
Figure 9-16 Typical City Water Pit-Valve Arrangementp. 17
Figure 9-17 Backflow Prevention Device Installed on an Antifreeze Systemp. 18
Figure 9-18 Working Plans for Circulating Closed-Loop Systemsp. 19
Figure 9-19 Hydraulic Calculation Examplep. 20
Figure 9-20 Example of a Deluge Systemp. 21
Figure 9-21 High-Temperature and Intermediate-Temperature Zones at Unit Heatersp. 22
Figure 9-22 Canopy for Protecting Sprinklers in Building Service Chutesp. 23
Figure 9-23 Methods of Flushing Water Supply Connectionsp. 24
Table 9-1 Maintenance Schedulep. 25
Figure 9-24 Cross-Section View of Subsurface Fire Protection Reservoirp. 26
Figure 9-25 Pumphouse Details of Subsurface Fire Protection Reservoirp. 27
Figure 9-26 Miscellaneous Piping Details for Subsurface Fire Protection Reservoirp. 29
Figure 9-27 Details of Fire Hydrantp. 31
Figure 9-28 Typical Hydrant Installationp. 32
Figure 9-29 Dry Fire Hydrant Detailsp. 33
Section 10 Well Design Considerationsp. 1
10-1 Aquifersp. 2
10-2 Drilled Wellsp. 2
Figure 10-1 Cross-Section of an Artesian Aquiferp. 3
Figure 10-2 Typical Gravel Pack Wellp. 4
Figure 10-3 Pump Base with Gravel Pack Refill Pipingp. 5
Figure 10-4 Cross-Section View of Refill Pipingp. 5
Figure 10-5 Well Casing Seated at Top of Rock Layer Centered on Open Drill Holep. 6
10-3 Well Sealing and Groutingp. 6
Figure 10-6(a) Cross-Section View of a Typical Sanitary Seal for a Well Using a Submersible Pump with a Below Grade Dischargep. 7
Figure 10-6(b) Exploded View of a Typical Sanitary Seal for a Well using a Submersible Pump with Above Grade Dischargep. 8
10-4 Wellhead Protection Planningp. 9
10-5 Recharge Areap. 10
10-6 Zone of Influencep. 10
10-7 Groundwater Flow Directionp. 11
10-8 Inventory of Existing Potential Contamination Sourcesp. 11
10-9 Establishment of a WHP Areap. 12
10-10 Public Education Programp. 12
10-11 Water Conservation Programp. 12
10-12 Emergency Contingency Planp. 13
10-13 General Management Planp. 13
Figure 10-7 Cross-Section through Pumphouse Showing Arrangement of Right Angle Gear Drive for Auxiliary Pumpingp. 14
10-14 Regulatory Approvalsp. 15
Section 11 Estimating Flows in the Fieldp. 1
11-1 Field Calculationsp. 2
11-2 Density of Waterp. 2
11-3 Water Pressurep. 2
11-4 Archimedes' Principlep. 3
11-5 Pascal's Lawp. 3
11-6 Continuity of Fluid Flowp. 3
11-7 Bernoulli's Lawp. 3
11-8 Velocity Headp. 3
11-9 Orifice Flowp. 4
11-10 Friction Loss Flowp. 4
11-11 Water Hammerp. 4
11-12 Hydraulic Press Principlep. 5
Figure 11-1 Method of Determining the Depth to Water Level in a Deep Wellp. 5
Figure 11-2 Determination of Total Head from Gauge Readingsp. 7
Figure 11-3 Determination of Total Head of Deep-Well Turbine or Propeller Pumpp. 8
Figure 11-4 Manometer Pressure Calculation Methodsp. 9
Figure 11-5 Approximating Flow from Horizontal Pipesp. 10
Figure 11-6 Approximating Flow from Vertical Pipesp. 11
Figure 11-7 Types of Liquid-Level Measuring Devicesp. 12
Figure 11-8 High-Low Level Indicatorp. 13
Figure 11-9 Illustrated Uses of Float Assembliesp. 14
Table 11-1 Float Well Sizingp. 15
Figure 11-10 Typical River Gauging Stationp. 16
Figure 11-11 Details of Recording Station Using Floatsp. 17
Figure 11-12 Details of Float-Operated Flow Meterp. 18
Table 11-2 Summary of Discharge Equations for Broad- and Sharp-Crested Weirsp. 19
11-13 Flow Test Procedurep. 20
Figure 11-13 Pitot Tube Design and Usep. 22
Table 11-3 Flowing Capacities of Hydrant Nozzles, in Gallons per Minutep. 23
Table 11-4 Water Loss versus Pipe Leak Sizep. 25
Figure 11-14 Barrel Testing Method for Infiltration Assessmentp. 26
Figure 11-15 Flooding Basin Test for Infiltration Ratesp. 27
Table 11-5 Irrigation Tablep. 28
Table 11-6 Flow Equivalentsp. 29
Section 12 Supplemental datap. 1
Table 12-1 Commonly Used Constantsp. 2
12-1 Conversions, Constants, and Formulasp. 3
12-2 Quantity and Velocity Equationsp. 4
Table 12-2 Values of n for the Manning Formula: q=(1/n)AR[superscript 2/3]S[superscript 1/2]p. 5
Table 12-3 Density and Volume of Waterp. 6
Table 12-4 Conversion Units Chart for Volumetric Flow Ratep. 7
Table 12-5 Conversion Units Chart for Forcep. 7
Table 12-6 Conversion Units Chart for Pressurep. 8
Table 12-7 Properties of Water in Metric Unitsp. 9
Table 12-8 Peak Factorp. 10
Figure 12-1 Surface Drainage Runoff Diagramp. 11
Figure 12-2 Groundwater Drainage via Subsurface Drain Pipesp. 12
Figure 12-3 Laser Beam Setup for Laying Pipe to Gradep. 13
Figure 12-4 Diagram Showing Common Method of Laying Pipe to Line and Gradep. 14
Table 12-9 Power Consumed in Pumping 1000 Gallons of Clear Water at 1 Foot Total Head (Various Efficiencies)p. 15
Table 12-10 Radius of Curvature and Angle of Deflection for Curvilinear Sewers Using Various Pipe Lengthsp. 16
Table 12-11 Conveyance Factors (for Pipes 15 Inches and Smaller and Pipes 18 Inches and Larger)p. 17
Figure 12-5 Capacity Conversionsp. 18
Figure 12-6 Pressure and Head Conversion Chartp. 20
Figure 12-7 Atmospheric Pressures for Altitude up to 12,000 Feetp. 21
Figure 12-8 Relation Between Variables in the Hydraulic Jumpp. 22
Figure 12-9 Depth of Flow and Specific Energy for Rectangular Section in Open Channelp. 23
Figure 12-10 Design of an Overflow Spillway Sectionp. 24
Figure 12-11 Basic Principles of Hydraulic Grade Lines (HGLs) in Dynamic Systemsp. 25
Table 12-12 Typical Map Symbolsp. 26
Table 12-13 Comparison of Pipe Materials and Jointsp. 27
Table 12-14 Measurement Conversionsp. 28
Table 12-15 AWWA Standardsp. 34
Index

Google Preview