Cover image for Encyclopedia of world history
Title:
Encyclopedia of world history
Author:
Facts on File, Inc.
Publication Information:
New York : Facts On File, [2000]

©2000
Physical Description:
524 pages : illustrations (some color), color maps ; 30 cm.
General Note:
Series from jacket.
Language:
English
Added Corporate Author:
ISBN:
9780816042494
Format :
Book

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Summary

Summary

Designed to meet the standards of major curricula and the National Standards for World History


Reviews 1

Choice Review

This attractive encyclopedia joins the ranks of reference works that seek to provide brief, factual information over the range of recorded history. Any volume hoping to span several thousand years of world history must select ruthlessly, but this encyclopedia is impressive in scope, format, and illustrations. Its 6,500 entries and 1,000 illustrations (including maps, charts, diagrams, chronologies, paintings, and photographs) make this an attractive addition to any reference collection. Entries, arranged alphabetically, cover the period from 15,000 BCE to the present. The one-paragraph entries lack bibliographies or extended discussion of any topic, but provide simple identification of basic factual information. World history is defined in the broadest sense, including geography, archaeology, scientific and technological innovation, biography, and political history. Sidebars for each nation of the world include a map, flag, data box, and brief overview. Although many historical encyclopedias are heavily weighted in favor of Western history, this volume is noteworthy for its thorough coverage of Africa and Central and South America. Recommended for general readers and lower-division undergraduates. D. Auchter; Ohio State University


Excerpts

Excerpts

Excerpt A Abbas (d.652) Uncle of the Prophet Muhammad and of the Caliph Ali. A rich merchant in Mecca, he gave his name to the Abbasid dynasty of Muslim CALIPHS. Abbas I (the Great) (1571-1629) Shah of Persia (1588-1629). The outstanding ruler of the Safavid dynasty, Abbas restored Persia as a great power, waging war successfully against the invading Uzbeks and Ottoman Turks and recapturing Hormuz from the Portuguese. Tolerant in religion, he encouraged Dutch and English merchants and admitted Christian missionaries. Abbas made Isfahan his capital. Abbas II (1874-1944) Last Khedive (Turkish viceroy) of Egypt (1892-1914). He succeeded his father, Tewfik Pasha. Abbas was hostile to the British, the dominant power, but he also rejected the nationalists' demands for liberal reform. Deposed when the British established a protectorate, he spent the rest of his life in exile. Abbasid Muslim CALIPH dynasty (750-1258). They traced their descent from Abbas, the uncle of Muhammad, and came to power by defeating the Umayyads. In 862 the Abbasids moved the caliphate from Damascus to Baghdad, where it achieved great splendor. From the 10th century Abbasid caliphs ceased to exercise political power, becoming religious figureheads. After the family's downfall in 1258, following the fall of Baghdad to the Mongols, one member was invited by the Mamluk sultan to Cairo where the dynasty was recognized until the 16th century. Abd al-Kader (1808-83) Algerian leader and emir of Mascara. He displaced (1832-39) the French and Turks from N Algeria before launching a holy war against the French. In 1843 Abd al-Kader was forced into Morocco where he enlisted the support of the sultan. He and his Moroccan forces were defeated at Isly (1844). Abd al-Kader was imprisoned in France (1847-52). Abd al-Malik (646-705) Fifth Umayyad caliph (685-705). Abd al-Malik united Islam by defeating his rival, Caliph Abdullah ibn-az-Zubayr. He also fought against the Byzantines. Abd al-Malik reformed the government and made Arabic the official language. Abd ar-Rahman I (d.788) First Umayyad emir of Córdoba (756-88). He was the sole survivor of the Abbasid massacre (750) of his family in Damascus. In 756 Abd ar-Rahman defeated Yusuf of Córdoba at Alameda. He united the Muslim tribes, checked the Frankish army of Charlemagne at Zaragoza (778), and began the Great Mosque at Córdoba, s Spain. He was succeeded by Hisham I. Abd ar-Rahman III (891-961) Umayyad emir (912-29) and first caliph of Córdoba (929-61). He founded the University of Córdoba. Abd ar-Rahman seized Ceuta, N Morocco and reclaimed other Spanish provinces. He enlarged his navy and greatly increased Córdoba's power. Abd el-Krim (1882?-1963) Moroccan Berber resistance leader. In 1921 he led the Rif tribes to a famous victory against the Spanish. He continued to gain ground, and by 1925 he had advanced into French-held territory. In 1926 he was defeated by a combined French-Spanish force and sent into exile in Réunion. In 1947 he escaped to Egypt where he formed a liberation movement. In 1958 King Muhammad V of Morocco proclaimed Abd el-Krim a national hero. abdication crisis (1936) In the United Kingdom, the constitutional disturbance caused by the forced abdication of Edward VIII. It arose from the determination of Edward, who became king in January 1936, to marry Mrs. Wallis Simpson, an American woman in the process of suing her second husband for divorce. Such a marriage breached the rules of the Anglican Church and was considered unsuitable by the British government, led by Stanley Baldwin. A struggle developed between king and Parliament. On December 10, 1936, Edward was forced to abdicate in favor of his brother, the future George VI. Abdul Hamid II (1842-1918) Ottoman sultan (1876-1909). On his accession, Abdul Hamid suspended parliament and the new constitution. He concluded the disastrous Russo-Turkish Wars by ceding vast lands to Russia at the Treaty of San Stefano (1878). Abdul Hamid is remembered as the "Great Assassin" for his part in the Armenian massacres (1894-96) -- it is estimated that more than 200,000 Armenians were killed in 1896 alone. In 1908 the Young Turks forced him to reimplement the 1876 constitution and he was deposed shortly after. Abdul Medjid I (1823-61) Ottoman sultan (1839-61). He continued the program of social and political reform begun by his father, Mahmud II, including the granting of civil and political rights to Christians. Abdullah, Sheikh Muhammad (1905-82) Kashmiri politician. He served as prime minister (1947-53) of Jammu And Kashmir after India's independence. In 1953 he was arrested for advocating independence for Kashmir. He remained almost continuously in protective custody until the 1970s. Abdullah ibn Hussein (1882-1951) King of Jordan (1946-51), son of Hussein ibn Ali of the Hashemite family. In 1921, after aiding Britain in World War I, he became emir of Transjordan. Abdullah lost control of Hejaz to Ibn Saud. In World War II he resisted the Axis Powers. Abdullah fought against the creation of Israel, annexed Palestinian land, and signed an armistice (1949). He was assassinated in Jerusalem and succeeded by his son, Talal. Abélard, Pierre (1079-1142) French philosopher. In his famous work Sic et Non , Abélard attempted to reconcile differences between the Fathers of the Church by using the dialectical method of Aristotle. His views were condemned by the Council of Sens (1140). Abélard is known for his tragic love for his young pupil Héloise. The affair scandalized his contemporaries. He was castrated and became a monk, while Héloise was forced to enter a convent. These events inspired his work Historia Calamitatum Mearum . Abélard and Héloise are buried together at Parclete, Paris. Abercromby, Sir Ralph (1734-1801) British general. After serving in the Seven Years' War, he became commander in chief (1795-97) in the West Indies. Abercromby captured Grenada, St. Lucia, St. Vincent and Trinidad. Sent to expel the French from Egypt, he defeated them at Aboukir (1801) but was killed in action. See also Nelson, Horatio, Viscount Aberdeen, George Hamilton Gordon, 4th Earl of (1784-1860) British statesman, prime minister (1852-55). He served as foreign secretary (1828-30) under the Duke of Wellington. As foreign secretary (1841-46) to Sir Robert Peel, Aberdeen negotiated the Webster-Ashburton and the Oregon Boundary treaties with the United States. He and Peel resigned over the issue of the Corn Laws. Aberdeen emerged to form the "Aberdeen coalition" ministry. He was swayed into entering the Crimean War by Viscount Palmerston. Aberdeen was blamed for the mismanagement of the war and was forced to resign. Abernathy, Ralph David (1926-90) US clergyman and CIVIL RIGHTS activist. A baptist minister, Abernathy succeeded Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr., as leader of the Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC) after King's assassination in 1968 and continued to promote the non-violent civil rights movement. In 1968 he organized the Poor People's March on Washington, D.C. Abnaki (Wabanaki) Tribe of Algonquian-speaking Native North Americans of the Eastern Woodlands culture. They inhabited NE New England, to which they apparently fled as refugees from English colonists. After suffering military defeats at the hands of the English in 1724-25, most of them went to New Brunswick, Canada, where their descendants live today. In legend, they were the inhabitants of Norumbega. abolitionists In US history, opponents of SLAVERY. Inspired by British evangelicals in the Clapham Sect (in particular William Wilberforce), preachers such as Lyman Beecher launched a moral crusade to end slavery in the United States. In 1831 William Lloyd Garrison published The Liberator , an antislavery journal. In 1833 the American Antislavery Society was formed and within five years such societies boasted more than 250,000 members, mainly from Northern states. In 1840 the Liberty Party was formed by James Birney, advocating direct political action to achieve the emancipation of black slaves. The Party attracted the support of escaped slaves, such as Frederick Douglass. The passage of a tough, new FUGITIVE SLAVE LAW (1850) led to increased activity on the Underground Railroad. An abolitionist novel, Uncle Tom's Cabin (1852), by Harriet Beecher Stowe sold more than 300,000 copies in its first year of publication. The actions of militant abolitionists culminated in the raid on the US arsenal at Harper's Ferry, Virginia, led by John Brown. The bitter antagonism between North and South on the issue of slavery was a major cause of the American Civil War. In 1863 President Abraham Lincoln issued the Emancipation Proclamation and slavery was finally abolished by the Thirteenth Amendment to the Constitution (1865). See also Quakers. aborigines (aboriginals) Strictly, the indigenous inhabitants of a country. The term is used most often in reference to Native Australians. Aboukir (Abukir, Abu Qir) Bay on the Mediterranean coast of Egypt, between Alexandria and the mouth of the Nile. In the Battle of the Nile (August 1-2, 1798), Horatio Nelson defeated the French fleet under Breuys. Nelson's victory at Aboukir forced Napoleon to abandon his attempt to conquer parts of the British Empire. Abraham (Ibrahim) In the Old Testament, progenitor of the Hebrews and founder of Judaism. According to the book of Genesis, Abraham was called on by God to travel with his wife, Sarah, and nephew, Lot, from Ur to Haran in NW Mesopotamia, and thence to Canaan. He had a son, Ishmael, by Sarah's maid Hagar, but then (aged 100) fathered a son, Isaac, by Sarah, who was previously barren. God tested his loyalty by demanding the sacrifice of Isaac. Abraham is esteemed by Muslims who regard him as the ancestor, through Ishmael, of the Arabs. Abraham, Plains of Field in Upper Québec City, Canada, scene of a decisive battle (1759) between the British and French. The British and French commanders, James Wolfe and Louis Joseph de Montcalm were killed in the conflict, which cleared the path for the British domination of E Canada. Abu Bakr ( c .573-634) First Muslim CALIPH. One of the earliest converts to Islam, Abu Bakr was chief adviser to the Prophet Muhammad. After Muhammad's death, Abu Bakr was elected leader of the Muslim community. During his short reign (632-34), he defeated the tribes that had revolted against Muslim rule in Medina after the death of Muhammad and restored them to Islam. By invading the Byzantine Christian provinces of Syria and Palestine and the Persian province of Iraq, he launched the series of Holy Wars through which the first major expansion of the Islamic world was accomplished. Abu Dhabi (Abu Zaby) Largest and wealthiest of the seven United Arab Emirates (UAE), lying on the s coast of the Persian Gulf. The capital of Abu Dhabi and the federal capital of the UAE is Abu Dhabi (1989 pop. 363,432). Abu Dhabi has been ruled since the 18th century by the albu-Falah clan of the Bani Yas tribe. In 1853 a perpetual maritime truce was agreed that led to the signatories being called the Trucial States. In 1892 the Trucial States became a British protectorate. From 1945 to 1948 Abu Dhabi was at war with Dubai. Abu Dhabi prospered after the discovery of oil in 1958. In 1971 Abu Dhabi was a founder member of the UAE and led the movement for federation. Sheikh Zaid ibn Sultan of Abu Dhabi has served as president of the UAE since its foundation. Area: 26,000sq mi (67,340sq km). Pop. (1995) 928,360. Abu Nidal (1937- ) Palestinian terrorist, pseudonym of Sabri Khalil Albanna. In 1973 he left the Palestine Liberation organization (PLO) to establish the extremist Abu Nidal Organization (ANO). This targeted Arab as well as Israeli government officials and carried out a number of hijackings and bombings in the 1970s and 1980s. In 1974 Abu Nidal was sentenced to death in absentia by a PLO tribunal. See also Arafat, Yasir Abu Simbel Ancient Egyptian village on the w bank of the River Nile, near the border with Sudan. It is the location of two rock-cut sandstone temples built by Ramses II (r. c .1304-1237 BC). In a huge operation (1963-66), the temples and statuary were moved further inland. This was to prevent their disappearance under the waters of Lake Nasser, created by the construction of the new High Dam at Aswan. Abzug, Bella Savitsky (1920-98) US Democratic congresswoman (1971-77) from New York. She was a staunch critic of the Vietnam War and a leading proponent of women's rights. Abzug was chair (1961-70) of Women Strike for Peace. In 1971 she cofounded the National Women's Political Caucus, which sought to increase the participation of women in government. Abzug served as co-chair (1978-79) of the National Advisory Council on Women. Abyssinia See Ethiopia Academy School of philosophy and proto-UNIVERSITY founded ( c .387 BC) by Plato who met his pupils in the Akademos, an olive grove on the outskirts of Athens, which was also used as a gymnasium or training ground. Much of the history of the Academy is uncertain, though we know its students included Aristotle, Epicurus, and Zeno of Citium. In AD 529 it Was closed by Emperor Justinian. See also Neoplatonism Acadia (Acadie) Historic region in North America, from which the term Cajun derives. In 1605 the first French settlement was established and the region expanded to include present-day Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, Prince Edward Island, and parts of Québec and Maine. The Treaty of Utrecht (1713) ceded the region to the British, who deported (1755, 1758) many Acadians. Aceh Autonomous district of Indonesia, N Sumatra. It became a sultanate after adopting Islam in the 13th century, the first region in Indonesia to do so. In the 17th century, Aceh defeated the Portuguese and resisted Dutch and British attempts to establish trading posts. In the Achinese War (1873-1904) it fought unsuccessfully against Dutch colonization. In 1949 Aceh became an autonomous province of Indonesia. In 1953 the Achinese rebelled against Indonesian role and to date c .2000 people have died in the straggle for secession. Achaean League Two confederations of Greek city-states formed in the area of the Peloponnese called Achaea (Akkaia). The first, founded in the 5th century BC, lasted for c .100 years. The second, founded 280 BC, warred with Sparta, siding with ROME in 198 BC. In 146 BC Rome subjugated and dissolved the League. Achaemenid Ruling dynasty of the first Persian empire, which at its height stretched from the Nile River as far E as modern Afghanistan. In the 7th century BC, the Assyrian ruler Ashurbanipal overran the land of Elam. The ascendancy of Assyria, however, proved short-lived as the Assyrian capital, Nineveh, Was sacked by the Medes in 612 BC. In 550 BC, the Median empire fell to Cyrus II (The Great) (r.559-529 BC), founder of the Achaemenid dynasty (named for his ancestor Achaemenes). Cyrus subsumed Lydia into the Achaemenid empire by defeating Croesus in 547 BC. Cyrus then marched against Babylonia, capturing Babylon in 539 BC. His son and successor, Cambyses II, further expanded Persian power with the annexation of Egypt in 525 BC. Cambyses was succeeded by his cousin, Darius I (The Great). In order to consolidate power, Darius decentralized government by dividing the Achaemenid Empire into 20 provinces. He added the Indus province to the empire and brought Thrace under Persian control in 512 BC. Further conquests in Greece were thwarted, however, by Darius' defeat at the Battle of Marathon (490 BC). The Persian Wars (499-479 BC) in Greece continued under his successor. Xerxes I, who was decisively defeated at the Battle of Plataea (479 BC). In the Peloponnesian War (431-404 BC), Darius II regained W Asia Minor and helped Sparta defeat Athens in 404 BC. The decline of the Achaemenid empire, however, was evident during the reign (404-359 BC) of Artaxerxes II, who lost Egypt and faced a major revolt from his brother, Cyrus The Younger. In 330 BC, the last Achaemenid ruler, Darius III (Codomannus) (r.336-330 BC), was defeated by Alexander III (The Great) of Macedonia. The remains at Persepolis are testimony to the splendor of Persian art and architecture during the reigns of Darius I and Xerxes. See also Egypt. ANCIENT; Hellenistic Age; Susa; Zoroastrianism Acheson, Dean Gooderham (1893-1971) US statesman, secretary of state (1949-53) under President Harry Truman. His desire to stem the growth of communism was fundamental to the establishment of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO), the ANZUS Pact, the Marshall Plan, and the Truman Doctrine. Acheson was criticized for his lack of support for the state of TAIWAN and his endorsement of US military intervention in South Korea. See also Korean War Acheulian Early Paleolithic culture that derives its name from Saint Acheul, near Amiens, France. Characterized by the production of hand axes and cleavers with two worked faces, it spread from Africa to Europe and Asia. Surviving for more than one million years, it ended c .120,000 years ago. Acre (Akko) Seaport in N Israel on the Bay of Haifa. During the Crusades (1095-1272) it changed hands many times, ultimately becoming the central Christian possession in Palestine. It was the last city to fall to Islam (1291). acropolis Hilltop fortress of an ancient Greek city. The earliest-known examples were fortified castles built for the Mycenaean kings, and it was only later that they became symbolic homes of the gods. The most famous one is the Acropolis built (13th century BC) in Athens; it includes the Parthenon (5th century BC). Action Française Right-wing, nationalist group active in France between c .1900 and 1944. Originating during the Dreyfus affair, the group advocated the overthrow of the Third Republic and the restoration of the monarchy. It commanded wide support among the middle class and Roman Catholics. Discredited by its association with the Vichy government during World War II, it passed into oblivion with the demise of its newspaper, Action Française , in August 1944. Actium, Battle of (31 BC) Naval battle in which the fleet of Octavian (later Emperor Augustus) defeated the fleets of Mark Antony and Cleopatra. Mark Antony's army surrendered a week later, and Octavian became sole ruler of the Roman Empire. Act of Union See Union, Acts Of Acton, John Emerich Edward Dalberg, 1st Baron (1834-1902) English historian. He planned the Cambridge Modern History series, and is known for his saying "power tends to corrupt and absolute power corrupts absolutely." Adalbert ( c .1000-72) German archbishop. He was a favorite of Emperor Henry III, who appointed him (1045) archbishop of Hamburg-Bremen. Adalbert's efforts to increase the power of the monarchy angered the nobility and his centralizing ecclesiastical policies alienated many church officials. Their opposition forced Adalbert's dismissal (1066), but he was reinstated (1069) by Emperor Henry IV. Adams, Brooks (1848-1927) US historian. His Law of Civilization and Decay (1895) held that civilizations rise and fall with the growth and decline of commerce. In America's Economic Supremacy (1900), Adams predicted the decline of Western Europe and proposed that within 50 years only the United States and Russia would be great powers. Adams, Charles Francis (1807-86) US diplomat, son of John Quincy Adams and grandson of John Adams. In 1861 Adams was appointed minister to London by Abraham Lincoln, and helped to ensure Britain's neutrality in the American Civil War. He was also instrumental in settling the Alabama claims. Adams, Gerry (1948- ) Northern Irish politician, president of Sinn Féin (1983- ). He was interned (1972-78) by the British for his involvement in the Irish Republican Army (IRA). Adams served (1978-83) as vice president of Sinn Féin. He is seen as a pivotal figure between the "ballot box" and "bullet" factions of the republican movement Adams served (1983-92, 1997- ) as a member of Parliament for Belfast West, but never took his seat at Westminster. His negotiations with John Hume led to an IRA cease-fire (1994). In 1997 Adams headed the Sinn Féin delegation in the peace talks leading to the Good Friday Agreement; he became the first republican leader to meet a British prime minister since 1921. Adams, John (1735-1826) Second president of the United States (1797-1801). Influenced by his radical cousin Samuel Adams, he helped draft the Declaration of Independence (1776), and the Treaty of Paris (1783) that ended the American Revolution. He was George Washington's vice president (1789-97). Adam's presidency was marked by conflict between the Federalist Party, led by Alexander Hamilton, and Thomas Jefferson's Democratic-Republican Party. Adams' moderate stance enabled a settlement of the XYZ Affair (1797-98). He reluctantly endorsed the Alien and Sedition acts (1798). Adams was succeeded by Thomas Jefferson. Adams, John Quincy (1767-1848) Sixth president of the United States (1825-29), son of the second president, John Adams. He served in his father's administration, before acting (1803-08) as Federalist Party member lathe US Senate. Adams was secretary of state (1817-24) for President James Monroe. He was largely responsible for formulating the Monroe Doctrine and negotiating both the Treaty of Ghent with Great Britain (1815) and the Adams-Onís Treaty (1819). Adams became president without an electoral majority, his appointment confirmed by the House of Representatives. His lack of a mandate and non-partisan approach contributed to his electoral defeat by Andrew Jackson. Adams served in the House of Representatives (1830-48). Adams, Samuel (1722-1803) American revolutionary leaders. As a member and clerk of the Massachusetts legislature (1765-74), he was the chief spokesman for the American Revolution. Adams helped form several radical organizations, led the Stamp Act protest in 1765, helped plan the Boston Tea Party of 1773, and was a signatory of the Declaration of Independence (1776). He was a delegate to the Continental Congress until 1781. Adams, William (1564-1620) English navigator, the first Englishman to reach Japan (1600). In 1613 he helped to establish an English trading factory for the English East India Company in Japan. Adams remained in Japan with his Japanese wife and family, continuing his naval career with the trading company. Adams-Onís Treaty (1819) Agreement between the United States and Spain. Negotiated by Secretary of State John Quincy Adams and Spanish minister Luis de Onís, Spain gave up its land E of the Mississippi River and its claims to Oregon Territory; the United States assumed debts of US$5 million and surrendered claims to Texas. Addams, Jane (1860-1935) US reformer. She shared the 1931 Nobel Prize for Peace with Nicholas Murray Butler. In 1889 Addams founded Hull House, Chicago -- an early settlement house. She pioneered labor, housing, health, and legal reforms, and campaigned for female suffrage, pacifism, and the rights of immigrants. Addington, Henry, 1st Viscount Sidmouth (1757-1844) British statesman, prime minister (1801-04). He entered Parliament in 1783 and served as speaker of the House (1789-1801). Addington succeeded William Pitt (The Younger) as prime minister. His administration was tarnished by the failure of the Treaty of Amiens (1802) with Napoleon I. As home secretary (1812-22) under Lord Liverpool, Addington was criticized for his harsh treatment of the Luddites and was widely blamed for the Peterloo Massacre (1819). Addis Ababa Capital and largest city in Ethiopia, located on a plateau at c .2400m (8000ft) in the highlands of Shewa province. In 1889, during the reign of Menelik II, Addis Ababa ("New Flower") became the capital of Ethiopia. It was the capital (1936-41) of Italian East Africa. Addis Ababa is the headquarters of the Organization of African Unity (OAU). Pop. (1990 est.) 1,700,000. Addled Parliament (April 5-June 7, 1614) Parliament summoned by James I of England to vote for finances to pay his debts. The Commons' demands -- that extra-parliamentary taxation (impositions) be stopped and that the clergy, deprived of their livings in 1604, be reinstated -- were refused and Parliament was dissolved without any act being passed or supplies voted. The Addled Parliament marked the beginning of an era of increasingly tense relations between Parliament and the monarchy. Aden Commercial capital and largest city of Yemen, historic capital of the Aden Protectorate (1937-67) and the former (southern) People's Democratic Republic of Yemen (1967-90). A seaport city on the Gulf of Aden, 100mi (160km) E of the Red Sea, Aden was an important Roman trading port. With the opening of the Suez Canal in 1869, its importance increased. It was made a British crown colony in 1937; the surrounding territory became the Aden Protectorate. In 1970 Aden was made the sole capital of the new People's Democratic Republic of Yemen. When the (northern) Yemen Arab Republic and the (southern) People's Democratic Republic of Yemen combined to form a united Republic of Yemen in 1990, Sana'a became the official capital. Pop. (1995) 562,000. Adenauer, Konrad (1876-1967) German statesman, first chancellor of the Federal Republic of Germany (1949-63). He was lord mayor of Cologne (1917-33) and was twice imprisoned by the Nazis. Adenauer helped to create the Christian Democratic Union (CDU), West Germany's dominant post-war party, and was its leader (1946-66). In 1955 he led West Germany into the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO). Adenauer was a leading advocate of the European Community (EC). Adi Granth (Hindi, First Book) Principal sacred text of Sikhism. The preachings of the first five Sikh gurus were collected by Guru Arian (1536-1606), the fifth guru, and the text was expanded by the tenth guru, Gobind Singh. Gobind Singh declared that he was the last guru and the book was retitled Granth Sahib (Hindi, Revered Book). Adolf of Nassau ( c .1250-98) King of Germany (1292-98). He succeeded the Habsburg King Rudolf I, despite Rudolf's attempts to secure the accession of his son Albert (later Albert I). Adolf increased his lands and power so rapidly that the frightened electors deposed him (1298) in favor of Albert. Adolf was killed in the ensuing struggle for power. Adrian IV ( c .1100-59) Pope (1154-59), b. Nicholas Breakspear. He is the only English pope. In 1155 Adrian crowned Emperor Frederick I (Barbarossa). Adrianople, Battle of (AD 378) Conflict between the Romans and the Visigoths, fought at present-day Edirne, Turkey. The Visigoths, led by Fritigern, crushed the Roman army and killed Emperor Valens, paving the way for a full-scale invasion of the Roman Empire. Adrianople, Treaty of (1829) Pact signed at Edirne (formerly Adrianople), Turkey, at the termination of the Russo-Turkish War (1828-29). Advaita (Sanskrit, "non-duality") Most influential school of Vedanta Hinduism, based on the thought of Shankara. Shankara systematized the teachings of the Upanishads (last section of the Vedas), stressing the indivisibility of Brahman (world-spirit) and atman (the self or individual soul). See also Brahmanism; Hinduism Adwa, Battle of (March 1, 1896) Decisive defeat of the Italians by the Ethiopian army, led by Menelik II. The Battle took place in the town of Adwa (Adua), Tigre province, N Ethiopia. In the worst defeat suffered by a European power in the "scramble for Africa," an Italian force of c .25,000 was routed by c .100,000 Ethiopian troops. The italians were forced to recognize Ethiopian independence in the Treaty of Addis Ababa (October 1896). In 1935 Benito Mussolini recaptured Adwa, but it was restored to Ethiopia by the British in 1941. Aegean civilization ( c .3000-1100 BC) Bronze Age cultures, chiefly Minoan and Mycenaean, of Greece and the Aegean islands. The artistically brilliant Minoan civilization flourished in Crete, reaching its height between c .1700 and 1450 BC, when it was probably overrun by Mycenaens from mainland Greece. Aegospotami, Battle of (405 BC) Decisive naval battle in the Peloponnesian War (431-404 BC) between Sparta and Athens. It resulted in the capture of most of the Athenian fleet of 180 ships in the Dardanelles and in the death of 3000 to 4000 Athenians. Subsequently under siege by land and sea, Athens agreed to the peace terms demanded by Sparta in 404 BC. Aeolians Ancient Greek people. In c .1100 BC they settled on some of the islands, including Lesbos. and in Asia Minor. They were famous for their music and poetry. Aeschines (active 4th century BC) Greek philosopher and orator. He was a student of Socrates and was present at his teacher's condemnation and death. Aeschines composed several Socratic dialogues. Aethelstan See Athelstan Aethelred See Ethelred Aetolian League Federal state organized (370 BC) from Greek tribes. In 197 BC it allied with Rome to defeat Philip V of Macedonia. The Aetolian League became concerned with the growing Roman influence in Greece and switched allegiance to Antiochus III of Syria, In 189 BC Antiochus was defeated by the Romans and the League's influence steadily diminished. See also Achaean League affirmative action Policy designed to overcome discrimination in employment on the grounds of race, ethnicity, gender, disability, or sexual orientation. The term "affirmative action" first appeared in Executive Order 10925 issued (1961) by President John Kennedy. It formed part of the CIVIL RIGHTS legislation of the 1960s in the US. The setting of quotas for minorities led to charges of reverse discrimination. See also Bakke case Afghani, Jamal al-Din al- ( c .1838-97) Muslim politician and Islamic reformer, b. Persia. He sought to unify and revive Islam in the face of European domination. Afghani was chief adviser (1866-68) to the Afghan ruler Muhammad Azam Khan. In 1868 he was expelled from Afghanistan. During the 1870s Afghani agitated against the Egyptian ruler Ismail Pasha. In 1879 he was deported from Egypt. During the 1880s Afghani edited an influential Islamic newspaper, al-Urwa al-Wuthqa ("the Unbreakable Link"), in Paris, France. In 1891-92 he led opposition to the shah of Persia, denouncing the tobacco concessions to Britain. Afghanistan See country feature AFGHANISTAN AREA: 251,773sq mi (652,090sq kin) POPULATION: 23,000,000 CAPITAL (POPULATION): Kabul (700,000) GOVERNMENT: Islamic republic ETHNIC GROUPS: Pathan 52%, Tajik 20%, Uzbek 9%, Hazara 9%, Chahar 3%, Turkmen 2%, Baluchi 1% LANGUAGES: Pashto, Dari (Persian) -- both official RELIGIONS: Sunni Muslim 74%, Shiite Muslim 25% GDP PER CAPITA (1992): US$819 Republic in s central Asia. Afghanistan's location on the overland routes between Iran, the Indian subcontinent, and Central Asia has encouraged numerous invasions. Its topography, however, has helped to repulse many attacks. In ancient times, Afghanistan was invaded successively by Aryans, Persians, Greeks, Macedonians, and warrior armies from Central Asia.     Buddhism was introduced in the 2nd century BC, and Arab armies brought Islam in the late 7th century. Nadir Shah extended Persian rule to encompass most of Afghanistan. His successor, Ahmad Shah, founded the Durrani dynasty and established the first unified state in 1747. In 1818 the dynasty ended and Russia and Britain competed for control: Russia sought an outlet to the Indian Ocean, while Britain tried to protect its Indian territories. The first (1838-42) of the Afghan Wars was inconclusive. The second Afghan War (1878-80) ended with the accession of Abd al-Rahman Khan as emir. The dominance of British interests was recognized in the Anglo-Russian Agreement (1907).     Following the Third Afghan War, Afghanistan became fully independent under Amanullah Khan (1921). He established an unstable monarchy, constantly threatened by religious and tribal divisions. The status of the Pathans in the North-West Frontier province of Pakistan proved a continuing source of conflict between the two states. In 1973 an army coup overthrew the monarchy and established a republic. In 1978 the military government was deposed in a Marxist coup backed by the Soviet Union. The costly Afghanistan War (1979-92) was fought between the pro-communist Afghan government and Mujaheddin guerrillas. In 1989 Soviet troops withdrew, but the civil war raged on and the number of refugees continued to mount. In 1992 Mujaheddin forces captured Kabul and set up a moderate Islamic government. Fundamentalists continued to agitate. In 1996 the Taliban (Persian, "students"), based in the s city of Kandahar, captured Kabul and formed an interim government. An anti-Taliban coalition (United Islamic Front for the Salvation of Afghanistan) failed to prevent further gains, and by 1998 the Taliban controlled 90% of the country. Afghanistan War (1979-92) Conflict between the Afghan government and Muslim rebels (the Mujaheddin). In 1978 the People's Democratic Party of Afghanistan (PDPA) overthrew the government of Muhammad Daud Khan. The new, Soviet-backed government instituted a program of "SCIENTIFIC SOCIALISM" that met with armed resistance from the mainly Muslim rural population. In December 1979, c .30,000 Soviet troops invaded Afghanistan in support of the government. By 1982 Soviet troop-depoloyment had increased to c .110,000. While the Soviets controlled the cities, the guerrilla tactics of the Mujaheddin prevented domination of the countryside. The weaponry and organization of the rebels were bolstered by Western technical and financial support. In 1986 Muhammad Najibullah succeeded Babrak Kamal as leader of the PDPA. In 1989 Soviet troops completed their withdrawal, but the war continued until Mujaheddin forces entered Kabul and ousted Najibullah (April 1992). More than one million Afghans and c .15,000 Soviet soldiers died in the Afghanistan War. It also created more than five million refugees. Afghan Wars (1838-42, 1878-80, 1919) Three wars fought by Britain in an attempt to block Russian influence in Afghanistan and so secure the NW frontier of India. The first war began well for Britain with the capture (1839) of Kandahar and Ghazni, but ended with the Russian favorite, Dost Muhammad, restored to the emirate at Kabul. The second war ended with Britain having gained control of Afghan foreign policy in return for guaranteeing the emir against foreign aggression and paying him a subsidy. Britain easily won the third war, but by the Treaty of Rawalpindi lost control of foreign policy. AFL-CIO See American Federation of Labor and Congress of Industrial Organizations Africa Second-largest continent (after Asia), straddling the equator and lying largely within the tropics. Africa is home to more than 13% of the world's population ( c .75% rural) divided into more than 700 culturally distinct tribes and groups. The world's largest desert, the Sahara, forms an ethnic and cultural divide. North of the Sahara, ARABS and Islam predominate in coastal areas, Berbers and Tuareg in the interior. Sub-Saharan Africa is more ethnically diverse: tribes include the Akan, Fulani, Hausa, Khoikhoi, Ibo, Masai, Mossi, San, Yoruba, and Zulu. Indians and Europeans also form significant minorities. Africa's first great civilization emerged in ancient Egypt in c .3400 BC. Carthage was founded by Phoenicians in the 9th century BC. In the 7th century AD, Islam spread throughout North Africa. In sub-Saharan Africa the growth of trade led to the development of states ranging from the vast Songhai empire to Hausa city-states such as Kano. The arrival of Europeans on the West African coast in the later 15th century resulted in an enormous increase in the SLAVE TRADE, with more than 12 million Africans being dispatched to the Americas between the 16th and 19th centuries. In the 19th century, both economic and political factors spurred IMPERIALISM and colonization as European powers rushed to divide up the continent. Before the 1880s Europeans were, except in South Africa, largely confined to the coastal regions. By the end of the 19th century the whole continent, except for Liberia and Ethiopia, was under foreign domination either by European powers or (in the N) by the Ottoman Empire. Beginning in the 1950s, the former colonies secured their independence within the space of 40 years, but the process of rapid decolonization brought unrest and instability to many parts of the continent. A major factor in this unrest was, and continues to be, the artificial boundaries created by COLONIALISM. See also articles on individual countries African National Congress (ANC) South African political party. It was formed (1912) with the aim of securing racial equality and full political rights for nonwhites. By the 1950s it had become the principal opposition to the APARTHEID regime. A military wing, Umkhonte We Sizwe (Spear of the Nation), was set up in the aftermath of the Sharpeville massacre. It engaged in economic and industrial sabotage. In 1961 the ANC was banned and many of its leaders were arrested or forced into exile. In 1964 the leaders of the ANC, Nelson Mandela and Walter Sisulu, began long sentences as political prisoners. In 1990 the ANC was legalized, Mandela was released from Robben Island, and many of the legislative pillars of apartheid were dismantled. In 1994, in South Africa's first multiracial elections, the ANC gained more than 60% of the popular vote. Nelson Mandela became the first post-apartheid president of South Africa. In 1997 he was succeeded as leader of the ANC by Thabo Mbeki. See also National Party (NP) Afrikaner ( Boer , farmer) Descendant of the predominantly Dutch settlers in South Africa. Afrikaners first settled around the Cape region in the 17th century. To avoid British control, the Afrikaners spread N and E from the Cape in the Great Trek and founded the independent South African Republic (Transvaal) and Orange Free State. Defeat in the South African Wars (1899-1902) led to the republics merging in the Union of South Africa (1910). See also Cape Province Aga Khan Since 1818, title of the leader of the Ishmaili sect of Shiite Muslims. Aga Khan III (1877-1957) was the best known. In 1906 he headed the All-India Muslim League in support of British rule. He moved to Europe and was known for his enormous wealth and love of horse-racing. In 1937 he was president of the League of Nations. In 1957 he was succeeded by his son Karim (1936-), who has continued the family traditions. Agincourt, Battle of (1415) Major conflict in the Hundred Years' War, fought near Hesdin, Pas de Calais, NE France. Despite being outnumbered, Henry V of England routed the French forces, who made the mistake of pitching cavalry against infantry armed with longbows. The French lost more than 6000 troops and Henry was able to conquer Normandy. Agnew, Spiro Theodore (1918-96) US statesman, vice president (1969-73) to Richard Nixon. In 1967 he became Republican governor of his native Maryland. Agnew was a staunch advocate of US involvement (1965-73) in the Vietnam War. During his second term as vice president, Agnew was forced to resign after the discovery of political bribery and corruption in Maryland. He did not contest further charges of tax evasion, was given a three-year probationary sentence and fined US$10,000. agnosticism Philosophical viewpoint according to which it is impossible either to demonstrate or refute the existence of a Supreme Being or ultimate cause on the basis of available evidence. It was particularly associated with the rationalism of Thomas Huxley and is used as a basis for the rejection of both Christianity and Atheism. agora Civic center or market-place of ancient Greek towns and cities. Situated in the center of the town or near the harbor, the agora was a special place for male citizens to conduct their religious, commercial, judicial, and social activities. It was usually surrounded by public buildings, temples, and colonnades of shops, and was ornamented with statues and fountains. See also CITY-STATE; Greece, CLASSICAL Agra City in Uttar Pradesh, N central India. It was founded in the early 16th century and periodically served as the capital of the Mughal Empire. The Mughal emperor Shah Jahan built (1632-54) the Taj Mahal as a mausoleum for his wife, Mumtaz Mahal. Agra's importance declined after 1648 when the Mughal capital moved to Delhi. In 1803 it Was annexed to the British Empire. Agra served (1835-62) as capital of North-West Province. Pop. (1991) 892,200. Agricola, Gnaeus Julius ( c .AD 40- c .93) Roman general, conqueror and governor of Britain. As governor ( c .78-84), he Romanized Britain without oppression and extended Roman influence to Wales and parts of Scotland. Agricola's enlightened rule was described by Tacitus, his son-in-law. Agricultural Adjustment Act (1933) Part of US President Franklin Roosevelt's New Deal program. It was designed to increase the purchasing power of farmers by balancing production with consumption. It set up the Agricultural Adjustment Administration (AAA), which provided subsidies for lower production and penalized overproduction. The production-control features of the AAA were declared unconstitutional (1936) by the Supreme Court. Agricultural Revolution Series of changes in farming practice in the 18th and early 19th centuries. The main changes comprised crop rotation, new machinery and crops (such as fodder, turnips and clover), increased capital investment, scientific breeding, land reclamation and ENCLOSURE Of common lands. Originating in Britain, these advances led to greatly increased agricultural productivity in Europe and led to dramatic growth (Continues...) Copyright © 2000 George Philip Limited. All rights reserved.

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