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### Summary

### Summary

For freshman/sophomore level introductory courses in SPC, Statistical Quality Control, or Quality Control found in two and four-year college curriculums, and in industrial training programs.This mathematics-friendly text introduces students to basic concepts and applications of Statistical Process Control (SPC). Students get a solid foundation in control charts--including setting scales, charting, interpreting, and analyzing process capability. Problem-solving techniques are emphasized, and all learning is linked to the implementation of SPC in the workplace.

### Excerpts

### Excerpts

NEED Statistical process control (SPC) is not a new topic in industry: It has been used off and on since its development in the 1920s. However, since the 1970s it has become an extremely important tool. A new economic age has developed in which the demand for quality is increasing, with a resulting global competition among companies striving to provide that quality. The detection system of final inspection, a costly method of quality control, is giving way to a prevention system that uses in-process inspection and SPC to build quality into a process. This change requires extensive training in SPC. Also, for the most effective application of SPC, management must coordinate a team effort in which everyone in the workforce can contribute meaningfully to the quality effort. PURPOSE This book was written to achieve the following goals: To describe basic statistical concepts To present a management philosophy for successful application of statistical process control To give the student a solid foundation on control charts: setting scales, charting, interpreting, and analyzing process capability To teach the student the quality concepts and problem-solving techniques associated with statistical process control To provide a readable source of SPC topics that the student can refer to as the on-the-job need arises FLEXIBILITY This book is designed for use in two-year and four-year colleges, technical colleges, and industry. The order of the chapters features a low-level mathematics approach so that anyone with a basic algebra background can learn the control chart concepts in Chapters 1 through 10 and the problem-solving concepts in Chapter 11. The book is mathematics-friendly: Only the needed mathematics is presented. The mathematics knowledge that is required for each topic is reviewed at the introduction of the topic. The entire book contains enough material for a three-credit-hour course. The mathematics; prerequisite for someone studying the entire book should be elementary algebra. The recommended sequence for college is Chapter 1 through 13, with the basic algebra in Appendix A reviewed at the beginning of Chapter 3. One possible variation in the sequence would be to teach Chapter 10 after Chapter 5. Then all of the out-of-control patterns would be available for analyzing the control charts presented in Chapters 6 through 9. The book sequence introduces a few basic out-of-control patterns for use in the presentation of control charts, followed by a more comprehensive analysis after all the control charts have been introduced. The recommended sequence for industry is Chapters 1 through 11. Chapters 12 and 13 are more job-specific and may be taught to particular groups. The basic algebra in Appendix A can be taught at the beginning of Chapter 3. EXAMPLES, ILLUSTRATIONS, AND LABS The examples, illustrations, and labs have been carefully chosen to provide a thorough understanding of the concepts involved. A detailed, step-by-step format has been used throughout to provide a pattern that can be used effectively, both for the immediate problems and for future reference. The examples and labs feature worksheets and control charts to be filled in by the student and completed worksheets and charts for checking results. Control chart masters are included at the end of the Instructor's Manual. The text features: Chapter objectives Boxed formulas 18 case studies 165 worked examples, many with step-by-step procedures and two, three, or four step charts and diagrams More than 300 exercises Answers to the odd-numbered exercises A comprehensive lab exercise for each chapter LAB EXERCISES Comprehensive lab exercises for each chapter are included in Appendix D. They are designed to give the student a hands-on experience with the concepts that are introduced in the chapter. The lab exercises may be done in "class with supervisory assistance or they can be assigned as group projects. INSTRUCTOR'S MANUAL An Instructor's Manual is available that contains solutions to all even-numbered exercises, solutions and/or suggestions for the lab exercises, and chart masters for overheads, class assignments, and/or tests. Excerpted from Statistical Process Control and Quality Improvement by Gerald M. Smith All rights reserved by the original copyright owners. Excerpts are provided for display purposes only and may not be reproduced, reprinted or distributed without the written permission of the publisher.### Table of Contents

1 Introduction to Quality Concepts and Statistical Process Control |

What is Quality? |

The Need for SPC |

Prevention versus detection |

SPC Goals |

The basic Tools for SPC |

Statistical Process Control Techniques |

Applying SPC to an Existing Manufacturing Process |

Designed Experiments |

2 Striving for Quality: Management's Problem and Management's Solution |

Management's Problem |

Management's Dilemma |

Leadership by Management |

Deming's Contribution to Quality |

Deming's 14 Points for Management |

Deming's Seven Deadly Diseases |

Crosby's Approach |

A Comparison of Deming's 14 Points and Crosby's 14 Steps |

Which Way to Top Quality? Pitfalls in the Quest for Quality |

Total Quality Management (TQM) |

The Malcolm Baldrige National Quality Award |

Total Customer Satisfaction |

ISO-9000 |

The Service Sector |

3 Introduction to Variation and Statistics |

Measurement Concepts |

Special-Cause and Common-Cause Variation |

The Variation Concepts |

Distributions and SPC Goals |

Basic Statistical Concepts |

Distributions and Three Standard Deviations |

4 Organization of Data: Introduction to Tables, Charts, and Graphs |

Stemplots |

Frequency Distributions and Tally Charts |

Histograms |

Histogram Analysis Examples |

Pareto Charts |

Flowcharts |

Storyboards |

The Cause-and-Effect Diagram |

Checksheets |

Scatterplots |

5 The Normal Probability Distribution |

Probability Distributions |

The Normal Probability Distribution |

The Application of the Central Limit Theorem |

6 Introduction to Control Charts |

Introduction to the Control Chart Concept |

Preparation for Control Charting |

Control Charts and Run Charts |

The Basic x and R Charts |

The x and R Chart Procedure |

The Continuation Control Chart |

The Capability Analysis |

Six-Sigma Quality |

7 Additional Control Charts for Variables |

The Median and Range Chart (x and R) |

x and s Charts |

Coding Data |

A Modified x and R Chart for Small Sets of Data |

The Nominal x and R Chart |

The Transformation x and R Chart |

Control Chart Selection |

8 Variables Charts for Limited Data |

Precontrol or Rainbow Charts |

Compound Probability |

Modified Precontrol for Tight Control |

Charts for Individual Measurements |

9 Attributes Control Charts |

The Four Types of Attributes Charts |

The p Chart |

The np Chart |

The c Chart |

The u Chart |

SPC Applied to the Learning Process |

Technology in SPC |

10 Interpreting Control Charts |

The Random Distribution of Points |

Freaks |

Binomial Distribution Applications |

Freak Patterns |

Shifts |

Runs and Trends |

Time and Control Chart Patterns |

Cycles |

Grouping |

Instability |

Stable Mixtures |

Stratification |

Using Control Chart Patterns in Problem Solving |

11 Problem Solving |

The Problem-Solving Sequence |

Teamwork for Problem Solving |

Brainstorming |

Using Problem-Solving Tools |

Mistake Proofing |

Problem Solving in Management |

JIT (Just-in-time) |

Problem Solving in the Classroom |

12 Gauge Capability |

Preparations for a Gauge Capability Study |

The Gauge Capability Procedure |

Analysis of R and R with Accuracy and Stability: Maximum Possible Deflection |

The Elimination of Gauge Variation From Process Variation |

Indecisive Gauge Readings |

13 Acceptance Sampling |

The Sampling Dilemma |

Random Sampling |

Operating Characteristic Curves |

The Average Outgoing Quality Curve |

MLT-STD-105D for Inspection by Attributes |

The Average Proportion Defective |

Vendor Certification and Control Chart Monitoring |

Appendix A |

Basic Math Concepts and Probability |

Signed Numbers |

Variables |

Order of Operations |

Inequalities |

Using the Statistical Calculator |

Probability |

Appendix B |

Charts and Table |