Cover image for Statistical process control and quality improvement
Statistical process control and quality improvement
Smith, Gerald, 1939-
Personal Author:
Fourth edition.
Publication Information:
Upper Saddle River, N.J. : Prentice Hall, [2001]

Physical Description:
xv, 650 pages : illustrations ; 25 cm
Format :


Call Number
Material Type
Home Location
Central Library TS156.8. S618 2001 Adult Non-Fiction Central Closed Stacks

On Order



For freshman/sophomore level introductory courses in SPC, Statistical Quality Control, or Quality Control found in two and four-year college curriculums, and in industrial training programs.This mathematics-friendly text introduces students to basic concepts and applications of Statistical Process Control (SPC). Students get a solid foundation in control charts--including setting scales, charting, interpreting, and analyzing process capability. Problem-solving techniques are emphasized, and all learning is linked to the implementation of SPC in the workplace.



NEED Statistical process control (SPC) is not a new topic in industry: It has been used off and on since its development in the 1920s. However, since the 1970s it has become an extremely important tool. A new economic age has developed in which the demand for quality is increasing, with a resulting global competition among companies striving to provide that quality. The detection system of final inspection, a costly method of quality control, is giving way to a prevention system that uses in-process inspection and SPC to build quality into a process. This change requires extensive training in SPC. Also, for the most effective application of SPC, management must coordinate a team effort in which everyone in the workforce can contribute meaningfully to the quality effort. PURPOSE This book was written to achieve the following goals: To describe basic statistical concepts To present a management philosophy for successful application of statistical process control To give the student a solid foundation on control charts: setting scales, charting, interpreting, and analyzing process capability To teach the student the quality concepts and problem-solving techniques associated with statistical process control To provide a readable source of SPC topics that the student can refer to as the on-the-job need arises FLEXIBILITY This book is designed for use in two-year and four-year colleges, technical colleges, and industry. The order of the chapters features a low-level mathematics approach so that anyone with a basic algebra background can learn the control chart concepts in Chapters 1 through 10 and the problem-solving concepts in Chapter 11. The book is mathematics-friendly: Only the needed mathematics is presented. The mathematics knowledge that is required for each topic is reviewed at the introduction of the topic. The entire book contains enough material for a three-credit-hour course. The mathematics; prerequisite for someone studying the entire book should be elementary algebra. The recommended sequence for college is Chapter 1 through 13, with the basic algebra in Appendix A reviewed at the beginning of Chapter 3. One possible variation in the sequence would be to teach Chapter 10 after Chapter 5. Then all of the out-of-control patterns would be available for analyzing the control charts presented in Chapters 6 through 9. The book sequence introduces a few basic out-of-control patterns for use in the presentation of control charts, followed by a more comprehensive analysis after all the control charts have been introduced. The recommended sequence for industry is Chapters 1 through 11. Chapters 12 and 13 are more job-specific and may be taught to particular groups. The basic algebra in Appendix A can be taught at the beginning of Chapter 3. EXAMPLES, ILLUSTRATIONS, AND LABS The examples, illustrations, and labs have been carefully chosen to provide a thorough understanding of the concepts involved. A detailed, step-by-step format has been used throughout to provide a pattern that can be used effectively, both for the immediate problems and for future reference. The examples and labs feature worksheets and control charts to be filled in by the student and completed worksheets and charts for checking results. Control chart masters are included at the end of the Instructor's Manual. The text features: Chapter objectives Boxed formulas 18 case studies 165 worked examples, many with step-by-step procedures and two, three, or four step charts and diagrams More than 300 exercises Answers to the odd-numbered exercises A comprehensive lab exercise for each chapter LAB EXERCISES Comprehensive lab exercises for each chapter are included in Appendix D. They are designed to give the student a hands-on experience with the concepts that are introduced in the chapter. The lab exercises may be done in "class with supervisory assistance or they can be assigned as group projects. INSTRUCTOR'S MANUAL An Instructor's Manual is available that contains solutions to all even-numbered exercises, solutions and/or suggestions for the lab exercises, and chart masters for overheads, class assignments, and/or tests. Excerpted from Statistical Process Control and Quality Improvement by Gerald M. Smith All rights reserved by the original copyright owners. Excerpts are provided for display purposes only and may not be reproduced, reprinted or distributed without the written permission of the publisher.

Table of Contents

1 Introduction to Quality Concepts and Statistical Process Control
What is Quality?
The Need for SPC
Prevention versus detection
SPC Goals
The basic Tools for SPC
Statistical Process Control Techniques
Applying SPC to an Existing Manufacturing Process
Designed Experiments
2 Striving for Quality: Management's Problem and Management's Solution
Management's Problem
Management's Dilemma
Leadership by Management
Deming's Contribution to Quality
Deming's 14 Points for Management
Deming's Seven Deadly Diseases
Crosby's Approach
A Comparison of Deming's 14 Points and Crosby's 14 Steps
Which Way to Top Quality? Pitfalls in the Quest for Quality
Total Quality Management (TQM)
The Malcolm Baldrige National Quality Award
Total Customer Satisfaction
The Service Sector
3 Introduction to Variation and Statistics
Measurement Concepts
Special-Cause and Common-Cause Variation
The Variation Concepts
Distributions and SPC Goals
Basic Statistical Concepts
Distributions and Three Standard Deviations
4 Organization of Data: Introduction to Tables, Charts, and Graphs
Frequency Distributions and Tally Charts
Histogram Analysis Examples
Pareto Charts
The Cause-and-Effect Diagram
5 The Normal Probability Distribution
Probability Distributions
The Normal Probability Distribution
The Application of the Central Limit Theorem
6 Introduction to Control Charts
Introduction to the Control Chart Concept
Preparation for Control Charting
Control Charts and Run Charts
The Basic x and R Charts
The x and R Chart Procedure
The Continuation Control Chart
The Capability Analysis
Six-Sigma Quality
7 Additional Control Charts for Variables
The Median and Range Chart (x and R)
x and s Charts
Coding Data
A Modified x and R Chart for Small Sets of Data
The Nominal x and R Chart
The Transformation x and R Chart
Control Chart Selection
8 Variables Charts for Limited Data
Precontrol or Rainbow Charts
Compound Probability
Modified Precontrol for Tight Control
Charts for Individual Measurements
9 Attributes Control Charts
The Four Types of Attributes Charts
The p Chart
The np Chart
The c Chart
The u Chart
SPC Applied to the Learning Process
Technology in SPC
10 Interpreting Control Charts
The Random Distribution of Points
Binomial Distribution Applications
Freak Patterns
Runs and Trends
Time and Control Chart Patterns
Stable Mixtures
Using Control Chart Patterns in Problem Solving
11 Problem Solving
The Problem-Solving Sequence
Teamwork for Problem Solving
Using Problem-Solving Tools
Mistake Proofing
Problem Solving in Management
JIT (Just-in-time)
Problem Solving in the Classroom
12 Gauge Capability
Preparations for a Gauge Capability Study
The Gauge Capability Procedure
Analysis of R and R with Accuracy and Stability: Maximum Possible Deflection
The Elimination of Gauge Variation From Process Variation
Indecisive Gauge Readings
13 Acceptance Sampling
The Sampling Dilemma
Random Sampling
Operating Characteristic Curves
The Average Outgoing Quality Curve
MLT-STD-105D for Inspection by Attributes
The Average Proportion Defective
Vendor Certification and Control Chart Monitoring
Appendix A
Basic Math Concepts and Probability
Signed Numbers
Order of Operations
Using the Statistical Calculator
Appendix B
Charts and Table

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