Cover image for Toxic plants and other natural toxicants
Toxic plants and other natural toxicants
Garland, Tam.
Publication Information:
Wallingford, [England] ; New York : CAB International, [1998]

Physical Description:
xvi, 585 pages : illustrations ; 25 cm
General Note:
Consists of edited papers from the Fifth International Symposium on Poisonous Plants, held in Texas in May 1997.
Format :


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SF757.5 .T68 1998 Adult Non-Fiction Central Closed Stacks

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Toxic plants and other natural toxicants have a variety of roles in the fields of human health, medical research and the production of safe food and also represent an economic problem in terms of animal health and crop production. Estimates of economic impact on livestock have ranged in the millions of dollars in countries such as Australia and the United States. This book brings together applied and fundamental research from botanists, chemists, biochemists, agricultural scientists, veterinarians and physicians and advice from regulatory bodies. It consists of more than 100 edited papers from the Fifth International Symposium on Poisonous Plants, held in Texas in May 1997. All aspects of poisonous plants, mycotoxicoses and herbal intoxications are covered. Their adverse effects are described, such as fatalities, reduced or failed reproduction, fetotoxicity, spontaneous abortions, deformities, reduced productivity and organ-specific toxicity. Methods of detection, isolation and identification of the chemical compounds responsible are included. The biochemistry of the plant-associated toxins and elucidation of their mechanism of action is investigated, including the protocols for management or eradication, immunization programs, behaviour modification, withholding periods for metabolic detoxification, regulatory advice concerning human usage of natural products and advice concerning toxin-residue in agricultural produce. The development of non-toxic strains of plants for use as fodder is also discussed. This book is essential reading for toxicologists concerned with animal and human health, food industry regulators and plant scientists.

Table of Contents

Prefacep. x
Acknowledgementsp. xi
Abbreviationsp. xii
Dedication to Dr Alan Seawrightp. xiii
Regional and Epidemiological Issues
1 Recently Encountered Poisonous Plants of Rio Grande do Sul and Uruguayp. 1
2 Tribute to Dr Wayne Binns (1911-1994)p. 6
3 Genesis to Genesis: A Historic Perspective of Plant Toxicologyp. 9
4 Poisonous Plant Namesp. 13
5 A Tribute to Dr James W. Dollahitep. 17
6 Locoweed Research to Reduce Poisoning on Western US Rangelandsp. 19
7 Use of a Native Insect to Deter Grazing and Prevent Poisoning in Livestockp. 23
8 Estimating Lethal Dose of Larkspur for Cattlep. 29
9 Control Technology Selection for Poisonous Plants with the EXSEL Expert Systemp. 35
10 Management and Edaphic Factors Related with the Incidence of Marsh Ragwortp. 40
11 Management, Environmental and Livestock Interactions Impact on Perennial Ryegrass/Neotyphodium/Livestock Associationsp. 45
12 Development of an Immunoassay for Corynetoxinsp. 49
13 [[superscript 14]C]Senecionine Production in Senecio vulgaris Root Culturep. 55
Cardiopulmonary System
14 Hematological Changes in Sheep with Experimentally Produced Acute and Chronic Lupinosisp. 62
15 Atypical Pneumonia Associated with Ryegrass Staggers in Calvesp. 69
16 Dissimilatory Metabolism by Ruminal Microbes: Impact on Ruminant Toxicosesp. 73
17 Yew (Taxus spp.) Poisoning in Domestic Animalsp. 78
18 Pasture Mediated Acute Bovine Pulmonary Emphysema and Edema in British Columbiap. 81
19 A Study of Persin, the Mammary Cell Necrosis Agent from Avocado (Persea americana), and its Furan Derivative in Lactating Micep. 86
20 Bioassay-directed Isolation of Active Principle from Lavendula stoechasp. 91
21 Analysis of Gossypol in Whole Cottonseed and Rumen Fluid by HPLCp. 97
22 The Excretion of Minerals from Broilers Fed Tannic Acid, Polyethylene Glycol and Proteinp. 101
23 Influence of Tannic Acid on Amino Acid Digestibility in Broilersp. 106
24 Effect of Polyethylene Glycol on the Chelation of Trace Elements by Tanninsp. 111
25 The Use of Copper Boli for Cattle Grazing High-molybdenum Foragep. 115
26 A Newly Discovered Toxic Plant, Stemodia kingii, in Western Australiap. 120
27 Site and Sequence Selectivity of DNA Binding by Divalent Cadmium: Evidence for Inhibition of BPDE-induced DNA Lesions in the Major Groove but Not in the Biologically Relevant Minor Groovep. 125
28 Monitoring of Physiological and Pathological Changes in Turkey Poults Fed Leaves of Potentially Cardiomyotoxic Nerium oleander and Persea americanap. 131
29 Enzootic Geophagia and Hepatitis of Calves and the Possible Role of Managanese Poisoningp. 137
30 The Feeding of Lupin Grain Can Cause Rumen Acidosis and Rumenitisp. 143
31 Effects of Dietary Cottonseed Meal and Cottonseed Oil on Nutrient Digestibility and Rumen Protozoap. 149
32 Detoxification Potential of a New Species of Ruminal Bacteria that Metabolize Nitrate and Naturally Occurring Nitrotoxinsp. 154
Diagnostic/Treatment Issues
33 Vitamin K1 Therapy of Ferula communis variety brevifolia Toxicosis in Sheepp. 159
34 Development of a Vaccine Against Annual Ryegrass Toxicityp. 165
35 Conditioned Food Aversions to Oxalic Acid in the Food Plants of Sheep and Goatsp. 169
36 Fungi Microbiota and Oxalate Formation on Brachiaria brizantha and their Possible Toxic Effects on Calves Kept at Pasture without Supplementation of Calcium and Magnesiump. 174
37 Protective Effects of Cyclodextrins on Tunicaminyluracil Toxicityp. 179
38 Pyrrolizidine Alkaloid Detoxification by an Ovine Ruminal Consortium and its Use as a Ruminal Supplement in Cattlep. 185
39 A Comparison of a Nursling Rat Bioassay and an ELISA to Determine the Amount of Phomopsins in Lupin Stubblesp. 191
40 Towards a Commercial Vaccine Against Lupinosisp. 196
41 Long-term Effects of Acute or Chronic Poisoning by Tunicaminyluracil Toxinsp. 201
42 Experimental Modification of Larkspur (Delphinium spp.) Toxicityp. 205
43 Treatment and Prevention of Livestock Poisoning: Where to from Here?p. 211
44 Toxicity and Diagnosis of Oleander (Nerium oleander) Poisoning in Livestockp. 215
45 Are there Toxic and Non-toxic Varieties of Eupatorium rugosum Houttuyn?p. 220
46 The Chemical Identification of Plant Toxins in Ingesta and Foragep. 223
47 Conditioned Food Aversion: A Management Tool to Prevent Livestock Poisoningp. 227
48 Development and Validation of a Multiresidue Alkaloid Screenp. 233
49 Tolerance in Cattle to Timber Milkvetch (Astragalus miser var. serotinus) due to Changes in Rumen Microbial Populationsp. 239
50 Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy for Rapid Analysis of Toxic Compounds in Larkspurs and Milkvetchesp. 243
Miscellaneous Topics
51 DNA Alkylation Properties of Dehydromonocrotaline: Sequence Selective N7 Guanine Alkylation and Heat and Alkali-resistant Multiple Crosslinksp. 249
52 Acute and Chronic Toxicity Induced by Activated Ptaquiloside in Rats: Comparison of Pathogenesis due to Oral and Intravenous Administrationsp. 255
53 Immunotoxic Effects of Selenium in Mammalsp. 260
54 In vivo and in vitro Effects of L-Canavanine and L-Canalinep. 267
55 The Isolation of a Hepatotoxic Compound from Eupatorium adenophorum (Spreng) and Some Preliminary Studies on its Mode of Actionp. 271
56 Glycosidase Inhibitors in British Plants as Causes of Livestock Disordersp. 276
57 The Immunologic and Toxic Effects of Chronic Locoweed (Astragalus lentiginosus) Intoxication in Cattlep. 285
58 Sawfly (Perreyia flavipes) Larval Poisoning of Cattle, Sheep and Swinep. 291
The Reproductive System and the Embryo
59 Comparison of the Reproductive Effects of Baptisia australis, Iva annua and Sophora nuttalliana in Ratsp. 297
60 Livestock Poisoning by Teratogenic and Hepatotoxic Range Plantsp. 303
61 Pine Needle (Pinus ponderosa) and Broom Snakeweed (Gutierrezia spp.) Abortion in Livestockp. 307
62 Comparative Study of Prenatal and Postnatal Monocrotaline Effects in Ratsp. 312
63 Embryotoxic Effect of Plumeria rubrap. 317
64 Evaluation of the Toxicity of Solanum malacoxylon During the Perinatal Periodp. 323
65 Induction of Mammary Gland Carcinoma, Monocytosis and Type II Pneumonocyte Proliferation by Activated Ptaquilosidep. 329
66 Ingestion of Nitrate-containing Plants as a Possible Risk Factor for Congenital Hypothyroidism in Foalsp. 334
67 Diterpene Acid Chemistry of Ponderosa Pine and Implications for Late-term Induced Abortions in Cattlep. 339
68 Toxic and Teratogenic Piperidine Alkaloids from Lupinus, Conium and Nicotiana Speciesp. 345
69 Toxic Amines and Alkaloids from Texas Acaciasp. 351
70 A Urushiol Component Isolated from the Australian Native Cashew (Semecarpus australiensis)p. 356
Public Health and Herbal Medicine Concerns
71 Plant Toxicology and Public Health: Critical Data Needs and Perspectives on Botanical (Herbal) Medicinesp. 359
72 Public Health and Risk Assessmentp. 363
73 Perspectives on Plant Toxicology and Public Healthp. 367
74 Evaluation of the Occurrence of Algae of the Genus Prototheca in Cheese and Milk from Brazilian Dairy Herdsp. 373
75 Shamans and Other Toxicologists: Current Approaches to the Discovery of New Pharmaceuticals in Traditional Herbal Medicinesp. 377
The Musculoskeletal and the Neurological System
76 Morphologic Studies of Selenosis in Herbivoresp. 380
77 Chronic Selenosis in Ruminantsp. 389
78 Effects of Paxilline, Lolitrem B and Penitrem on Skeletal and Smooth Muscle Electromyographic Activity in Sheepp. 397
79 Tall Larkspur Poisoning in Cattle Grazing Mountain Rangelandp. 402
80 Krimpsiekte, a Paretic Condition of Small Stock Poisoned by Bufadienolide-containing Plants of the Crassulaceae in South Africap. 407
81 A Toxicity Assessment of Phalaris coerulescens: Isolation of a New Oxindolep. 413
82 Two New Alkaloids of Conium maculatum, and Evidence for a Tautomeric Form for "[gamma]"-Coniceinep. 419
83 Probable Interaction between Solanum eleagnifolium and Ivermectin in Horsesp. 423
84 Ipomoea carnea: The Cause of a Lysosomal Storage Disease in Goats in Mozambiquep. 428
85 Investigation of the Neurotoxic Compounds in Asclepias subverticillata, Western-whorled Milkweedp. 435
86 Isolation of Karwinol A from Coyotillo (Karwinskia humboldtiana) Fruitsp. 440
87 The Toxicity of the Australian Cycad Bowenia serrulata to Cattlep. 447
88 Evaluation of the Toxic Effects of the Legumes of Mimosa (Albizia julibrissin) and Identification of the Toxicantp. 453
Mycotoxins and Mycotoxicoses
89 The Development of Lupinosis in Weaner Sheep Grazed on Sandplain Lupinsp. 459
90 Mycotoxin Contamination of Australian Pastures and Feedstuffsp. 464
91 Control of the Mycotoxic Hepatogenous Photosensitization, Facial Eczema, in New Zealandp. 469
92 Occurrence of Fusarium moniliforme and Fumonisins in Australian Maize in Relation to Animal Diseasep. 474
93 Equine Leukoencephalomalacia in Brazilp. 479
94 Isolation of an Extract of Corallocytostroma ornicopreoides sp. nov., which Causes the Rumenitis Associated with Black Soil Blindnessp. 483
95 Corallocytostroma ornicopreoides: A New Fungus Causing a Mycotoxicosis of Cattle Grazing Mitchell Grass Pastures in Australiap. 487
96 Ergotism and Feed Aversion in Poultryp. 493
97 Experimental Black Soil Blindness in Sheepp. 497
Detoxification, Digestion and Elimination
98 Transient Hepatotoxicity in Sheep Grazing Kochia scopariap. 504
99 Calliandra calothyrsus Leaf Extracts Effects on Microbial Growth and Enzyme Activitiesp. 509
100 Chinaberry (Melia azedarach) Poisoning in Animalsp. 514
101 The Purification and Isolation of Two Hepatotoxic Compounds from the Uruguay Sawfly Perreyia flavipesp. 517
102 Toxicity of Monocrotaline (Pyrrolizidine Alkaloid) to the Liver of Chicken Embryosp. 522
103 Experimental Poisoning in Rabbits Fed Senna occidentalis Seedsp. 527
104 Toxicity and Molecular Shape of Pyrrolizidine Alkaloidsp. 531
105 Molecular Interactions of Pyrrolizidine Alkaloids with Critical Cellular Targetsp. 537
106 Factors Influencing Urinary Excretion of Immunoreactive Sporidesmin Metabolites in Sheep Dosed with Sporidesminp. 543
107 Disease in Cattle Dosed Orally with Oak or Tannic Acidp. 549
108 Jatropha curcas Toxicity: Identification of Toxic Principle(s)p. 554
109 Species Differences in Bioactivation and Detoxification of Pyrrolizidine Alkaloidsp. 559
110 Bog Asphodel (Narthecium ossifragum) Poisoning in Cattlep. 564
111 Livestock Poisoning by Baccharis coridifoliap. 569
112 Narthecium ossifragum Associated Nephrotoxicity in Ruminantsp. 573
Indexp. 577